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^  ^,^,       35.  WHEATLEY  ON  THE  COMMON  PRAYER.    Frontispiece. 
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'      Intri"ue"  and  "The  Ghost-Seer."]    Translated  by  Hkkry  G.  Boiin. 






1  50.  JUNIUS'S  LETTERS,  with  Notes,  Additions,  Essay,  ludex,  &c.    2  Vols. 

SCULPTORS,  AND  ARCHITECTS.  Translated  by  Mas.  Fostku,  with  Notes. 
Comi'lete  iu  5  Vols.,  with  Index. 


jOETHE'S    WORKS.      Vol    III.      ["Faust,"   " Ipliigenia,"  "Torcjuato  Tasso,"  ^Sv'^".^-^/-! 

and  "  E^ont."]     Translated  hy   Miss  Swanwick.    With  "  Goetz  Tou  Ber-  ^t,vl'' 

lichiugen,"  translated  by  Siu  Walter  Scott.  Sov'V';,' 

56,  58,  61.  66,  67,  75,  &  82.    NEANDERS  CHURCH  HISTORY.    Carefully 
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VOL.  II. 











VOL.  n. 



(^  NOV  2  9 1965    j^    |J 








The  remaining  parts  of  Macedonia  are  considered,  and  the  whole  of  Greece ; 
on  this  the  author  dwells  some  time  on  account  of  the  great  reputation 
of  the  country.  He  corrects  minutely,  and  clears  up,  the  confused  and 
vague  accounts  respecting  the  cities  contained  therein,  given  by  poets  and 
historians,  and  especially  in  the  Catalogue  and  in  many  other  parts  of  the 


1 .  After  having  described  as  much  of  the  western  parts 
of  Europe  as  is  comprised  within  the  interior  and  exterior 
seas,  and  surveyed  all  the  barbarous  nations  which  it  contains, 
as  far  as  the  Don^  and  a  small  part  of  Greece,  [namely, 
Macedonia,]  2  we  propose  to  give  an  account  of  the  remainder 
of  the  Helladic  geography.  Homer  was  the  first  writer  on 
the  subject  of  geography,  and  was  followed  by  many  others, 
some  of  whom  composed  particular  treatises,  and  entitled  them 
"  Harbours,"  "Voyages,"  "  Circuits  of  the  Earth, "^  or  gave  them 
some  name  of  this  kind,  and  these  comprised  the  description 
of  the  Helladic  country.  Some,  as  Ephorus  and  Polybius^ 
included  in  their  general  history  a  separate  topography  of 
the  continents ;  others,  as  Posidonius  and  Hipparchus,  intro- 
duced matter  relating  to  geography  in  their  writings  on 
physical  and  mathematical  subjects. 

It  is  easy  to  form  an  opinion  of  the  other  writers,  but  the 
poems  of  Homer  require  critical  consideration,  both  because 
he  speaks  as  a  poet,  and  because  he  describes  things  not  as 

'  The  ancient  Tanais.        ^  These  words  are  interpolated.    Casaubon. 
^  XiyLiviQ,  TrepiTrXoi,  Trtpiodoi  yrjg. 

2  STRABO.  Casatjb.  333. 

they  exist  at  present,  but  as  they  existed  anciently,  and  the 
greater  part  of  which  have  been  rendered  obscure  by  time. 

We  must  however  undertake  this  inquiry  as  far  as  we  are 
able,  beginning  from  the  point  where  our  description  ended. 

It  ended  with  an  account  of  the  Epirotic  and  Illyrian  nations 
on  the  west  and  north,  and  of  Macedonia  as  far  as  Byzantium 
on  the  east. 

After  the  Epirotas  and  lUyrii  follow  the  Acarnanes,^  the 
JEtoli,  the  Locri-Ozolae,  then  the  Phocaeenses  and  Boeoti, 
Grecian  nations.  Opposite  to  these  on  the  other  side  of  the 
strait  is  Peloponnesus,  which  comprises  the  Gulf  of  Corinth,^ 
interposed  between,  and  determining  the  figure  of  the  latter, 
from  which  it  also  receives  its  own.  Next  to  Macedonia^ 
are  the  Thessalians,'*  extending  as  far  as  the  Malienses,^  and 
the  other  nations,  situated  on  both  sides  of  the  isthmus. 

2.  There  are  many  Greek  tribes,  but  the  chief  people  are 
equal  in  number  to  the  Greek  dialects  with  which  we  are 
acquainted,  namely,  four.  Of  these,  the  Ionic  is  the  same  as 
the  ancient  Attic  ;  (for  lones  was  the  former  name  of  the  in- 
habitants of  Attica ;  from  thence  came  the  lones  who  settled 
in  Asia,^  and  use  the  dialect  now  called  Ionic  ;)  the  Doric  was 
the  same  as  the  -^olic  dialect,  for  all  the  people  on  the  other 
side  of  the  isthmus  except  the  Athenians,  the  Megareans,  and 
the  Dorians  about  Parnassus,  are  even  now  called  ^olians ; 
rtK'  ^*  ^^  probable  that  the  Dorians,  from  their  being  a  small 
^T^^^  nation,  and  occupying  a  most  rugged  country,  and  from  want 
'  of  intercourse  [with  the  -^olians],  no  longer  resemble  that 

people  either  in  language  or  customs,  and,  although  of  the 
same  race,  have  lost  all  appearance  of  affinity.  It  was  the 
same  with  the  Athenians,  who  inhabiting  a  rugged  country 
^\  ^.,  wTnTaTltght  soil,  escaped  the  ravages  of  invaders.  As  they 
/  \*f  '  always  ocfvirQJgd-lhe  same  territory^  and-no-enemy  attejn£ted_to 
,  ^^  ^pel  fKem/nor  hadanydesire  to  take  pn,?spssioQ-i)f^ttEem^- 
J^  \  se^s^on  this  account  they~were,  according  to  Thucydides, 
w**      A_      regarded  as  Autochthones,  or  an  indigenous  race.     This  was 

t^^^^yS  '  The  territory  of  the  Acarnanes  is  still  called  Carnia,  south  of  the 

.3''  Gulf  of  Arta.     The  rest  of  the  countries  mentioned  by  Strabo  no  longer 

V  retain  the  ancient  divisions,  Boeotia  is  the  modern  Livadhia.     G. 

2  The  Gulf  of  Lepanto.  »  Makedunea. 

.  f  ^  The  ancient  Thessaly  is  the  modern  Vlakea. 

*  The  neighbourhood  of  the  Gulf  of  Zeitun — the  ancient  Maliac  Gulf. 
'  In  Asia  Minor,  and  founded  the  cities  Miletus,  Smyrna,  Phocaea,  &c. 

B.  Tin.  c.  I.  §  3.  GREECE.  3 

probably  thej-eason,  although  jthey  were  a  small  nation,  whjL, 
J^ey  remained  a  distmcrpe.Qplfij?nth_a  distiricT^JIalect. 

It  was  not  in  the  parts  only  on  the  other  side"of  thelithmus, 
that  the  ^olian  nation  was  powerful,  but  those  on  this  side 
also  were  formerly  Cohans.  They  were  afterwards  inter- 
mixed first  with  lonians  who  came  from  Attica,  and  got  pos- 
session of  jEgialus,^  and  secondly  with  Dorians,  who  under 
the  conduct  of  the  Heracleidae  founded  Megara  and  many  of 
the  cities  in  the  Peloponnesus.  The  lones  were  soon  expelled 
by  the  Achaei,  an  ^olian  tribe ;  and  there  remained  in  Pelo- 
ponnesus the  two  nations,  the  ^olic  and  the  Doric.  Those 
nations  then  that  had  little  intercourse  with  the  Dorians  used 
the  ^olian  dialect.  (This  was  the  case  with  the  Arcadians 
and  Eleians,  the  former  of  whom  were  altogether  a  mountain 
tribe,  and  did  not  share  in  the  partition  of  the  Peloponnesus ; 
the  latter  were  considered  as  dedicated  to  the  service  of 
the  Olympian  Jupiter,  and  lived  for  a  long  period  in  peace, 
principally  because  they  were  of  ^olian  descent,  and  had 
admitted  into  their  country  the  army  of  Oxylus,  about  the  time 
of  the  return  of  the  Heracleidae.^)  The  rest  used  a  kind  of 
dialect  composed  of  both,  some  of  them  having  more,  others 
less,  of  the  -^olic  dialect.  Even  at  present  the  inhabitants  of 
different  cities  use  different  dialects,  but  all  seem  to  Dorize, 
or  use  the  Doric  dialect,  on  account  of  the  ascendency  of  that 

Such  then  is  the  number  of  the  Grecian  nations,  and  thus 
in  general  are  they  distinguished  from  each  other. 

I  shall  resume  my  account  of  them,  and  describe  each 
nation  in  their  proper  order. 

3.  According  to  Ephorus,  AcarnaniaJla_the_comm^C£ment 
of  Greece  on  the  west,  for  it  is  the  first  country  which  lies 
contiguous  to  the  Epirotic  nations.  As  this  author  follows 
the  coast  in  his  measurements,  and  begins  from  thence,  con- 
sidering the  sea  the  most  important  guide  of  topographical 
description,  (for  otherwise  he  might  have  placed  the  beginning 
of  Greece  in  Macedonia  and  Thessaly,)  so  ought  I,  observing 

'  The  word  ^gialus  (AiyiaXbg)  signifies  sea-shore.  The  name  was 
given  to  this  part  of  the  Peloponnesus  (afterwards  called  Achaia)  from 
the  towns  being  situated  generally  along  the  coast.  Others,  however,  give 
a  different  explanation  to  the  word. 

*  1113  before  the  Christian  era.     G. 

*  STRABO.  Casaub.  334. 

the  natural  character  of  places,  to  keep  in  view  the  sea  as  a 
mark  by  which  I  should  direct  the  course  of  my  description. 

The  sea  coming  from  Sicily  spreads  itself  on  one  side 
towards  the  Corinthian  Gulf,  and  on  the  other  forms  a  large 
peninsula,  the  Peloponnesus,  united  to  the  main-land  by  a 
narrow  isthmus. 

The  two  largest  bodies  of  country  in  Greece  are  that  within 
the  isthmus,  and  that  without  the  isthmus,  [extending  to  the 
mouths  of  the  river  Peneius].  That  within  the  isthmus  is  how- 
ever larger,  and  more  celebrated.  The  Peloponnesus  is,  as  it 
were,  the  acropolis  or  citadel  of  all  Greece  ;  and  all  Greece  in 
a  manner  holds  the  chief  or  leading  position  in  Europe.  For 
independently  of  the  fame  and  power  of  the  nations  which 
inhabited  it,  the  position  itself  of  the  places  in  it  suggests 
this  superiority.  One  site  succeeds  another  diversified  with 
numerous  most  remarkable  bays,  and  large  peninsulas.  The 
first  of  these  peninsulas  is  the  Peloponnesus,  closed  in  by 
an  isthmus  of  forty  stadia  in  extent.  The  second  compre- 
hends the  first,  and  has  an  isthmus  reaching  from  Pagse  in 
Megaris  to  Nisaea,  which  is  the  naval  arsenal  of  the  Megare- 
ans ;  the  passage  across  the  isthmus  from  sea  to  sea  is  120 

The  third  peninsula  also  comprises  the  latter.  Its  isthmus 
extends  from  the  farthest  recess  of  the  Crissasan  Gulf  to 
Thermopylae.  The  line  supposed  to  be  drawn  between  these 
is  about  508  stadia  in  length,  including  within  it  the  whole 
of  Boeotia,  and  cutting  Phocis  and  the  country  of  the 
Epicnemidii  obliquely.  The  fourth  peninsula  has  the  isthmus 
extending  from  the  Ambracian  Gulf  through  Mount  CEta 
and  Traclinia  to  the  Maliac  Gulf  and  Thermopylae,  about 
800  stadia. 

There  is  another  isthmus  of  more  than  1000  stadia  reach- 
ing from  the  same  Gulf  of  Ambracia,  and  passing  through 
the  country  of  the  Thessalians  and  Macedonians  to  the  recess 
of  the  Thermaean  Gulf. 

The  succession  of  peninsulas  furnishes  a  convenient  order 
to  be  followed  in  describing  the  country. 

We  must  begin  from  the  smallest,  as  being  also  the  most 
famous  of  these  peninsulas.^ 

^  Taking  the  reverse  order  in  which  these  peninsulas  are  described, 
the  fifth  and  last  contains  all  the  rest,  the  fourth  all  but  the  difi'erence 

B.  VIII.  c.  II.  ^  1,  2.    GREECE.    THE  PELOPONNESUS. 


1.  The  Peloponnesus  resembles  in  figure  the  leaf  of  a  plane 
tree.^  Its  length  and  breadth  are  nearly  equal,  each  about 
1400  stadia.  The  former  is  reckoned  from  west  to  east,  that 
is,  from  the  promontory  Chelonatas  through  Olympia  and  the 
territory  Megalopolitis  to  the  isthmus ;  the  latter  from  south 
to  north,  or  from  Maliae  though  Arcadia  to  ^gium. 

The  circumference,  according  to  Polybius,  exclusive  of  the 
circuit  of  the  bays,  is  4000  stadia.  Artemidorus  however 
adds  to  this  400  stadia,  and  if  we  include  the  measure  of  the 
bays,  it  exceeds  5600  stadia.  We  have  already  said  that  the 
isthmus  at  the  road  where  they  draw  vessels  over-land  from 
one  sea  to  the  other  is  40  stadia  across. 

2.  Eleians  and  Messenians  occupy  the  western  side  of  this 
peninsula.  Their  territory  is  washed  by  the  Sicilian  Sea. 
They  possess  the  coast  also  on  each  side.  Elis  bends  towards 
the  north  and  the  commencement  of  the  Corinthian  Gulf  as 
far  as  the  promontory  Araxus,^  opposite  to  which  across  the 
strait  is  Acarnania;  the  islands  Zacynthus,^  Cephallenia,'* 
Ithaca,^  and  the  Echinades,  to  which  belongs  Dulichium,  lie 
in  front  of  it.  The  greater  part  of  Messenia  is  open  to  the 
south  and  to  the  Libyan  Sea  as  far  as  the  islands  Thyrides 
near  Taenarum.^ 

Next  to  Elis,  is  the  nation  of  the  Achaei  looking  towards 
the  north,  and  stretching  along  the  Corinthian  Gulf  they 
terminate  at  Sicyonia.  Then  follow  Sicyon"^  and  Corinth, 
extending  as  far  as  the  isthmus.     Next  after  Messenia  are 

between  the  fourth  and  fifth,  and  so  on  in  order  until  we  come  to  the  Pe- 
loponnesus, properly  so  called,  which  is  thus  the  least  of  the  peninsulas. 
Strabo  himself  seems  to  admit  the  term  peninsula  to  be  improperly  ap- 
plied to  these  subdivisions,  by  first  describing  Greece  to  be  divided  into 
two  great  bodies,  viz.  that  within  and  that  without  the  Isthmus  of  Cor- 

^  For  the  same  reason,  at  a  subsequent  period,  it  obtained  the  name  of 
Morea,  in  Greek  (Mopta)  which  signifies  mulberry,  a  species  or  variety 
of  which  tree  bears  leaves  divided  into  five  lobes — equal  in  number  to  the 
five  principal  capes  of  the  Peloponnesus.     See  book  ii.  eh.  i.  30. 

2  Cape  Papa.  ^  Zante.  *  Cephalonia.  '  Theaki. 

'  Cape  Matapan.  '  Basilico. 

6  STRABO.  Casaub.  33o. 

Laconia  and  Argeia,  which  latter  country  also  reaches  as  far 
as  the  isthmus. 

The  bays  of  the  Peloponnesus  are  the  Messeniac,^  the  La- 
conian,^  a  third  the  Argolic,^  and  a  fourth  the  Hermionic/ 
or  the  Saronic,^  which  some  writers  call  the  Salaminiac  bay. 
Some  of  these  bays  are  supplied  by  the  Libyan,  others  by 
the  Cretan  and  Myrtoan  Seas.  Some  call  even  the  Saronic 
Gulf  a  sea.  In  the  middle  of  Peloponnesus  is  Arcadia,  lying 
contiguous  to  all  the  other  nations. 

3.  The  Corinthian  Gulf  begins  from  the  mouths  of  the 
Evenus,^  (some  say  from  the  mouths  of  the  Achelous,*^  which 
is  the  boundary  between  the  Acarnanes  and  -^toli,)  and  from 
the  promontory  Araxus.  For  there  the  shores  on  both  sides 
first  begin  to  contract,  and  have  a  considerable  inclination 
towards  each  other ;  as  they  advance  farther  onwards  they 
nearly  meet  at  Rhium  ^  and  Antirrhium,^  leaving  a  channel  of 
only  about  5  stadia  between  them. 

Rhium  is  a  promontory  of  Achaia,  it  is  low,  and  bends  in- 
wards like  a  sickle,  (indeed  it  has  the  name  of  Drepanum,  or 
the  Sickle,)  and  lies  between  Patrae^^  and  ^gium,^^  on  it  there 
is  a  temple  of  Neptune.  Antirrhium  is  situated  on  the  con- 
fines of  ^tolia  and  Locris.  It  is  called  Rhium  Molycrium. 
From  this  point  the  sea-shore  again  parts  in  a  moderate  de- 
gree on  each  side,  and  advancing  into  the  Crisscean  Gulf,  ter- 
minates there,  being  shut  in  by  the  western  boundaries  of 
Boeotia  and  Megaris. 

The  Corinthian  Gulf  is  2230  stadia  in  circuit  from  the 
river  Evenus  to  the  promontory  Araxus  ;  and  if  we  reckon 
from  the  Achelous,  it  would  be  increased  by  about  100  stadia. 

The  tract  from  the  Achelous  to  the  Evenus  is  occupied  by 
Acarnanians  ;  next  are  the  ^toli,  reaching  to  the  Cape  An- 
tirrhium. The  remainder  of  the  country,  as  far  as  the  isthmus, 
is  occupied  by  Phocis,  Bceotia,  and  by  Megaris,  it  extends 
1118  stadia. 

The  sea  from  Cape  Antirrhium  as  far  as  the  isthmus  is 
[the  Crissaean  Gulf,  but  from  the  city  Creusa  it  is  called  the 
Sea  of]  Alcyonis,  and  is  a  portion  of  the  Crissaean  Gulf.^^ 

»  Gulf  of  Coron.  «  Gulf  of  Colochina.  »  Gulf  of  Napoli. 

*  Gulf  of  Castri.        *  Gulf  of  Egina.         ®  Fidari,         ^  Aspropotamo. 
^  Drepano.         ^  Castle  of  Roumelia.         '"  Patras.         "  Vostitza. 
"  The  words  in  brackets  are  inserted  according  to  the  suggestion  of 

B.  VIII.  c.  Ill,  §  1, 2.  GREECE.    ELIS.  * 

From  the  isthmus  to  the  promontory  Araxus  is  a  distance  of 
1030  stadia. 

Such  in  general  then  is  the  nature  and  extent  of  the  Pelo- 
ponnesus, and  of  the  country  on  the  other  side  of  the  strait  up 
to  the  farther  recess  of  the  gulf.  Such  also  is  the  nature  of 
the  gulf  between  both. 

We  shall  next  describe  each  country  in  particular,  begin- 
ning with  Elis. 


1 .  At  present  the  whole  sea-coast  lying  between  the  Achaei 
and  Messenii  is  called  Eleia,  it  stretches  into  the  inland  parts 
towards  Arcadia  at  Pholoe,  and  the  Azanes,  and  Parrhasii. 
Anciently  it  was  divided  into  several  states  ;  afterwards 
into  two,  Elis  of  the  Epeii,  and  Elis  under  Nestor,  the  son  of 
Neleus.  As  Homer  says,  who  mentions  Elis  of  the  Epeii  by 

"  Sacred  Elis,  where  the  Epeii  rule." 

The  other  he  calls  Pylus  subject  to  Nestor,  through  which,  he 
says,  the  Alpheius  flows  : 

"  Alpheius,  that  flows  in  a  straight  line  through  the  land  of  the  Pylians."  ' 
The  poet  was  also  acquainted  with  a  city  Pylus  ; 

"  They  arrived  at  Pylus,  the  well-built  city  of  Neleus."  ' 
The  Alpheius  however  does  not  flow  through  nor  beside  the 
city,  but  another  river  flows  beside  it,  which  some  call 
Pamisus,  others  Amathus,  from  which  Pylus  seems  to  be 
termed  Emathoeis,  but  the  Alpheius  flows  through  the  Eleian 

2.  Elis,  the  present  city,  was  not  yet  founded  in  the  time 
of  Homer,  but  the  inhabitants  of  the  country  lived  in  villages. 
It  was  called  Coele  [or  Hollow]  Elis,  from  the  accident  of  its 
locahty,  for  the  largest  and  best  part  of  it  is  situated  in  a 
hollow.  It  was  at  a  late  period,  and  after  the  Persian  war, 
that  the   people  collected   together   out   of  many   demi,   or 

Groskurd.     The  Gulf  of  CoriBth.-i»r^in:'^J^Wf~fa,ssages,  called  by  Strabo 

the  Cris.saean  Gulf.  '         "^ 

»  Od.  xv.^!9a. «  II.  V.  545.  »  Od.  iii.  4. 

o  STRABO.  Casaitb.  337. 

.burghs,  into  one  citj.  And,  with  the  exception  of  a  few,  the 
other  places  in  the  Peloponnesus  which  the  poet  enumerates 
are  not  to  be  called  cities,  but  districts.  Each  contained  several 
assemblages  of  demi  or  burghs,  out  of  which  the  famous 
cities  were  afterwards  formed,  as  Mantineia  in  Arcadia,  which 
was  furnished  with  inhabitants  from  five  burghs  by  Argives ; 

Tegea  from  nine  ;   Heraea  from  as  many  during  the  reign of 

Cleombrotus,  or  Cleonymus ;  ^gium  out  of  seven,  or  eight ; 
Patrae  out  of  seven ;  Dyme  out  of  eight ;  thus  Elis  also  was 
formed  out  of  the  surrounding  burghs.  The  deraus  of  the 
Agriades  was  one  of  those  added  to  it.  The  Peneius  ^  flows 
through  the  city  by  the  Gymnasium,  which  the  Eleii  con- 
structed long  after  the  countries  which  were  subject  to  Nestor 
had  passed  into  their  possession. 

3.  These  were  the  Pisatis,  of  which  Olympia  is  a  part,  and 
Triphylia,  and  the  territory  of  the  Caucones.  The  Triphylii 
had  their  name  from  the  accident  of  the  union  of  three  tribes  ; 
of  the  Epeii,  the  original  inhabitants;  of  the  Minyai,  who 
afterwards  settled  there  ;  and  last  of  all  of  the  Eleii,  who 
made  themselves  masters  of  the  country.  Instead  of  the  Minyas 
some  writers  substitute  Arcadians,  who  had  frequently  dis- 
puted the  possession  of  the  territory,  whence  Pylus  had  the 
epithet  Arcadian  as  well  as  Triphylian.  Homer  calls  all  this 
tract  as  far  as  Messene  by  the  name  of  Pylus,  the  name  of  the 
city.  The  names  of  the  chiefs,  and  of  their  abodes  in  the 
Catalogue  of  the  Ships,  show  that  Coele  Elis,  or  the  Hollow 

J-^'  Elis,  was  distinct  from  the  country  subject  to  Nestor. 
^\     f\'    I  say  this  on  comparing  the  present  places  with  Homer's 
^       ytd    ^®scription  of  them,  for  we  must  compare  one  with  the  other 
^      t^  ^     in  consideration  of  the  fame  of  the  poet,  and  our  being  bred 
V-jsK-  "P  ^^  ^^  acquaintance  with  his  writings  ;  and  every  one  will 

yS?  |\  conclude   that  our  present  inquiry  is  rightly  conducted,   if 

/  )j^y  ^     nothing  is  found  repugnant  to  his  accounts  of  places,  which 
ip     jjV'        have  been  received  with  the  fullest  reliance  on  their  credi- 

Ibility  and  his  veracity. 
We  must  describe  these  places  as  they  exist  at  present,  and 
as  they  are  represented  by  the  poet,  comparing  them  together 
as  far  as  is  required  by  the  design  of  this  work. 

4.  The  Araxus  is  a  promontory  of  Eleia  situated  on  the 
north,  60  stadia  from  Dyme,  an  Achaean  city.  This  promontory 

'  Igliaco. 

B.  vm.  c.  III.  §  5.  GREECE.    ELIS.  9 

we  consider  the  commencement  of  the  coast  of  Eleia.  Pro- 
ceeding thence  towards  the  west  is  Cyllene,i  the  naval  arsenal 
of  the  Eleii,  from  whence  is  an  ascent  of  120  stadia  to  the  pre- 
sent city.     This  Cyllene  Homer  mentions  in  these  words, 

"  Cyllenian  Otus,  chief  of  the  Epeii," 
for  he  would  not  have  given  the  title  of  chief  of  Epeii  to  one 
who  came  from  the  Arcadian  mountain  of  this  name.     It  is  a 
village  of  moderate  size,  in  which  is  preserved  the  JEsculapius 
of  Colotes,  a  statue  of  ivorj,  of  admirable  workmanship. 

Next  to  CjUene  is  the  promontory  Chelonatas,^  the  most 
westerly  point  of  the  Peloponnesus.  In  front  of  it  there  is  a 
small  island  and  shoals  on  the  confines  of  Hollow  EHs,  and  the 
territory  of  the  Pisatae.  From  hence  [Cyllene]  to  Cephallenia 
is  a  voyage  of  not  more  than  80  stadia.  Somewhere  on  the 
above-mentioned  confines  is  the  river  Elisson,  or  Elissa. 

5.  Between  the  Chelonatas  and  Cyllene  the  river  Peneius 
empties  itself,  and  that  also  called  by  the  poet  Selleis,  which 
flows  from  the  mountain  Pholoe.  On  this  river  is  situated 
Ephyra,  a  city  to  be  distinguished  from  the  Thesprotian, 
Thessalian,  and  Corinthian  Ephyras ;  being  a  fourth  city  of 
this  name,  situated  on  the  road  leading  to  the  Lasion  sea- 
coast,  and  which  may  be  either  the  same  place  as  Boeonoa, 
(for  it  is  the  custoni  to  call  CEnoe  by  this  name,)  or  a  city 
near  this,  distant  from  Elis  120  stadia.  This  Ephyra  seems 
to  be  the  reputed  birth-place  of  Astyochea,  the  mother  of  Tle- 
polemus,  the  son  of  Hercules, 

"Whom  Hercules  brought  from  Ephyra,  from  the  river  Selleis;"^ 
(for  this  was  the  principal  scene  of  the  adventures  of  Her- 
cules ;  at  the  other  places  called  Ephyra,  there  is  no  river 
Selleis ;)  hence  came  the  armour  of  Meges, 
"  Which  Phyleus  formerly  brought  from  Ephyra,  from  the  river  Selleis;"  * 

from  this  Ephyra  came  also  mortal  poisons.  For  Minerva 
says,  that  Ulysses  went  to  Ephyra 

'*  In  search  of  a  mortal  poison  wherewith  to  anoint  his  arrows  :"  ' 
And  the  suitors  say  of  Telemachus  ; 

"  Or  he  will  go  to  the  rich  country  of  Ephyra  to  bring  back  poison  de- 
structive of  our  lives."  ' 

Chiarenza,  in  ruins.  ^  Cape  Tornese.  '  H-  ii.  650. 

♦  11.  XV.  531.  *  Od.  i.  2G1.  «  Od.  ii.  328. 

10  STRABO.  Casaub.  338. 

And  Nestor  introduces  the  daughter  of  Augeas,  king  of  the 
Epeii,  in  his  account  of  the  war  with  that  people,  as  one  who 
administered  poisons : 

"  I  first  slew  a  man,'  Mulius,  a  brave  soldier.  He  was  son-in-law  of 
Augeas ;  he  had  married  his  eldest  daughter ;  she  was  acquainted  with 
all  the  poisons  which  the  earth  brings  forth." 

There  is  also  near  Sicyon  a  river,  Selleis,  and  a  village  of 
the  name  of  Ephyra  near  it;  and  a  village  Ephyra  in  the 
territory  of  Agraea  in  ^tolia,  the  people  of  which  are  called 
Ephyri.  There  are  also  other  Ephyri  among  the  Perrhasbi 
near  Macedonia,  who  are  Crannonians,^  and  the  Thesprotic 
Ephyri  of  Cichyrus,  which  was  formerly  called  Ephyra. 

6.  ApoUodorus,  when  he  informs  us  in  what  manner  the 
poet  usually  distinguishes  places  with  the  same  names,  as 
Orchomenus  for  instance,  designating  that  in  Arcadia  by  the 
epithet,  "abounding  with  sheep;"  the  Boeotian  Orchomenus, 
as  "Minyeius;"  by  applying  to  Samos  the  term  Thracian, 
and  adds, 

"  Between  Samos  and  Imbros," ' 
to  distinguish  it  from  Ionian  Samos  ;  so  he  says  the  Thes- 
protic Ephyra  is  distinguished  from  others  by  the  words,  "  at 
a  distance,"  and  "from  the  river  Selleis."  This  does  not 
agree  with  what  Demetrius  of  Scepsis  says,  from  whom  he 
borrows  most  of  his  information.  For  Demetrius  does  not 
say  that  there  is  a  river  Selleis  in  Thesprotia,  but  in  Elis, 
near  the  Thesprotic  Ephyra,  as  I  have  said  before. 

What  he  says  also  about  CEchalia  requires  examination, 
where  he  asserts  that  the  city  of  Eurytus  of  CEchalia  is  the 
only  city,  when  there  is  more  than  one  city  of  that  name.  It 
is  therefore  evident  that  he  means  the  Thessalian  city  men- 
tioned by  Homer : 

"  And  they  who  occupied  CEchalia,  the  city  of  Eurytus,  the  CEchalian."  * 
What  city,  then,  is  that  on  the  road  from  which  "  Thamyris 

»  II.  xi.  738. 

2  I  read  oi  kuI,  as  Meineke  suggests,  but  the  whole  passage  from  "there 
is  "  to  "  Ephyra,"  is,  as  he  also  remarks,  probably  an  interpolation.  Strabo 
has  already  enumerated  four  cities  of  the  name  of  Ephyra,  viz.  the  Eliac, 
the  Thesprotic,  the  Corinthian,  and  the  Thessalian ;  yet  here  two  others 
are  presented  to  our  notice,  the  Sicyonian  and  the  ^Etolian,  of  which 
Strabo  makes  no  mention  in  his  account  of  JStolia  and  Sicyonia. 

3  II.  xxiv.  78.  *  II.  ii.  730. 

B.  VIII.  c.  III.  §  7.        GREECE.    ELIS.    PYLUS.  H 

the  Thracian  was  met  by  the  Muses,  and  deprived  of  the 
power  of  song,"  for  he  says, 

"  Coming  from  CEchalia,  from  the  dwelling  of  Eurytus,  the  CEchalian.'" 
If  this  were  the  city  in  Thessaly,  the  Scepsian  is  mistaken  in 
mentioning  some  city  in  Arcadia,  which  is  now  called  Andania. 
If  he  is  n'ot  mistaken,  still  the  Arcadian  CEchalia  is  said  to 
be  the  city  of  Eurytus,  so  that  there  is  not  one  city  only  of 
that  name,  although  Apollodorus  asserts  that  there  is  but  one. 
7.  There  existed  between  the  mouths  of  the  Peneius  and 
the  Selleis  near  Scollis,  a  Pylus,  not  the  city  of  Nestor,  but 
another  of  that  name,  having  nothing  in  common  with  that 
on  the  Alpheius,  nor  even  with  that  on  the  Pamisus,  or,  if 
we  must  so  call  it,  the  Amathus.  Some  writers,  through  their 
soHcitude  for  the  fame  and  noble  descent  of  Nestor,  give  a 
forced  meaning  to  these  words.  Since  there  are  three  places 
in  Peloponnesus  of  the  name  of  Pylus,  (whence  the  saying 

*'  There  is  a  Pylus  in  front  of  Pylus,  and  still  there  is  another  Pylus,") 
namely,  this  and  the  Lepreatic  Pylus  in  Triphylia,  and  a 
third,  the  Messeniac  near  Coryphasium,^  the  advocates  for 
each  place  endeavour  to  show  that  the  river  in  his  own  coun- 
try is  (Emathois)  iifiadoeig,  or  sandy,  and  declare  that  to  be 
the  country  of  Nestor. 

The  greater  number  of  other  writers,  both  historians  and 
poets,  say,  that  Nestor  was  a  Messenian,  assigning  as  his  birth- 
place the  Pylus,  which  continued  to  exist  to  their  times. 
Those,  however,  who  adhere  to  Homer  and  follow  his  poem  as 
their  guide,  say,  that  the  Pylus  of  Nestor  is  where  the  terri- 
tory is  traversed  by  the  Alpheius.  Now  this  river  passes 
through  the  Pisatis  and  Triphylia.  The  inhabitants  of  the 
Hollow  EHs  were  emulous  of  the  same  honour  respecting  the 
Pylus  in  their  own  country,  and  point  out  distinctive  marks, 
as  a  place  called  Gerenus,  and  a  river  Geron,  and  another 
river  Geranius,  and  endeavour  to  confirm  this  opinion  by 
pretending  that  Nestor  had  the  epithet  Gerenius  from  these 

The  Messenians  argue  in  the  very  same  manner,  but  ap- 

1  Ti    :;    ^Qi 

2  This' is  supposed  to  be  the  modem  Navarino.    The  Coryphasium  is 
Mount  St.  Nicholas.     G. 

12  STRABO.  Casaub.  340. 

parently  with  more  probability  on  their  side.     For  they  say, 

that  in  their  territory  there  is  a  place  better  known,  called 

Gerena,  and  once  well  inhabited. 

Such  then  is  the  present  state  of  the  Hollow  Elis.^ 

8.  The  poet  however,  after  having  divided  the  country  into 

four  parts,  and   mentioned  the  four  chiefs,  does  not  clearly 

express  himself,  when  he  says  : 

"those  who  inhabit  Buprasium  and  the  sacred  Elis,  all  whom  Hyrmine 
and  Myrsinus,  situated  at  the  extremity  of  the  territory  and  the  Olenian 
rock,  and  Aleisium  contain,  these  were  led  by  four  chiefs ;  ten  swift  vessels 
accompanied  each,  and  multitudes  of  Epeii  Avere  embarked  in  them."* 

For,  by  applying  the  name  Epeii  to  both  people,  the  Bupra- 
sians  and  the  Eleii,  and  by  never  applying  the  name  Eleii  to 
the  Buprasians,  he  may  seem  to  divide,  not  Eleia,  but  the 
country  of  the  Epeii,  into  four  parts,  which  he  had  before 
divided  into  two  ;  nor  would  Buprasium  then  be  a  part  of  Elis, 
but  rather  of  the  country  of  the  Epeii.  For  that  he  terms 
the  Buprasians  Epeii,  is  evident  from  these  words : 

"  As  when  the  Epeii  were  burying  King  Amarynces  at  Buprasium."^ 
Again,  by   enumerating    together  "Buprasium    and.  sacred 
Elis,"  and  then  by  making  a  fourfold  division,  he  seems  to 
arrange  these  very  four  divisions  in  common  under  both  Bu- 
prasium and  Elis. 

Buprasium,  it  is  probable,  was  a  considerable  settlement  in 
Eleia,  which  does  not  exist  at  present.  But  the  territory  only 
has  this  name,  which  lies  on  the  road  to  Dyme  from  Elis  the 
present  city.  It  might  be  supposed  that  Buprasium  had  at 
that  time  some  superiority  over  Elis,  as  the  Epeii  had  over 
the  Eleii,  but  afterwards  they  had  the  name  of  Eleii  instead 
of  Epeii. 

Buprasium  then  was  a  part  of  Elis,  and  they  say,  that 
Homer,  by  a  poetical  figure,  speaks  of  the  whole  and  of  the 
part  together,  as  in  these  lines : 

"through  Greece  and  the  middle  of  Argos;"*  "through  Greece  and 
Pthia;"*  "  the  Curetes  and  the  ^Etoli  were  fighting;"®  "those  from 
Dulichium  and  the  sacred  Echinades;''^ 

for  Dulichium  is  one  of  the  Echinades.  Modern  writers  also 
use  this  figure,  as  Hipponax, 

»  KoiXr]  "HXic,  or  Coele-Elis.  »  II.  ii.  615.  »  II.  xxiii.  630. 

*  Od.  L  344.        *  Od.  ii.  496.        «  II.  ix.  529.        '  II.  ii.  625. 

B.  VIII.  c.  III.  §  9,  10.  GREECE.    ELIS.  13 

"  they  eat  the  bread  of  the  Cyprians  and  the  wheat  of  the  Amathusii ;  " 
for  the  Amathusii  are  Cyprians :  and  Alcman  ; 
"  leaving  the  beloved  Cyprus,  and  Paphos,  washed  on  all  sides  by  the  sea  :" 
and  ^schylus ; 

"possessing  as  your  share  by  lot  the  whole  of  Cyprus  and  Paphos." 

If  Homer  has  not  called  the  Buprasii  by  the  name  of  Eleii, 
we  shall  reply,  nor  has  he  mentioned  many  other  places  and 
things  which  exist.  For  this  is  not  a  proof  that  they  did  not 
exist,  but  only  that  he  has  not  mentioned  them. 

9.  But  Hecataeus  of  Miletus  says,  that  the  Epeii  are  a 
different  people  from  the  Eleii ;  that  the  Epeii  accompanied 
Hercules  in  his  expedition  against  Augeas,  and  joined  him  in 
destroying  Elis,  and  defeating  Augeas.  He  also  says,  that 
Dyme  was  both  an  Epeian  and  an  Achaean  city. 

The  ancient  historians,  accustomed  from  childhood  to 
falsehood  through  the  tales  of  mythologists,  speak  of  many 
things  that  never  existed.  Hence  they  do  not  even  agree 
with  one  another,  in  their  accounts  of  the  same  things. 
Not  that  it  is  improbable  that  the  Epeii,  although  a  dif- 
ferent people  and  at  variance  with  the  Eleii,  when  they 
had  gained  the  ascendency,  united  together,  forming  a  com- 
mon state,  and  their  power  extended  even  as  far  as  Dyme. 
The  poet  does  not  mention  Dyme,  but  it  is  not  improbable 
that  at  that  time  it  was  subject  to  the  Epeii,  and  afterwards 
to  the  lones,  or  perhaps  not  even  to  this  people,  but  to  the 
Achaei,  who  were  in  possession  of  the  country  of  the  lones. 

Of  the  four  portions,  which  include  Buprasium,  Hyrmine 
and  Myrsinus  belong  to  the  territory  of  Eleia.  The  rest, 
according  to  the  opinion  of  some  writers,  are  situated  close 
on  the  borders  of  the  Pisatis. 

10.  Hyrmine  was  a  small  town,  which  exists  no  longer, 
but  there  is  a  mountainous  promontory  near  Cyllene,  called 
Hormina  or  Hyrmina. 

Myrsinus  is  the  present  Myrtuntium,  a  settlement  extend- 
ing to  the  sea,  and  situated  on  the  road  from  Dyme  to  Elis,  at 
the  distance  of  70  stadia  from  the  city  of  the  Eleii. 

It  is  conjectured  that  the  Olenian  rock  is  the  present  Scollis. 
For  we  might  mention  probable  conjectures,  since  both  places 
and  names  have  undergone  changes,  and  the  poet  himself 
does  not  explain  his  meaning  clearly  in  many  passages. 

14  STRABO.  Casaub.  341. 

Scollis  is  a  rocky  mountain,  common  to  the  Dymaei,  and 
Tritaeenses,  and  Eleii,  situated  close  to  Lampeia,  another  moun- 
tain in  Arcadia,  which  is  distant  from  Elis  130  stadia,  from 
Tritaea  100,  and  an  equal  number  [from  Dyme]  Achaean  cities. 

Aleisium  is  the  present  Alesia3um,  a  place  near  Amphidolis, 
where  the  neighbouring  people  hold  a  market  every  month. 
It  is  situated  upon  the  mountain  road  leading  from  Elis  to 
Olympia.  Formerly,  it  was  a  city  of  the  Pisatis,  the  bound- 
aries of  the  country  being  different  at  different  times  on  ac- 
count of  the  change  of  masters.  The  poet  also  calls  Aleisium, 
the  hill  of  Aleisius,  when  he  says, 

"  Till  we  broTight  our  horses  to  Buprasium  rich  in  grain,  and  to  the 
Olenian  rock,  and  to  the  place  which  is  called  the  hill  of  Aleisium," ' 

for  we  must  understand  the  words  by  the  figure  hyperbaton. 
Some  also  point  out  a  river  Aleisius. 

11.  Since  a  tribe  of  Caucones  is  mentioned  in  Triphylia 
near  Messenia,  and  as  Dyme  is  called  by  some  writers 
Cauconis,  apd  since  between  Dyme  and  Tritaea  in  the  Dymaean 
district  there  is  also  a  river  called  Caucon,  a  question  arises 
respecting  the  Caucones,  whether  there  are  two  nations  of  this 
name,  one  situate  about  Triphylia,  and  another  about  Dyme, 
Elis,  and  Caucon.  This  river  empties  itself  into  another 
which  is  called  Teutheas,  in  the  masculine  gender,  and  is  the 
name  of  a  small  town  that  was  one  of  those  that  composed 
Dyme  ;  except  that  the  town  is  of  the  feminine  gender,  and  is 
pronounced  Teuthea,  without  the  s,  and  the  last  syllable  is  long. 

There  is  a  temple  of  Diana  Nemydia  (Nemeasa?).  The 
Teutheas  discharges  itself  into  the  Achelous,  which  runs  by 
Dyme,  and  has  the  same  name  as  that  in  Acarnania,  and  the 
name  also  of  Peirus.     In  the  lines  of  Hesiod, 

"  he  lived  near  the  Olenian  rock  on  the  banks  of  the  broad  Peirus," 
some  change  the  last  word  Ueipoio  to  Uwpoio,  but  improperly. 

^  [But  it  is  the  opinion  of  some  writers,  who  make  the 
Caucones  a  subject  of  inquiry,  that  when  Minerva  in  the 
Odyssey,  who  has  assumed  the  form  of  Mentor,  says  to  Nestor ; 

"  At  sun-rise  I  go  to  the  magnanimous  Caucones,  where  a  debt  neither  of 
a  late  date  nor  of  small  amount  is  owing  to  me.^  When  Telemachus 
comes  to  thy  house  send  him  with  thy  son,  thy  chariot,  and  thy  horses ;" 

»  II.  ii.  756. 

' — *  This  passage  in  brackets  is  an  interpolation  to  explain  the  subse- 
quent inquiry  who  the  Caucones  were.     Kramer.  ^  II.  iii.  636. 

B.  vm.  c.  III.  §  12.  GREECE.    ELIS.  15 

a  certain  district  in  the  territory  of  the  Epeii  appears  to  be 
designated,  which  the  Caucones,  a  different  nation  from  that 
in  Triphylia,  possessed,  and  who  perhaps  extended  even  as  far 
as  the  Dymean  territory.]  But  it  was  not  proper  to  omit, 
whence  Dyme  had  the  name  Cauconitis,  nor  why  the  river  was 
called  Caucon,  because  the  question  is,  who  the  Caucones^ 
were,  to  whom  Minerva  says,  she  is  going  to  recover  a  debt. 
For  if  we  understand  the  poet  to  mean  those  in  Triphylia 
about  Lepreum,  I  know  not  how  this  is  probable ;  whence 
some  persons  even  write  the  passage, 

"  where  a  large  debt  is  owing  to  me  in  the  sacred  Elis." 
This  will  appear  more  clearly,  when  we  describe  the  Pisatis, 
and  after  it  Triphylia  as  far  as  the  confines  of  Messenia. 

12.  Next  to  the  Chelonatas  is  the  long  tract  of  coast  of  the 
Pisatae ;  then  follows  a  promontory,  Pheia ;  there  was  also  a 
small  town  of  this  name ; 

"  by  the  walls  of  Pheia  about  the  stream  of  the  Jardanes,"  * 
for  there  is  a  small  river  near  it. 

Some  writers  say,  that  Pheia  is  the  commencement  of  the 
Pisatis.  In  front  of  Pheia  is  a  small  island  and  a  harbour ; 
thence  to  Olympia  by  sea,  which  is  the  shortest  way,  is 
120  stadia.  Then  immediately  follows  another  promontory, 
[Icthys,]  projecting  very  far  towards  the  west,  like  the 
Chelonatas;  from  this  promontory  to  Cephallenia  are  120 
stadia.  Next  the  Alpheius  discharges  itself,  at  the  distance 
from  the  Chelonatas  of  280,  and  from  the  Araxus  of  545, 
stadia.  It  flows  from  the  same  places  as  the  Eurotas.  There 
is  a  village  of  the  name  of  Asea  in  the  Megalopolitis,  where 
the  two  sources,  whence  the  above-mentioned  rivers  issue,  are 
near  to  one  another.  After  running  under  the  earth  the  dis- 
tance of  many  stadia,  they  then  rise  to  the  surface,  when  one 
takes  its  course  to  Laconia,  the  other  to  the  Pisatis.  The 
Eurotas  reappears  at  the  commencement  of  the  district  Ble- 
minates,  flowing  close  beside  Sparta,  and  passing  through  a 
long  valley  near  Helos,  which  the  poet  mentions,  empties  itself 
between  Gythium,  the  naval  arsenal  of  Sparta,  and  Acrsea. 
But  the  Alpheius,  after  receiving  the  Celadon,  (Ladon  ?)  and 
Erymanthus,  and  other  obscure  streams,  pursues  its  course 
through  Phrixa,  and  the  Pisatis,  and  Triphylia,  close  to  Olympia, 

'  Book  vii.  ch.  vii.  2.  »  II.  vii.  135. 

16  STRABO.  Casaub.  343- 

and  discharges  itself  into  the  Sicilian  Sea  between  Pheia  and 
Epitalium.  At  its  mouth,  and  at  the  distance  of  80  stadia 
from  Olympia,  is  situated  the  grove  of  Artemis  Alpheionia, 
or  Alpheiusa,  for  both  words  are  in  use.  At  Olympia  an 
annual  festival,  to  which  multitudes  resort,  is  celebrated  in 
honour  of  this  goddess,  as  well  as  of  Diana  Elaphia  and 
Diana  Daphnia.  The  whole  country  is  full  of  temples  dedi- 
cated to  Diana,  and  Aphrodite,  and  the  Nymphs,  which  are 
situated  amidst  flowery  groves,  and  generally  where  there  is 
abundance  of  water.  Hermeia,  or  images  of  Mercury,  are 
frequently  met  with  on  the  road,  and  on  the  sea-shore,  temples 
dedicated  to  Neptune.  In  the  temple  of  Diana  Alpheionia 
are  pictures  by  Cleanthes  and  Aregon,  Corinthian  painters ; 
the  former  has  depicted  the  taking  of  Troy,  and  the  birth  of 
Minerva ;  the  latter,  Diana  borne  upon  a  griffin ;  which  are 
highly  esteemed. 

13.  Next  is  the  mountain,  which  separates  Macistia  in 
Triphylia  from  the  Pisatis  ;  then  follows  another  river  Chalcis, 
and  a  spring  called  Cruni,  and  Chalcis  a  village,  and  next  to 
these  the  Samicum,  where  is  the  temple  of  the  Samian  Nep- 
tune, which  is  held  in  the  highest  honour.  There  is  also  a 
grove  full  of  wild  olive  trees.  It  was  intrusted  to  the  care 
of  the  Macistii,  whose  business  it  was  to  announce  the  Samian 
truce  as  it  is  called.    All  the  Triphylii  contribute  to  the  temple. 

[The  temple  of  the  Scilluntian  Minerva  at  Scillus  in  the 
neighbourhood  of  Olympia,  opposite  the  Phellon,  is  among 
the  celebrated  temples.]^ 

14.  Near  these  temples,  at  the  distance  of  30  stadia,  or  a 
little  more,  above  the  sea-coast,  is  situated  the  Triphyliac,  or 
Lepreatic,  Pylus,  which  the  poet  calls  Emathoeis,  or  Sandy, 
and  transmits  to  us  as  the  native  country  of  Nestor,  as  may 
be  collected  from  his  poetry.  It  had  the  epithet  Emathoeis 
either  from  the  river,  which  flows  by  the  city  towards  the 
north,  and  was  formerly  called  Amathus,  but  now  Mamaus, 
or  Arcadicus ;  or  because  this  river  was  called  Pamisus,  the 
same  name  as  that  of  two  rivers  in  Messenia,  while  with 
respect  to  the  city,  the  epithet  Emathoeis,  or  sandy,  is  of  un- 
certain origin,  since  it  is  not  the  fact,  it  is  said,  that  either 
the  river  or  the  country  abounds  with  sand. 

'  This  passage  is  transposed  from  the  following  section,  as  proposed  by 

B.  VIII.  c.  III.  §  15,  16.  ELIS.  17 

Towards  the  east  is  a  mountain  near  Pylus,  named  after 
Minthe,  who,  according  to  the  fable,  was  the  mistress  of 
Hades,  and  being  deluded  by  Proserpine,  was  transformed 
into  the  garden  mint,  which  some  call  hedyosmus,  or  the 
sweet-smelling  mint.  There  is  also  near  the  mountain  an  en- 
closure, sacred  to  Hades,  held  in  great  veneration  by  the 
Macistii;  and  a  grove  dedicated  to  Ceres,  situated  above  the- 
Pyliac  plain.  This  plain  is  fertile,  and  situated  close  to  the 
sea-coast ;  it  extends  along  the  interval  between  the  Samicum 
and  the  river  Neda.  The  sea-shore  is  sandy  and  narrow,  so 
that  no  one  could  be  censured  for  asserting  that  Pylus  was 
called  "  sandy  "  from  this  tract. 

15.  Towards  the  north  there  were  two  small  Triphyliac 
towns,  Hypana  and  Typaneae,  bordering  upon  Pylus ;  the 
former  of  which  was  incorporated  with  Elis,  the  other  re- 
mained separate.  Two  rivers  flow  near,  the  Dalion  and  the 
Acheron,  and  empty  themselves  into  the  Alpheius.  The 
Acheron  has  its  name  from  its  relation  to  Hades.  For  at  that 
place  were  held  in  extraordinary  reverence  the  temples  of 
Ceres,  Proserpine,  and  Hades,  perhaps  on  account  of  the  con- 
trariety of  the  properties  of  the  country,  which  Demetrius 
of  Scepsis  mentions.  For  Triphylia  is  fertile,  but  the  soil  is 
subject  to  mildew,  and  produces  rushes,^  whence  in  these 
places,  instead  of  the  product  being  large,  there  is  frequently 
no  crop  whatever. 

16.  Towards  the  south  of  Pylus  is  Lepreum.  This  also 
was  a  city,  situated  40  stadia  above  the  sea-coast.  Between 
the  Lepreum  and  the  Annius  (Anigrus  ?  Alphaeus  ?)  is  the 
temple  of  the  Samian  Neptune.  These  places  are  distant  100 
stadia  from  each  other.  This  is  the  temple  in  which  the  poet 
says  that  the  Pylii  were  found  by  Telemachus  engaged  in 
offering  sacrifice : 

"  They  came  to  Pylus,  the  well-built  city  of  Neleus ;  the  people  were 
sacrificing  on  the  sea-shore  bulls,  entirely  black,  to  Neptune,  the  god  of 
the  dark  locks,  who  shakes  the  earth."  ^ 

For  the  poet  was  at  liberty  to  feign  things  which  did  not 
exist,  but  when  it  is  possible  to  adapt  poetry  to  reality,  and 

'  9pvov,  the  meaning  of  this  word  is  uncertain;  Meyer  in  his  "Bo- 
tanische  erklarung  "  of  Strabo  does  not  attempt  to  explain  it. 
2  Od.  iii.  4. 

18  STRABO.  Casaub.  345. 

preserve  tlie  narrative  ....  it  is  better  to  abstain  from 

The  Lepreatce  possessed  a  fertile  country,  on  the  confines  of 
which  were  situated  the  Cyparissenses.  But  Caucones  were 
masters  of  both  these  tracts,  and  even  of  the  Macistus,  which 
some  call  Platanistus.  The  town  has  the  same  name  as  the 
territory.  It  is  said,  that  in  the  Lepreatis  there  is  even  a 
monument  of  a  Caucon,  who  had  the  name  of  the  nation, 
either  because  he  was  a  chief,  or  for  some  other  reason. 

17.  There  are  many  accounts  respecting  the  Caucones. 
They  are  said  to  be  an  Arcadian  tribe,  like  the  Pelasgi,  and 
also,  like  them,  a  wandering  people.  Thus  the  poet  relates, 
that  they  came  as  auxiliaries  to  the  Trojans,  but  from  what 
country  he  does  not  mention,  but  it  is  supposed  from  Paphla- 
gonia.  For  in  that  country  there  is  a  tribe  of  the  name  of 
Cauconiatae,  that  border  upon  the  Mariandyni,  who  are  them- 
selves Paphlagonians.  We  shall  say  more  of  them  when  we 
describe  that  country.^ 

At  present  I  must  add  some  remarks  concerning  the 
Caucones  in  Triphylia.  For  some  writers  say,  that  the 
whole  of  the  present  Elis,  from  Messenia  to  Dyme,  was  called 
Cauconia.  Antimachus  calls  them  all  Epeii  and  Caucones. 
But  some  writers  say  that  they  did  not  possess  the  whole 
country,  but  inhabited  it  when  they  were  divided  into  two 
bodies,  one  of  which  settled  in  Triphylia  towards  Messenia, 
the  other  in  the  Buprasian  district  towards  Dyme,  and  in 
the  Hollow  Elis.  And  there,  and  not  in  any  other  place, 
Aristotle  considered  them  to  be  situated.  The  last  opinion 
agrees  better  with  the  language  of  Homer,  and  the  preceding 
question  is  resolved.  For  Nestor  is  supposed  to  have  lived  at 
the  Triphyliac  Pylus,  the  parts  of  which  towards  the  south 
and  the  east  (and  these  coincide  towards  Messenia  and  La- 
conia)  was  the  country  subject  to  Nestor,  but  the  Caucones 
now  occupy  it,  so  that  those  who  are  going  from  Pylus  to 
Lacedaemon  must  necessarily  take  the  road  through  the 
Caucones.  The  temple  of  the  Samian  Neptune,  and  the 
naval  station  near  it,  where  Telemachus  landed,  incline  to  the 
west  and  to  the  north.  If  then  the  Caucones  lived  there  only, 
the  account  of  the  poet  must  be  erroneous. 

*  Book  xii.  c.  3,  4.  Little,  however,  can  be  obtained  of  their  history, 
which  is  buried  in  the  same  obscurity  as  the  Pelasgi  and  Leleges. 

B.  VIII.  c.  III.  §  18, 19.  ELIS.  19 

[For,  according  to  Sotades,  Minerva  enjoins  Nestor  to  send 
his  son  with  Telemachus  in  a  chariot  to  Lacedaemon  towards 
the  east,  while  she  herself  returns  back  to  the  west,  to  pass  the 
night  in  the  vessel ; 

"but  at  sun-rise  she  sets  out  to  the  magnanimous  Caucones," 

to  obtain  payment  of  the  debt,  in  a  forward  direction.  How 
then  are  we  to  reconcile  these  opinions?  for  Nestor  might 
say,  "  The  Caucones  are  my  subjects,  and  lie  directly  in  the 
road  of  persons  who  are  going  to  Lacedaemon  ;  why  then 
do  you  not  accompany  Telemachus  and  his  friends  on  his 
journey,  but  take  a  road  in  an  opposite  direction?"  Besides, 
it  was  natural  for  one,  who  was  going  to  recover  payment  of 
a  debt,  and  that  a  considerable  sum,  as  she  says,  from  a  people 
under  the  command  of  Nestor,  to  request  some  assistance  from 
him  in  case  they  should  be  so  unjust,  as  usually  happens,  as  to 
refuse  to  discharge  it.     But  she  did  not  do  this. 

If  therefore  the  Caucones  are  to  be  found  in  one  situation 
only,  these  absurdities  would  follow.  But  if  one  division  of 
this  tribe  occupied  the  places  in  Elis  near  Dyme,  Minerva 
might  be  said  to  direct  her  journey  thither,  and  even  the 
return  to  the  ship  would  not  be  absurd,  nor  the  separation 
from  the  company  of  Telemachus,  when  her  road  was  in  an 
opposite  direction. 

The  question  respecting  Pylus  may  perhaps  be  resolved  in 
a  similar  manner,  when  we  come,  as  we  proceed,  to  the  de- 
scription of  the  Messenian  Pylus. ^] 

18.  There  is  also,  it  is  said,  a  nation,  the  Paroreatse,  who 
occupy,  in  the  hilly  district  of  Triphylia,  the  mountains, 
which  extend  from  about  Lepreum  and  Macistum  to  the  sea 
near  the  Samian  grove  sacred  to  Neptune. 

19.  Below  these  people  on  the  coast  are  two  caves  ;  one,  of 
the  nymphs  Anigriades  ;  the  other,  the  scene  of  the  adventures 
of  the  Atlantides,^  and  of  the  birth  of  Dardanus.  There 
also  are  the  groves,  both  the  lonseum  and  Eurycydeium. 

Samicum  is  a  fortress.  Formerly  there  was  a  city  of  the 
name  of  Samos,  which  perhaps  had  its  designation  from  its 

*  This  passage  is  an  interpolation  by  the  same  hand  probably  as  that 
in  s.  11.     Cramer. 

2  Uardanus  was  the  son  of  Jupiter  and  Electra,  one  of  the  seven, 
daughters  of  Atlas,  surnamed  Atlantides. 

c  2 

20  STRABO.  Casaub.  346. 

height,  since  they  called  heights  Sami ;  perhaps  also  this  was 
the  acropolis  of  Arene,  which  the  poet  mentions  in  the 
Catalogue  of  the  Ships ; 

"  who  inhabited  Pylus,  and  the  pleasant  Arene ;"  * 

for  as  the  position  of  Arene  has  not  been  clearly  discovered 
anywhere,  it  is  conjectured,  that  it  was  most  probably  situ- 
ated where  the  adjoining  river  Anigrus,  formerly  called 
Minyeius,  empties  itself.  As  no  inconsiderable  proof  of  this, 
Homer  says, 

"  There  is  a  river  Minyeius,  which  empties  itself  into  the  sea,  near  Arene.'" 

Now  near  the  cave  of  the  nymphs  Anigriades  is  a  fountain, 
by  which  the  subjacent  country  is  rendered  marshy,  and  filled 
with  pools  of  water.  The  Anigrus  however  receives  the  great- 
er part  of  the  water,  being  deep,  but  with  so  little  current 
that  it  stagnates.  The  place  is  full  of  mud,  emits  an  offensive 
smell  perceptible  at  a  distance  of  26  stadia,  and  renders  the 
fish  unfit  for  food.  Some  writers  give  this  fabulous  account 
of  these  waters,  and  attribute  the  latter  effect  to  the  venom 
of  the  Hydra,  which  some  of  the  Centaurs  ^  washed  from 
their  wounds  ;  others  say,  that  Melampus  used  these  cleansing 
waters  for  the  purification  of  the  Proetades.'*  They  are  a 
cure  for  alphi,  or  leprous  eruptions,  and  the  white  tetter,  and 
the  leichen.  They  say  also  that  the  Alpheus  had  its  name 
from  its  property  of  curing  the  disease  alphi.^ 

Since  then  the  sluggishness  of  the  Anigrus,  and  the  recoil 
of  the  waters  of  the  sea,  produce  a  state  of  rest  rather  than  a 
current,  they  say,  that  its  former  name  was  Minyeius,  but 
that  some  persons  perverted  the  name  and  altered  it  to 
Mintei'us.  The  etymology  of  the  name  may  be  derived  from 
other  sources ;  either  from  those  who  accompanied  Chloris, 
the  mother  of  Nestor,  from  the  Minyeian  Orchomenus ;  or, 

I  II.  ii.  591.  2  XL  ii.  721. 

3  Hercules,  after  killing  the  Hydra,  dipped  the  arrows  which  he  after- 
wards made  use  of  against  the  Centaurs,  in  gall  of  this  monster.  Pau- 
sanias,  however,  speaks  of  one  Centaur  only,  Chiron,  or,  according  to 
others,  Polenor,  who  washed  his  wounds  in  the  Anigrus. 

*  The  daughters  of  Proetus.  According  to  ApoUodorus,  Melampus 
cured  them  of  madness,  probably  the  effect  of  a  disease  of  the  skin. 

*  Alphi,  Lepra  alphoides.  Leuce,  white  tetter  or  common  leprosy. 
Leichen,  a  cutaneous  disease  tending  to  leprosy. 

B.  VIII.  c.  III.  §  20,  21.  ELIS.  '       ♦  21 

from  the  Minyge  descendants  of  the  Argonauts,  who  were 
banished  from  Lemnos,  and  went  to  Lacedaemon,  and  thence 
to  Triphylia,  and  settled  about  Arene,  in  the  country  now 
called  Hypaesia,  which  however  no  longer  contains  places 
built  by  the  Minyse. 

Some  of  these  people,  with  Theras  the  son  of  Autesion, 
who  was  a  descendant  of  Polynices,  having  set  sail  to  the 
country  between  Cyrenaea  and  the  island  of  Crete,  "  formerly 
Calliste,  but  afterwards  called  Thera,"  according  to  Callima- 
chus,  founded  Thera,  the  capital  of  Cyrene,  and  gave  the 
same  name  to  the  city,  and  to  the  island. 

20.  Between  the  Anigrus  and  the  mountain  from  which 
the  Jardanes  rises,  a  meadow  and  a  sepulchre  are  shown, 
and  the  Achasas,  which  are  rocks  broken  off  from  the  same 
mountain,  above  which  was  situated,  as  I  have  said,  the 
city  Samos.  Samos  is  not  mentioned  by  any  of  the  authors 
of  Peripli,  or  Circumnavigations;  because  perhaps  it  had 
been  long  since  destroyed,  and  perhaps  also  on  account  of  its 
position.  For  the  Poseidium  is  a  grove,  as  I  have  said,  near 
the  sea,  a  lofty  eminence  rises  above  it,  situated  in  front  of  the 
present  Samicum,  where  Samos  once  stood,  so  that  it  cannot 
be  seen  from  the  sea. 

Here  also  is  the  plain  called  Samicus,  from  which  we  may 
further  conjecture  that  there  was  once  a  city  Samos. 

According  to  the  poem  Rhadine,  of  which  Stesichorus 
seems  to  have  been  the  author,  and  which  begins  in  this 

"  Come,  tuneful  Muse,  Erato,  begin  the  melodious  song,  in  praise  of  the 
lovely  Samian  youths,  sounding  the  strings  of  the  delightful  lyre  :  " 

these  youths  were  natives  of  this  Samos.  For  he  says  that 
Rhadine  being  given  in  marriage  to  the  tyrant,  set  sail  from 
Samos  to  Corinth  with  a  westerly  wind,  and  therefore  cer- 
tainly not  from  the  Ionian  Samos.  By  the  same  wind  her 
brother,  who  was  archi-theorus,  arrived  at  Delphi.  Her 
cousin,  who  was  in  love  with  her,  set  out  after  her  in  a 
chariot  to  Corinth.  The  tyrant  put  both  of  them  to  death, 
and  sent  away  tfie  bodies  in  a  chariot,  but  changing  his  mind, 
he  recalled  the  chariot,  and  buried  them. 

21.  From  this  Pylus  and  the  Lepreum  to  the  Messenian 
Pylus  ^  and  the  Coryphasium,  fortresses  situated  upon  the  sea, 

'  The  position  of  Pylus  of  Messenia  is  uncertain.    D'Anville  places  it 

22  *  STRABO.  Casaub.  348. 

and  to  the  adjoining  island  Sphagia,  is  a  distance  of  about 
400  stadia,  and  from  the  Alpheius  a  distance  of  750,  and 
from  the  promontory  Chelonatas  1030  stadia.  In  the  inter- 
vening distance  are  the  temple  of  the  Macistian  Hercules, 
and  the  river  Acidon,  which  flows  beside  the  tomb  of  Jardanus, 
and  Chaa,  a  city  which  was  once  near  Lepreum,  where  also  is 
the  ^pasian  plain.  It  was  for  this  Chaa,  it  is  said,  that  the 
Arcadians  and  Pylians  went  to  war  with  each  other,  which 
war  Homer  has  mentioned,  and  it  is  thought  that  the  verse 
ought  to  be  written, 

"  Oh  that  I  were  young  as  when  multitudes  of  Pylii,  and  of  Arcades, 
handling  the  spear,  fought  together  at  the  swift-flowing  Acidon  near  the 
walls  of  Chaa," ' 

not  Celadon,  nor  Pheia,  for  this  place  is  nearer  the  tomb  of 
Jardanus  and  the  Arcades  than  the  other. 

22.  On  the  Triphylian  Sea  are  situated  Cyparissia,  and 
Pyrgi,  and  the  rivers  Acidon  and  Neda.  At  present  the 
boundary  of  Triphylia  towards  Messenia  is  the  impetuous 
stream  of  the  N^da  descending  from  the  LycaBus,  a  mountain 
of  Arcadia,  and  rising  from  a  source  which,  according  to  the 
fable,  burst  forth  to  furnish  water  in  which  Rhea  was  to  wash 
herself  after  the  birth  of  Jupiter.  It  flows  near  Phigalia,  and 
empties  itself  into  the  sea  where  the  Pyrgitae,  the  extreme 
tribe  of  the  Triphylii,  approach  the  Cyparissenses,  the  first  of 
the  Messenian  nation.  But,  anciently,  the  country  had  other 
boundaries,  so  that  the  dominions  of  Nestor  included  some 
places  on  the  other  side  of  the  Neda,  as  the  Cyparissei's,  and 
some  others  beyond  that  tract,  in  the  same  manner  as  the  poet 
extends  the  Pylian  sea  as  far  as  the  seven  cities,  which  Aga- 
memnon promised  to  Achilles, 

"  All  near  the  sea  bordering  upon  the  sandy  Pylus,"  ^ 
which  is  equivalent  to,  near  the  Pylian  sea. 

23.  Next  in  order  to  the  Cyparissei's  in  traversing  the 
coast  towards  the  Messenian  Pylus  and  the  Coryphasium,  we 
meet  with  Erana,  (Eranna,)  which  some  writers  incorrectly 
suppose  was  formerly  called  Arene,  by  the  same  name  as  the 
Pylian  city,  and  the  promontory  Platamodes,  from  which  to 
the  Coryphasium,  and  to  the  place  at  present  called  Pylus,  are 

at  New  Navarino,  Barbie  de  Bocage  at  Old  Navarino.  See  also  Ernst 
Curlius,  Peloponnesus. 

»  II.  vii.  133.  2  II.  ix.  153. 

B.  VIII.  c.  III.  §  24.  ELIS.    PYLUS.  23 

100  stadia.^  There  is  also  a  cenotaph  and  a  small  town  in  it 
both  of  the  same  name — Prote. 

We  ought  not  perhaps  to  carry  our  inquiries  so  far  into  an- 
tiquity, and  it  might  be  sufficient  to  describe  the  present  state 
of  each  place,  if  certain  reports  about  them  had  not  been  de- 
livered down  to  us  in  childhood ;  but  as  different  writers  give 
different  accounts,  it  is  necessary  to  examine  them.  The  most 
famous  and  the  most  ancient  writers  being  the  first  in  point 
of  personal  knowledge  of  the  places,  are,  in  general,  persons  of 
the  most  credit.  Now  as  Homer  surpasses  all  others  in  these 
respects,  we  must  examine  what  he  says,  and  compare  his 
descriptions  with  the  present  state  of  places,  as  we  have  just 
said.  We  have  already  considered  his  description  of  the 
Hollow  Elis  and  of  Buprasium. 

24.  He  describes  the  dominions  of  Nestor  in  these  words : 

"  And  they  who  inhabited  Pylus,  and  the  beautiful  Arene,  and  Thryum, 
a  passage  across  the  Alpheius,  and  the  well-built  iEpy,  and  Cyparisseis, 
and  Amphigeneia,  and  Pteleum,  and  Helos,  and  Dorium,  where  the 
Muses  having  met  with  Thamyris  the  Thracian,  deprived  him  of  the 
power  of  song,  as  he  was  coming  from  CEchalia,  from  the  house  of  Eurytus 
the  CEchalian.2 

It  is  Pylus,  therefore,  to  which  the  question  relates,  and  we 
shall  soon  treat  of  it.  We  have  already  spoken  of  Arene. 
The  places,  which  he  here  calls  Thryum,  in  another  passage 
he  calls  Thryoessa, 

"  There  is  a  city  Thryoessa,  lofty,  situated  on  a  hill, 
Far  off,  on  the  banks  of  the  Alpheius."  ^ 

He  calls  it  the  ford  or  passage  of  the  Alpheius,  because,  ac- 
cording to  these  verses,  it  seems  as  if  it  could  be  crossed  at 
this  place  on  foot.  Thryum  is  at  present  called  Epitalium,  a 
village  of  Macistia. 

With  respect  to  evktitov  ATttu,  "^py  the  well-built," 
some  writers  ask  which  of  these  words  is  the  epithet  of  the 
other,  and  what  is  the  city,  and  whether  it  is  the  present  Mar- 
galae  of  Amphidolia,  but  this  Margalae  is  not  a  natural  fortress, 
but  another  is  meant,  a  natural  strong-hold  in  Macistia. 
Writers  who  suppose  this  place  to  be  meant,  say,  that  ^py  is 
the  name  of  the  city,  and  infer  it  from  its  natural  properties, 
as  in  the  example  of  Helos,'*  -^gialos,^  and  many  others: 

•  Some  MSS.  have  120  stadia.  *  II.  ii.  591.  '  II.  xi.  710. 

*  A  marsh.  *  The  sea-shore. 

24  STRABO.  Casaub.  349. 

those  who  suppose  Margalae  to  be  meant  here,  will  assert  the 

Thryum,  or  Thryoessa,  they  say,  is  Epitalium,  because  all  the 
country  is  dpvwdTjg,  or  sedgy,  and  particularly  the  banks  of  the 
rivers,  but  this  appears  more  clearly  at  the  fordable  places  of 
the  stream.  Perhaps  Thryum  is  meant  by  the  ford,  and  by 
"  the  well-built  JEpj"  Epitalium,  which  is  naturally  strong, 
and  in  the  other  part  of  the  passage  he  mentions  a  lofty  hill ; 
"  The  city  Thryoessa,  a  lofty  hill, 
Far  away  by  the  Alpheus."  ' 

25.  Cyparisseis  is  near  the  old  Macistia,  which  then  ex- 
tended even  to  the  other  side  of  the  Neda,  but  it  is  not  in- 
habited, as  neither  is  Macistum.  There  is  also  another,  the 
Messenian  Cyparissia,  not  having  quite  the  same  name,  but 
one  like  it.  The  city  of  Macistia  is  at  present  called  Cypa- 
rissia, in  the  singular  number,  and  feminine  gender,  but  the 
name  of  the  river  is  Cyparisseis. 

Amphigeneia,  also  belonging  to  Macistia,  is  near  Hypsoeis, 
where  is  the  temple  of  Latona. 

Pteleum  was  founded  by  the  colony  that  came  fromPteleum 
in  Thessaly,  for  it  is  mentioned  in  this  line, 

*'  Antron  on  the  sea-coast,  and  the  grassy  Pteleum."  ^ 
It  is  a  woody  place,  uninhabited,  called  Pteleasimum. 

Some  writers  say,  that  Helos  was  some  spot  near  the 
Alpheius ;  others,  that  it  was  a  city  like  that  in  Laconia, 

"  and  Helos,  a  small  city  on  the  sea ; " ' 
others  say  that  it  is  the  marsh  near  Alorium,  where  is  a 
temple  of  the  Eleian  Artemis,  (Diana  of  the  Marsh,)  belong- 
ing to  the  Arcadians,  for  this  people  had  the  priesthood. 

Dorium  is  said  by  some  authors  to  be  a  mountain,  by  others 
a  plain,  but  nothing  is  now  to  be  seen  ;  yet  it  is  alleged,  that 
the  present  Oluris,  or  Olura,  situated  in  the  Aulon,  as  it  is 
called,  of  Messenia,  is  Dorium.  Somewhere  there  also  is 
CEchalia  of  Eurytus,  the  present  Andania,  a  small  Arcadian 
town  of  the  same  name  as  those  in  Thessaly  and  Euboea, 
whence  the  poet  says,  Thamyris,  the  Thracian,  came  to  Do- 
rium, and  was  deprived  by  the  Muses  of  the  power  of  song. 

26.  Hence  it  is  evident  that  the  country  under  the  command 
of  Nestor  is  on  each  side  of  the  Alpheius,  all  of  which  tract 

»  II.  xi.  710.  2  II.  ii.  697.  3  II,  ii  584. 

B.  VIII.  c.  III.  §  27.  ELIS.    PYLUS.  *  25 

lie  calls  the  country  of  the  Pylians,  but  nowhere  does  the 
Alpheius  touch  Messenia,  nor  the  Hollow  Elis.^ 

It  is  in  this  district  that  we  have  the  native  country  of 
Nestor,  which  we  call  the  Triphylian,  the  Arcadian,  and  the 
Lepreatic  Pylus.  For  we  know  that  other  places  of  the  name 
of  Pylus  are  pointed  out,  situated  upon  the  sea,  but  this  is 
distant  more  than  30  stadia  from  it,  as  appears  from  the 
poem.  A  messenger  is  sent  to  the  vessel,  to  the  companions 
of  Telemachus, — to  invite  them  to  a  hospitable  entertainment. 
Telemachus,  upon  his  return  from  Sparta,  does  not  permit 
Peisistratus  to  go  to  the  city,  but  diverts  him  from  it,  and 
prevails  upon  him  to  hasten  to  the  ship,  whence  it  appears 
that  the  same  road  did  not  lead  both  to  the  city  and  to  the 
haven.  The  departure  of  Telemachus  may  in  this  manner 
be  aptly  understood : 

"  they  went  past  Cruni,  and  the  beautiful  streams  of  Chalcis ;  the  sun 
set,  and  all  the  villages  were  in  shade  and  darkness ;  but  the  ship,  ex- 
ulting in  .the  gales  of  Jove,  arrived  at  Phese.  She  passed  also  the  divine 
Elis,  where  the  Epeii  rule  ;"2 

for  to  this  place  the  direction  of  the  vessel  was  towards  the 
north,  and  thence  it  turns  to  the  east.     The  vessel  leaves  its 
first  and  straight  course  in  the  direction  of  Ithaca,  because  the 
suitors  had  placed  an  ambush  there, 
"  In  the  strait  between  Ithaca  and  Samos, 
And  from  thence  he  directed  the  vessel  to  the  sharp-pointed  islands, 
vrjaotoi  Ooyal  ;"  ' 

the  sharp-pointed  (o^lai)  he  calls  doal.  They  belong  to  the 
Echinades,  and  are  near  the  commencement  of  the  Corinthian 
Gulf  and  the  mouths  of  the  Achelous.  After  having  sailed 
past  Ithaca  so  as  to  leave  the  island  behind  him,  he  turns  to 
the  proper  course  between  Acarnania  and  Ithaca,  and  disem- 
barks on  the  other  side  of  the  island,  not  at  the  strait  of 
Cephallenia,  where  the  suitors  were  on  the  watch. 

27.  If  any  one  therefore  should  suppose  that  the  Eleian 
Pylus  is  the  Pylus  of  Nestor,  the  ship  would  not  properly  be 
said,  after  setting  off  thence,  to  take  its  course  along  Cruni 
and  Chalcis,  as  far  as  the  west,  then  to  arrive  by  night  at 
Pheas,  and  afterwards  to  sail  along  the  territory  of  Eleia,  for 

'  In  the  discussion  which  follows,  Strabo  endeavours  to  prove,  that 
the  Pylus  of  Nestor  is  the  Pylus  of  Triphylia,  and  not  the  Pylus  of  Mes- 

2  Od.  XV.  295.  >  3  od.  iv.  671 :  xv.  298. 

26  STRABO.  Casaub.  351. 

these  places  are  to  the  south  of  Eleia,  first  Phese,  then  Chalcis, 
then  Crunt,  then  the  TriphyHan  Pylus,  and  the  Samicum. 
In  sailing  then  to  the  south  from  the  Eleian  Pjlus  this  would 
be  the  course.  In  sailing  to  the  north,  where  Ithaca  lies,  all 
these  places  are  left  behind,  but  they  must  sail  along  Eleia 
itself,  and  before,  although  he  says  after,  sun-set.  Again,  on 
the  other  side,  if  any  one  should  suppose  the  Messenian  Pylus 
and  the  Coryphasium  to  be  the  commencement  of  the  voyage 
after  leaving  the  country  of  Nestor,  the  distance  would  be 
great,  and  would  occupy  more  time.  For  the  distance  only 
to  the  Triphylian  Pylus  and  the  Samian  Poseidium  is  400 
stadia,  and  the  voyage  would  not  be  along  Cruni,  and  Chalcis, 
and  Pheae,  the  names  of  obscure  places  and  rivers,  or  rather 
of  streams,  but  first  along  the  Neda,  then  Acidon,  next 
Alpheius,  and  the  places  and  countries  lying  between  these 
rivers,  and  lastly,  if  we  must  mention  them,  along  the  former, 
because  the  voyage  was  along  the  former  places  and  rivers 

28.  Besides,  Nestor's  account  of  the  war  between  the 
Pylians  and  Eleians,  which  he  relates  to  Patroclus,  agrees 
with  our  arguments,  if  any  one  examines  the  lines.  For  he 
says  there,  that  Hercules  laid  waste  Pylus,  and  that  all  the 
youth  were  exterminated ;  that  out  of  twelve  sons  of  Neleus, 
he  himself  alone  survived,  and  was  a  very  young  man,  and 
that  the  Epeii,  despising  Neleus  on  account  of  his  old  age 
and  destitute  state,  treated  the  Pylians  with  haughtiness  and 
insult.  Nestor  therefore,  in  order  to  avenge  this  wrong,  collected 
as  large  a  body  of  his  people  as  he  was  able,  made  an  inroad 
into  Eleia,  and  carried  away  a  large  quantity  of  booty  ; 
"  Fifty  herds  of  oxen,  as  many  flocks  of  sheep, 
As  many  herds  of  swine,"  * 

and  as  many  flocks  of  goats,  an  hundred  and  fifty  brood 
mares,  bay-coloured,  most  of  which  had  foals,  and  "these," 
he  says, 

"  We  drove  away  to  Pylus,  belonging  to  Neleus, 
By  night  towards  the  city;'"'' 

so  that  the  capture  of  the  booty,  and  the  flight  of  those  who 
came  to  the  assistance  of  people  who  were  robbed,  hap- 
pened in  the  day-time,  when,  he  says,  he  slew  Itamon ;  and 
they  returned  by  night,  so  that  they  arrived  by  night  at  the 
»  II.  xi.677.  »  II.  xi.  681. 

B.  vm.  c.  m.  §  29.  ELIS.    PYLUS.  27 

city.  When  they  were  engaged  in  dividing  the  booty,  and  in 
sacrificing,  the  Epeii,  having  assembled  in  multitudes,  on  the 
third  day  marched  against  them  with  an  army  of  horse  and 
foot,  and  encamped  about  Thryum,  which  is  situated  on  the 
Alpheius.  The  Pylians  were  no  sooner  informed  of  this  than 
they  immediately  set  out  to  the  relief  of  this  place,  and  having 
passed  the  night  on  the  river  Minyeius  near  Arene,  thence 
arrive  at  the  Alpheius  at  noon.  After  sacrificing  to  the  gods, 
and  passing  the  night  on  the  banks  of  the  river,  they  imme- 
diately, in  the  morning,  engaged  in  battle.  The  rout  of  the 
enemy  was  complete,  and  they  did  not  desist  from  the  pursuit 
and  slaughter,  till  they  came  to  Buprasium, 
"  and  tlie  Olenian  rock,  where  is  a  tumulus  of  Alesius,  whence  again 
Minerva  repulsed  the  multitudes ; " ' 
and  adds  below, 

"  but  the  Achsei 
Turned  back  their  swift  hOrses  from  Buprasium  to  Pylus." 

29.  From  these  verses  how  can  it  be  supposed  that  Eleian 
or  Messenian  Pylus  is  meant.  I  say  the  Eleian,  because  when 
this  was  destroyed  by  Hercules,  the  country  of  the  Epeii  also 
was  ravaged  at  the  same  time,  that  is,  Eleia.  How  then  could 
those,  who  were  of  the  same  tribe,  and  who  had  been  plun- 
dered at  that  time,  show  such  pride  and  insult  to  persons,  who 
were  suffering  under  the  same  injuries?  How  could  they 
overrun  and  ravage  their  own  country  ?  How  could  Augeas 
and  Neleus  be  kings  of  the  same  people,  and  yet  be  mutual 
enemies  ;  for  to  Neleus 

"  a  great  debt  was  owing  at  the  divine  Elis;  four  horses,  which  had  won 
the  prize ;  they  came  with  their  chariots  to  contend  for  prizes ;  they  were 
about  to  run  in  the  race  for  a  tripod ;  and  Augeas,  king  of  men,  detained 
them  there,  but  dismissed  the  charioteer."  ^ 

If  Neleus  lived  there,  there  Nestor  also  lived.  How  then 
were  there 

"  four  chiefs  of  Eleians  and  Buprasians,  with  ten  swift  ships  accompany- 
ing each,  and  with  many  Epeii  embarked  in  them  ?  " 

The  country  also  was  divided  into  four  parts,  none  of  which 
was  subject  to  Nestor,  but  those  tribes  were  under  his  com- 

"  who  lived  at  Pylus,  and  the  pleasant  Arene," 
and    at    the   places   that   follow   next   as   far    as   Messene. 
>  II.  xi.  756.  *  11.  xi.  697. 

28     /  STRABO.  Casaub.  352. 

How  came  the  Epeii,  when  marching  against  the  Pylians,  to 
set  out  towards  the  Alpheius  and  Thryum,  and  after  being 
defeated  there  in  battle,  to  fly  to  Buprasium  ?  But  on  the 
other  side,  if  Hercules  laid  waste  the  Messenian  Pylus,  how 
could  they,  who  were  at  such  a  distance,  treat  the  Pylians 
with  insult,  or  have  so  much  intercourse  and  traffic  with 
them,  and  defraud  them  by  refusing  to  discharge  a  debt,  so 
that  war  should  ensue  on  that  account?  How  too  could 
Nestor,  after  having  got,  in  his  marauding  adventure,  so  large 
a  quantity  of  booty,  a  prey  of  swine  and  she^p,  none  of  which 
are  swift-footed,  nor  able  to  go  a  long  journey,  accomplish  a 
march  of  more  than  1000  stadia  to  Pylus  near  Coryphasium  ? 
Yet  all  the  Epeii  arrive  at  Thryoessa  and  the  river  Alpheius 
on  the  third  day,  ready  to  lay  siege  to  the  strong-hold.  How 
also  did  these  districts  belong  to  the  chiefs  of  Messenia,  when 
the  Caucones,  and  Triphylii,  and  Pisatse  occupied  them  ? 
But  the  territory  Gerena,  or  Gerenia,  for  it  is  written  both 
ways,  might  have  a  name  which  some  persons  applied  de- 
signedly, or  which  might  have  originated  even  in  accident. 

Since,  however,  Messenia  was  entirely  under  the  dominion 

of  Menelaus,  to  whom  Laconia  also  was  subject,  as  will  be 

evident  from  what  will  be  said  hereafter,  and  since  the  rivers, 

the  Pamisus  and  the  Nedon,  flow  through  this  country,  and 

not  the  Alpheius  at  all,  which  runs  in  a  straight  line  through 

the  country  of  the  Pylians,  of  which  Nestor  was  ruler,  can 

that  account  be  credible,  by  which  it  appears  that  one  man 

r   takes  possession  by  force  of  the  dominion  of  another,  and 

n  \  deprives  him  of  the  cities,  which  are  said  to  be  his  property 

^\^\   ^  in  the  Catalogue  of  the  Ships,  and  makes  others  subject  to 

the  usurper. 

30.  It  remains  that  we  speak  of  Olympia,  and  of  the 
manner  in  which  everything  fell  into  the  power  of  the  Eleii. 

The  temple  is  in  the  district  Pisatis,  at  the  distance  of  less 
than  300  stadia  from  Elis.  In  front  of  it  is  a  grove  of  wild 
olive  trees,  where  is  the  stadium.  The  Alpheius  flows  beside 
it,  taking  its  course  out  of  Arcadia  to  the  Triphylian  Sea 
between  the  west  and  the  south.  The  fame  of  the  temple 
was  originally  owing  to  the  oracle  of  the  Olympian  Jove ; 
yet  after  that  had  ceased,  the  renown  of  the  temple  con- 
tinued, and  increased,  as  we  know,  to  a  high  degree  of  cele- 
brity, both  on  account  of  the  assembly  of  the  people  of  Greece, 


B.  VIII.  c.  III.  §  30.  ELIS.  29 

which  was  held  there,  and  of  the  Olympic  games,  in  which 
the  victor  was  crowned.  These  games  were  esteemed  sacred, 
and  ranked  above  all  others.  The  temple  was  decorated 
with  abundance  of  offerings,  the  contributions  of  all  Greece.- 
Among  these  offerings  was  a  Jupiter  of  beaten  gold,  presented 
by  Cypselus,  the  tyrant  of  Corinth.  The  largest  was  a 
statue  of  Jupiter  in  ivory,  the  worlkmanship  of  Phidias  of 
Athens,  the  son  of  CJiarmides.  Its  height  was  so  great,  that 
although  the  temple  is  very  large,  the  artist  seems  to  have 
mistaken  its  proportions,  and  although  he  made  the  figure 
sitting,  yet  the  head  nearly  touches  the  roof,  and  presents  the 
appearance  that,  if  it  should  rise,  and  stand  upright,  it  would 
unroof  the  temple.  Some  writers  have  given  the  measure- 
ment of  the  statue,  and  Callimachus  has  expressed  it  in  some 
iambic  verses.  Panasnus,  the  painter,  his  nephew,  and  joint 
labourer,  afforded  great  assistance  in  the  completion  of  the 
statue  with  respect  to  the  colours  with  which  it  was  orna- 
mented, and  particularly  the  drapery. 

There  are  exhibited  also  many  and  admirable  pictures 
around  the  temple,  the  work  of  this  painter.  It  is  recorded 
of  Phidias,  that  to  Panaenus,  who  was  inquiring  after  what 
model  he  intended  to  form  the  figure  of  Jupiter,  he  replied, 
that  it  would  be  from  that  of  Homer  delineated  in  these  words ; 

"  He  spoke,  and  gave  the  nod  with  his  sable  brows,  the  ambrosial  hair 
shook  on  the  immortal  head  of  the  king  of  gods,  and  vast  Olympus 
trembled."  * 

[This  is  well  expressed,  and  the  poet,  as  from  other  circum- 
stances, so  particularly  from  the  brows,  suggests  the  thought 
that  he  is  depicting  some  grand  conception,  and  great  power 
worthy  of  Jupiter.  So  also  in  his  description  of  Juno,  in 
both  he  preserves  the  peculiar  decorum  of  each  character,  for 
he  says, 

"  she  moved  herself  upon  the  throne,  and  shook  vast  Olympus  : "  ^ 
this  was  effected  by  the  motion  of  her  whole  body,  but 
Olympus  shakes  when  Jupiter  only  nods  with  his  brows,  the 
hair  of  his  head  partaking  of  the  motion.  It  was  elegantly 
said  [of  Homer]  that  he  was  the  only  person  who  had 
seen  and  had  made  visible  the  figures  of  the  gods.]  ^ 

1  II.  i.  528.  '  II.  viii.  199. 

^  Probably  an  interpolation. 

30  yiRABO.  Casaub.  354. 

To  the  Eleii  above  all  other  people  is  to  be  ascribed  the 
magnificence  of  the  temple  at  Oljmpia,  and  the  reverence  in 
which  it  was  held.  For  about  the  Trojan  times,  and  even 
before  that  period,  they  were  not  in  a  flourishing  state,  having 
been  reduced  to  a  low  condition  by  war  with  the  Pylii,  and 
afterwards  by  Hercules,  when  Augeas  their  king  was  over- 
thrown. The  proof  is  this.  The  Eleii  sent  forty  ships  to 
Troy,  but  the  Pylians  and  Nestor  ninety;  then  after  the 
return  of  the  Heracleidae  the  contrary  happened.  For  the 
jEtoli  returning  with  the  Heracleida3  under  the  command  of 
Oxylus,  became  joint  settlers  with  the  Epeii,  on  the  ground  of 
ancient  affinity.  They  extended  the  bounds  of  Hollow  Elis, 
got  possession  of  a  large  portion  of  the  Pisatis,  and  subjected 
Olympia  to  their  power.  It  was  these  people  who  invented 
the  Olympic  games,^  and  instituted  the  first  Olympiad.  For 
we  must  reject  the  ancient  stories  both  respecting  the  founda- 
tion of  the  temple,  and  the  establishment  of  the  games,  some 
alleging  that  Hercules,  one  of  the  Idsean  Dactyli,  was  the 
founder  ;  others,  that  the  son  of  Alcmene  and  Jupiter  founded 
them,  who  also  was  the  first  combatant  and  victor.  For  such 
y  jf  .  ^ ,  things  are  variously  reported,  and  not  entitled  to  much  credit. 


"^     Jt  is  more  probable,  that  from  the  first   Olympiad,^  'vchaft 

)(i>i'^''^         Coroebus  the  Eleian  was  the  victor  in  the  race  in  the  stadium; 

^^^~the  twenty-sixth,  the  Eleians  presided  over  the  temple,  and 
'  atjthe_games.  But  in  the  Trojan  times,  either  there  were  no' 
games  where^  crown  was  awarded,  or  they  had  not  yet  ac- 
quired any  fame,  neither  these  nor  any  of  the  games  which 
are  now  so  renowned.  Homer  does  not  speak  of  these  games, 
but  of  others  of  a  different  kind,  which  were  celebrated  at 
funerals.  Some  persons  however  are  of  opinion  that  he  does 
mention  the  Olympic  games,  when  he  says,  that  Augeas  de- 
tained four  victorious  horses,  which  had  been  sent  to  contend 
for  the  prize.  It  is  also  said  that  the  Pisatas  did  not  take  any 
part  in  the  Trojan  war,  being  considered  as  consecrated  to  the 
service  of  Jupiter.  But  neither  was  the  Pisatis,  the  tract  of 
country  in  which  Olympia  is  situated,  subject  at  that  time  to 
Augeas,  but  Eleia  only,  nor  were  the  Olympic  games  cele- 

^  The  establishment  of  the  Olympic  games  is  connected  with-uiafty 
legends,  and  is  involved  in  much  obscurity.  See  Smith,  Greek  and  Ro- 
man Antiq. ' - — 

2  776  B.  c. 

B.  Tin.  c.  in.  §  31.  ELIS.  31 

brated  even  once  in  the  Elelan  district,  but  always  at  Olympia. 
But  the  games,  of  which  Homer  speaks,  seem  to  have  taken 
place  in  Elis,  where  the  debt  was  owing, 

"  For  a  great  debt  was  owing  in  the  divine  Elis, 
Namely,  four  victorious  horses.'" 
But  it  was  not  in  these,  but  in  the  Olympic  games,  that  the 
victor  was  crowned,  for  here  they  were  to  contend  for  a  tripod. 

After  the  twenty-sixth  Olympiad,  the  Pisatas,  having  re- 
covered their  territory,  instituted  games  themselves,  when 
they  perceived  that  these  games  were  obtaining  celebrity.  But 
in  after-times,  when  the  territory  of  the  Pisatis  reverted  to  the 
Eleii,  the  presidency  and  celebration  of  the  games  reverted 
to  them  also.  The  Lacedaemonians  too,  after  the  last  defeat  of 
the  Messenians,  co-operated  with  the  Eleii  as  allies,  contrary 
to  the  conduct  of  the  descendants  of  Nestor  and  of  the  Arca- 
dians, who  were  allies  of  the  Messenians.  And  they  assisted 
them  so  effectually  that  all  the  country  as  far  as  Messene  was 
called  Eleia,  and  the  name  continues  even  to  the  present  time. 
But  of  the  Pisatas,  and  Triphylii,  and  Caucones,  not  even  the 
names  remain.  They  united  also  Pylus  Emathoeis  itself  with 
Lepreum  in  order  to  gratify  the  Lepreatse,  who  had  taken  no 
part  in  the  war.  They  razed  many  other  towns,  and  imposed 
a  tribute  upon  as  many  as  were  inclined  to  maintain  their  in- 

31.  The  Pisatis  obtained  the  highest  celebrity  from  the 
great  power  of  its  sovereigns,  OEnomaus  and  his  successor 
Pelops,  and  the  number  of  their  children.  Salmoneus  is  said 
to  have  reigned  there,  and  one  of  the  eight  cities,  into  which 
the  Pisatis  is  divided,  has  the  name  of  Salmone.  For  these 
reasons,  and  on  account  of  the  temple  at  Olympia,  the  fame 
of  the  country  spread  everywhere. 

We  must  however  receive  ancient  histories,  as  not  entirely 
agreeing  with  one  another,  for  modern  writers,  entertaining 
different  opinions,  are  accustomed  to  contradict  them  fre- 
quently ;  as  for  example,  according  to  some  writers,  Augeas 
was  king  of  the  Pisatis,  and  OEnomaus  and  Salmoneus  kings 
of  Eleia,  while  others  consider  the  two  nations  as  one.  Still 
we  ought  to  follow  in  general  what  is  received  as  true,  since 
writers  are  not  agreed  even  upon  the  derivation  of  the  word 
Pisatis.  Some  derive  it  from  Pisa,  (JiHaa,)  a  city  of  the  same 
»  II.  xi.  677. 

\  ■       - 

32  STRABO.  Casaub.  366. 

name  as  the  fountain,  and  say  that  the  fountain  had  that  name, 
as  much  as  to  say  Pistra,  (IHarpa,)  which  means  Potistra, 
{TTOTicTTpa,)  or  "  potable."  The  city  of  Pisa  is  shown,  situated 
on  an  eminence  between  two  mountains,  which  have  the  same 
names  as  those  in  Thessaly,  Ossa  and  Olympus.  Some  say, 
that  there  was  no  such  city  as  Pisa,  for  it  would  have  been 
one  of  the  eight,  but  a  fountain  only,  which  is  now  called 
Bisa,  near  Cicysium,  the  largest  of  the  eight  cities.  But 
Stesichorus  calls  the  tract  of  country  named  Pisa,  a  city,  as 
the  poet  calls  Lesbos,  a  city  of  Macar ;  and  Euripides  in  the 
play  of  Ion  says 

"  Euboea  is  a  neighbour  city  to  Athens," 
and  so  in  the  play  of  Rhadamanthus, 

"  they  who  occupy  the  land  of  EubcEa,  an  adjoining  state ; " 
thus  Sophocles  also  in  the  play  of  the  Mysi, 

"  0  stranger,  all  this  country  is  called  Asia, 
But  the  state  of  the  Mysi  is  called  Mysia." 

32.  Salmone  is  near  the  fountain  of  the  same  name,  the 
source  of  the  Enipeus.  It  discharges  itself  into  the  Alpheius, 
[and  at  present  it  is  called  Barnichius.^]  Tyro,  it  is  said, 
was  enamoured  of  this  river ; 

"  who  was  enamoured  of  the  river,  the  divine  Enipeus."  ^ 
for  there  her  father  Salmoneus  was  king,  as  Euripides  says  in 
the  play  of  ^olus.  [The  river  in  Thessaly  some  call  Eniseus, 
which,  flowing  from  the  Othrys,  receives  the  Apidanus,  that 
descends  from  the  mountain  Pharsalus.^]  Near  Salmone  is 
Heracleia,  which  is  one  of  the  eight  cities,  distant  about  40 
stadia  from  Olympia  on  the  river  Cytherius,  where  there  is 
a  temple  of  the  nymphs,  the  loniades,  who  are  believed  to 
heal  diseases  by  means  of  the  waters  of  the  river. 

Near  Olympia  is  Arplna,  which  also  is  one  of  the  eight 
cities.  The  river  Parthenius  runs  through  it  in  the  direction 
of  the  road  to  Phersea.  Pher^ea  belongs  to  Arcadia.  [It  is 
situated  above  Dymasa,  Buprasium,  and  Elis,  which  lie  to  the 
north  of  the  Pisatis.'*]  There  also  is  Cicysium,  one  of  the 
eight  cities ;  and  Dysppntium,  on  the  road  from  Elis^to" 
Olympia,  situated  ina  plain.     But  it  was  razed,  and  the 

•  An  interpolation.     K.  ^  Od.  ii.  238. 

^  An  interpolation.     Meineke.         ♦  An  interpolation.     Groskurd. 

B.  VIII.  C.  III. 

33.  ELIS.  38 

greatest  part  of  the  inhabitants  removed  to  Epidamnus  and 

Above  and  so  very  near  Oljmpia,  is  Pholoe,  an  Arcadian 
mountain,  that  the  country  at  its  foot  belongs  to  the  Pisatis. 
Indeed  the  whole  of  the  Pisatis  and*  a  great  part  of  Triphylia 
border  upon  Arcadia.  For  this  reason,  most  of  the  places,  which 
have  the  name  of  Pylian  in  the  Catalogue  of  the  Ships,  seem  to 
be  Arcadian.  Persons,  however,  who  are  well  informed,  say, 
that  the  river  Erymanthus,  one  of  those  that  empty  them- 
selves into  the  Alpheius,  is  the  boundary  of  Arcadia,  and  that 
the  places  called  Pylian  are  beyond  the  Erymanthus. 

33.  According  to  Ephorus,  "^tolus,  being  banished  by 

Salmoneus,  king  of  the  Epeii,  and  the  Pisatae^  from  Eleia  to 
jEtolia,  called  the  country  after  his  own  name,  and  settled 
the  cities  there.  His  descendant  Oxylus  was  the  friend  of 
Temenus,  and  the  Heracleidae  his  companions,  and  was  their 
guide  on  their  journey  to  Peloponnesus  ;  he  divided  among 
them  the  hostile  territory,  and  suggested  instructions  relative 
to  the  acquisition  of  the  country.  In  return  for  these  services 
he  was  to  be  requited  by  the  restoration  of  Elis,  which  had  be-  ', 
longed  to  his  ancestors.  He  returned  with  an  army  collected  1 
out  of  -^tolia,  for  the  purpose  of  attacking  the  Epeii,  who 
occupied  Elis.  On  the  approach  of  the  Epeii  in  arms,  when  the 
forces  were  drawn  up  in  array  against  each  other,  there  ad- 
vanced in  front,  and  engaged  in  single  combat  according  to  an 
ancient  custom  of  the  Greeks,  Pyraechmes,  an  ^tolian,  and 
Degmenus,  an  Epeian  :  the  latter  was  lightly  armed  with  a 
bow,  and  thought  to  vanquish  easily  from  a  distance  a  heavy- 
armed  soldier ;  the  former,  when  he  perceif ed  the  stratagem 
of  his  adversary,  provided  himself  with  a  sling,  and  a  scrip 
filled  with  stones.  The  kind  of  sling  also  happened  to  have 
been  lately  invented  by  the  ^'Etolians.  As  a  sling  reaches  its 
object  at  a  greater  distance  than  a  bow,  Degmenus  fell ;  the 
.-^tolians  took  possession  of  the  country,  and  ejected  the  Epi 
They  assumed  also  the  superintendence  of  the  temple  at 
Olympia,  which  the  Epeii  exercised ;  and  on  account  of  the 
friendship  which  subsisted  between  Oxylus  and  the  Heracleidge, 
it  was  generally  agreed  upon,  and  confirmed  by  an  oath,  that 
the  Eleian  territory  was  sacred  to  Jupiterj^iid  that  any  one 
who  invaded  that  country  with  an  army,  was  a  sacrilci^icnis 
person :  he  also  was  to  be  accounted  sacrilegious,  who  did  not 

VOL.  II.  D 

'•^     ;,H 

,,J;^,/      l,..>'^ 

34  ty     ^>.5-''  STRABO.  0  "^V  Casaub.  358. 

/defend  it  against  the  invader  to  the  utmost  of  his  power.  It 
was  for  this  reason,  that  the  later  founders  of  the  city  left  it 
without  walls,  and  those  who  are  passing  through  the  country 
with  an  army,  deliver  up  their  arms  and  receive  them  again 
upon  quitting  the  bord,ers.  Iphitus_  instituted  there  lEe]^! 
Olympic  games,  because  the  Eleians  were  a  sacred  people. 
Hence  it  was  that  they  increased  in  numbers,  for  while  other 
nations  were  continually  engaged  in  war  with  each  other,  they 
alone  enjoyed  profound  peace,  and  not  themselves  onlyTFut" 

Isirangers  also,  so  that  on  this  accotwit  they  were  a  more 
populous  state  than  all  the  others. 

^^        ' Theidofrthe  Argive  was  the  tenth  in  descent  from  Temenus, 

and'SiBi&aostyowerftil •  pi  ince  of  hiS-Sge^  he  was  the  inventor  of 
the  weights    and  measures  called  Pheidonian,  and  stamped 
money,  silver  in  particular.     He  recovered  the  whole  inherit- 
ance of  Temenus,  which  had  been  severed  into  many  portions. 
Jle  attacked  also  the  cities  which  Hercules  had  formerly  taken, 
an  J"  claimed  the  privilege  of  celebrating  the  games  which 
Hercules  had  established,  and  among  these  the    Olympian — ' 
games.     He  entered  their  country  by  force  and  celebrated  the  ___ 
games,  for  the  Eleians  had  no  army  to  prevent  it,  as  they  were 
in  a  state  of  peace,  and  the  rest  were  oppressed  by  his  power.   ^ 
The  Eleians  however  did  not  solemnly  inscribe  in  their  records 

"this  celebration  of  the  games,  but  on  this  occasion  procured  ^ 
arms,  and  began  to  defend  themselves.  The  Lacedaemonians 
also  afforded  assistance,  either  because  they  were  jealous  of  the 
prosperity,  which  was  the  effect  of  the  peaceful  state  of  the 
Eleians,  or  because  they  supposed  that  they  should  have  the 
aid  of  the  Eleian*  in  destroying  the  power  of  Pheidon,  who 
had  deprived  them  of  the  sovereignty  {rjyefioviav)  of  Pelo- 
ponnesus, which  they  before  possessed.  They  succeeded  in 
their  joint  attempt  to  overthrow  Pheidon,  and  the  Eleians 
with  this  assistance  obtained  possession  of  Pisatis  and  Tri- 

The  whole  of  the  coasting  voyage  along  the  present  Eleian 
territory  comprises,  with  the  exception  of  the  bays,  1200 

So  much  then  respecting  the  Eleian  territory. 

B.  VIII.  c.  IV.  6  1.  MESSENIA.  35 


1.^  Messenia  is  continuous  with  the  Eleian  territory^  iaclin- 
ing  for  the  most  part  towards  the  south,  and  the  Libyan  Sea?"    > 
Being  part  of  Laconia,  it  was  subject  in  the  Trojan  times  to 
Menelaus.     The  name  of  the  country  was  Messene.     But  the 

present  city  called  Messene,  the  acropolis  of  which  was  Ithome, . 

was  not  then  founded.  After  the  death  of  Menelaus,  when 
the  power  of  those  who  succeeded  to  the  possession  of  Laco- 
nia was  altogether  weakened,  the  Neleidoe  governed  Messenia. 
At  the  time  of  the  return  of  the  Heracleidae,  and  according 
to  the  partition  of  the  country  at  that  time,  Melanthus  was 
king  of  the  Messenians,  who  were  a  separate  community,  but 
formerly  .subject  to  Menelaus.  As  a  proof  of  this,  in  the 
space  from  the  Messenian  Gulf  and  the  continuous  gulf,  (called 
the  Asinaean  from  the  Messenian  Asine,)  were  situated  the 
seven  cities  which  Agamemnon  promised  to  Achilles ; 
"  Cardamyle,  Enope,  the  grassy  Hira,  the  divine  Pherae,*  Antheia  with 
rich  meadows,  the  beautiful  .^peia,  and  Pedasus  abounding  with  vines."* 

He  certainly  would  not  have  promised  what  did  not  belong 
either  to  himself  or  to  his  brother.  The  poet  mentions  those, 
who  accompanied  Menelaus  from  Pherae  to  the  war,^  and  speaks 
of  ((Etylus)  in  the  Laconian  catalogue,  a  city  situated  on  the 
Gulf  of  Messenia. - 

Messene  follows  next  to  Triphylia.  The  promontory,  after 
which  are  the  Coryphasium  and  Cyparissia,  is  common  to 
both.  At  the  distance  of  7  stadia  is  a  mountain,  the  ^ga- 
leum,  situated  above  Coryphasium  and  the  sea. 

2.  The  ancient  Messenian  Pylus  was  a  city  lying  below  v^  yr-,  f.( 
the  ^gaieum,  and  after  it  was  razed,  some  of  the  inha-  ^J, 
bitants  settled  under  the  Coryphasium.  But  the  Athenia5i~75( 
in  their  second  expedition  against  Sicily,  under  the  command  vV 
of  Eurymedon  and  Stratocles,  got  possession  of  it,  and  usedr-  |  '/ 
it  as  a  stronghold  against  the  Lacedaamonians.'*  Here  alSS 
is  the  Messenian  Cyparissia,  (and  the  island  Prote,)  lying  close 

'  The  text  of  Homer  gives  the  name  of  Pharis.  ^  i\  jx.  150. 

3  II.  ii.  582. 

*  Thucydides,  b.  iv.  ch.  2.  The  expedition  was  under  the  command 
of  Eurymedon  and  Sophocles.  Stratocles  being  at  the  time  archon  at 

D  2 

I /v. 


5      ^V    36  STRABO.  Casaub.  359. 

/  :\^       to  Pyliis,  the  island  Spbagia,  called  also  Sphacteria.     If.  was 

s^  J  here   that  the  Lacedogmonians  lost  three  hundred  men,'  who 

were  besieged  by  the  Athenians  and  taken  prisoners. 

Two  islands,  called  Strophades,^  belonging  to  the  Cy- 
parissii,  lie  off  at  sea  in  front  of  this  coast,  at  the  distance  of 
about  400  stadia  from  the  continent,  in  the  Libyan  and  south- 
ern sea.  According  to  Thucydides  this  Pylus  was  the  naval 
station  of  the  Messenians.  It  is  distant  from  Sparta  400  stadia. 

3.  Next  is  Methone.^  This  city,  called  by  the  poet  Peda- 
sus,  was  one  of  the  seven,  it  is  said,  which  Agamemnon  pro- 
mised to  Achilles.  There  Agrippa  killed,  in  the  Actian  war. 
Bogus,  the  king  of  the  Maurusii,  a  partisan  of  Antony's, 
having  got  possession  of  the  place  by  an  attack  by  sea. 

4.  Continuous  with  Methone  is  Acritas,^  where  the  Messe- 
nian  Gulf  begins,  which  they  call  also  Asinaeus  from  Asine,  a 
small  city,  the  first  we  meet  with  on  the  gulf,  and  having  the 
same  name  as  the  Hermionic  Asine. 

This  is  the  commencement  of  the  gulf  towards  the  west. 
Towards  the  east  are  the  Thyrides,^  as  they  are  called,  bor- 
dering upon  the  present  Laconia  near  Caenepolis,^  and  Tae- 

In  the  intervening  distance,  if  we  begin  from  the  Thyrides, 
we  meet  with  QEtylus,"^  by  some  called  Beitylus ;  then  Leuc- 
trum,  a  colony  of  the  Leuctri  in  Boeotia ;  next,  situated  upon 
a  steep  rock,  Cardamyle;^  then  Pheras,  bordering  upon  Thu- 
ria,  and  Gerenia,  from  which  place  they  say  Nestor  had  the 
epithet  Gerenian,  because  he  escaped  thither,  as  we  have 
mentioned  before.  They  show  in  the  Gerenian  territory  a 
temple  of  -^sculapius  Triccaeus,  copied  from  that  at  the  Thes- 
salian  Tricca.  Pelops  is  said  to  have  founded  Leuctrum,  and 
Charadra,  and  Thalami,  now  called  the  Boeotian  Thalami, 
having  brought  with  him,  when  he  married  his  sister  NiobcJ 
to  Amphion,  some  colonists  from  Boeotia. 

'  Thucydides,  b.  iv.  ch.  38.     The  number  was  292.  '  Strivali. 

2  According  to  Pausanias,  Mothone,  or  Methone,  was  the  Pedasus  of 
Homer.     It  is  the  modern  Modon, 

*  Cape  Gallo.     The  Gulf  of  Messenia  is  now  the  Gulf  of  Coron. 

*  The  name  Thyrides,  the  little  gates,  is  probably  derived  from  the 
fable  which  placed  the  entrance  of  the  infernal  regions  at  Tsenarum,  Cape 

'  For  Cinsethitim  I  read  Casnepolis,  as  suggested  by  Falconer,  and  ap- 
proved by  Coray.  ^  Vitulo.  •  Scardamula. 

B.  viii.  c.  IV.  §  5, 6.  MESSENIA.  37 

The  Nedon,  a  different  river  from  the  Neda,  flows  through 
Laconia,  and  discharges  its  waters  near  Pherae.  It  has  upon 
its  banks  a  remarkable  temple  of  the  Nedusian  Minerva.  At 
Poeaessa  also  there  is  a  temple  of  the  Nedusian  Minerva, 
which  derives  its  name  from  a  place  called  Nedon,^  whence, 
they  say,  Teleclus  colonized  Poeaessa,^  and  Echeiae,  and 

5.  With  respect  to  the  seven  cities  promised  to  Achilles,  we 

have  already  spoken  of  Cardamyle,  and  Pherae,  and  Pedasus.  ' 

Enope,  some  say  is  Pellana ;  others,  some  place  near  Carda-  'f^^\04^% 
myle  ;  others,  Gerenia.^  Hira  is  pointed  out  near  a  mountain  . '  t  !* 
in  the  neighbourhood  of  Megalopolis Mn.Ajcadia,  on  the  road 
to  Andania,  which  we  have  said  is  called  by  the  poet  CEcha- 
lia.  Others  say  that  the  present  Mesola  was  called  Hira, 
which  extends  to  the  bay  situated  between  Taygetum  and 
Messenia.  ^peia  is  now  called  Thuria,  which  we  said  bor- 
dered upon  Pherce.  It  is  situated  upon  a  lofty  hill,  whence 
its  name.^  The  Thuriatic  Gulf  has  its  name  from  Thuria ; 
upon  the  gulf  is  a  single  city,  named  Rhium,  opposite  Tsena- 
rum.  Some  say  that  Antheia  is  Thuria,  and  ^peia  Methone ; 
others,  that  Antheia  is  Asine,  situated  between  Methone  and 
Thuria,  to  which,  of  all  the  Messenian  cities,  the  description, 
"  with  its  rich  pastures,"  is  most  appropriate.  Near  it  on  the  sea 
is  Corone.  There  are  some  writers  who  say  that  this  town  is 
called  Pedasus  by  the  poet.  These  cities  are  "  all  near  the 
sea;"  Cardamyle  close  to  it;  Pherae  at  the  distance  of  5 
stadia,  having  an  anchorage,  which  is  used  in  the  summer. 
The  rest  are  situated  at  unequal  distances  from  the  sea. 

6.  Near  Corone,  about  the  middle  of  the  gulf,  the  river 
Pamisus^  discharges  itself,  having,  on  the  right  hand,  this 
city,  and  the  rest  in  succession,  the  last  of  which,  towards  the 
west,  are  Pylus  and  Cyparissia,  and  between  these  is  Erana, 
which  some  writers  erroneously  suppose  to  be  the  ancient 

'  As  Strabo  remarks,  in  b.  x.,  that  the  temple  was  built  by  Nestor  on 
his  return  from  Troy,  Falconer  suggests  that  it  might  have  derived  its 
name  from  the  river  Nedon,  near  Gerenia,  the  birth-place  of  Nestor. 

'^  In  the  island  of  Cos. 

3  According  to  Pausanias,  Gerenia  is  the  Enope  of  Homer. 

*  Hira  in  the  time  of  Pausanias  was  called  Abia  (Pala^ochora  ?).  Some 
interpreters  of  Homer  were  misled  by  the  name  of  a  mountain,  Ira,  near 
Megalopolis,  and  placed  there  a  city  of  the  same  name,  but  Hira  was  on 
the  sea-coast.  *  ^pys,  aiTrvQ,  lofty.  ^  The  Pirnatza. 

38  .  STRABO.  Casaub.  361. 

Arene ;  on  the  left  hand  it  has  Thyria  and  Pherae.  It  is  the 
largest  (in  width)  of  the  rivers  within  the  isthmus,  although 
its  course  from  its  springs  does  not  exceed  100  stadia  in 
length ;  it  has  an  abundant  supply  of  water,  and  traverses  the 
Messenian  plain,  and  the  district  called  Macaria.^  It  is  dis- 
tant from  the  present  city  of  the  Messenians  50  stadia.^  There 
is  also  another  Pamisus,  a  small  torrent  stream,  running  near 
Leuctrum  of  Laconia,  which  was  a  subject  of  dispute  between 
the  Messenians  and  Lacedaemonians  in  the  time  of  Philip. 

I  have  before  said  that  some  persons  called  the  Pamisus, 

7.  Ephorus  relates  that  Cresphontes,  after  he  had  taken  Mes- 
sene,  divided  it  into  five  cities,  and  chose  Stenyclarus,  situated 
in  the  middle  of  this  district,  to  be  the  royal  seat  of  his  king- 
dom. To  the  other  cities,  Pylus,  Rhium,  (Mesola,)  and 
Hyameitis,  he  appointed  kings,  and  put  all  the  Messenians  on 
an  equal  footing  with  the  Dorians  as  to  rights  and  privileges. 
The  Dorians,  however,  taking  offence,  he  changed  his  inten- 
tion, and  determined  that  Stenyclarus  alone  should  have  the 
rank  of  a  city,  and  here  he  assembled  all  the  Dorians. 

8.  The  city  of  the  Messenians'*  resembles  Corinth,  for  above 
each  city  is  a  lofty  and  precipitous  mountain,  enclosed  by  a 
common  wall  in  such  a  manner  as  to  be  used  as  an  acropolis ; 
the  Messenian  mountain  is  Ithome,^  that  near  Corinth  is 
Acrocorinthus.  Demetrius  of  Pharos  seemed  to  have  coun- 
selled Philip  the  son  of  Demetrius  well,  when  he  advised  him 
to  make  himself  master  of  both  cities,  if  he  desired  to  get 
possession  of  Peloponnesus  ;  "  for,"  said  he,  "  when  you  have 
seized  both  horns,  the  cow  will  be  your  own ;"  meaning,  by 
the  horns,  Ithome  and  Acrocorinthus,  and,  by  the  cow,  Pelo- 
ponnesus. It  was  no  doubt  their  convenient  situation  which 
made  these  cities  subjects  of  contention.  The  Romans  there- 
fore razed  Corinth,  and  again  rebuilt  it.    The  Lacedaemonians 

*  So  called  from  its  fertility. 

"^  In  the  text  250,  (tv,  an  error  probably  arising  from  the  repetition  of 
t]ie  preceding  final  letter. 

3  The  Pamisus  above  mentioned  was  never  called  the  Amathus.  There 
were  three  rivers  of  this  name,  one  near  the  Triphyliac  Pylus,  which  was 
also  called  Amathus ;  a  second  at  Leuctrum  of  Laconia  ;  and  a  third  near 

*  The  ruins  of  Messene  are  now  near  the  place  called  Mauromathia. 
'  Mount  Vulkano. 

B.  VIII.  c.  IV.  §  9, 10.  MESSENIA.  39 

destroyed  Messene,  and  the  Thebans,  and  subsequently  Philip, 
the  son  of  Amyntas,  restored  it.  The  citadels  however  con- 
tinued unoccupied. 

9.  The  temple  of  Diana  in  Limnas  (in  the  Marshes),  where 
the  Messenians  are  supposed  to  have  violated  the  virgins  who 
came  there  to  oflfer  sacrifice,  is  on  the  confines  of  Laconia  and 
Messenia,  where  the  inhabitants  of  both  countries  usually  ce- 
lebrated a  common  festival,  and  performed  sacrifices  ;  but  after 
the  violation  of  the  virgins,  the  Messenians  did  not  make  any 
reparation,  and  war,  it  is  said,  ensued.  The  Limnaean  temple  of 
Diana  at  Sparta  is  said  to  have  its  name  from  the  Limnse  here.  f^^<^p- 

10.  There  were  frequent  wars  (between  the  Lacedaemonians  {\  M 
and  Messenians)  on  account  of  the  revolts  of  the  Messenians.  r-^^-'^ 
Tyrtseus  mentions,  in  his  poems,  that  their  first  subjugation 

was  in  the  time  of  their  grandfathers ;  ^  the  second,  when  in 
conjunction  with  their  allies  the  Eleians  [Arcadians],  Ar- 
gives,  and  Pisatas,  they  revolted  ;  the  leader  of  the  Arcadians 
was  Aristocrates,  king  of  Orchomenus,  and  of  the  Pisatae, 
Pantaleon,  son  of  Omphalion.  In  this  war,  Tyrtaeus  says,  he 
himself  commanded  the  Lacedeemonian  army,  for  in  his  elegiac 
poem,  entitled  Eunomia,  he  says  he  came  from  Erineum ; 
"  for  Jupiter  himself,  the  son  of  Saturn,  and  husband  of  Juno  with  the 
beautiful  crown,  gave  this  city  to  the  Heracleidae,  with  whom  we  left  the 
windy  Erineum,  and  arrived  at  the  spacious  island  of  Pelops." 

Wherefore  we  must  either  invalidate  the  authority  of  the 
elegiac  verses,  or  we  must  disbelieve  Philochorus,  and  Callis- 
thenes,  and  many  other  writers,  who  say  that  he  came  from 
Athens,  or  Aphidnae,  at  the  request  of  the  Lacedaemonians, 
whom  an  oracle  had  enjoined  to  receive  a  commander  from 
the  Athenians. 

The  second  war  then  occurred  in  the  time  of  Tyrtseus. 
But  they  mention  a  third,  and  even  a  fourth  war,  in  which  the 
Messenians  were  destroyed.^ 

^  The  first  war  dates  from  the  year  b.  c.  743,  and  continued  20  years. 
The  second,  beginnmg  from  682  b.  c,  lasted  14  years ; ,  the  third  con- 
cluded in  the  year  456  b.  c,  with  the  capture  of  Ithome,  which  was  the 
citadel  or  fort  of  Messene.     Diod.  Sic.  lib.  xv.  c.  66. 

^  The  Messenians,  driven  from  Ithome  at  Uie-£nd  .of  the  thirdwar,  - 
settled  at  Naupactus,  which  was  given  to  them  as  a  place  of  refuge  by  the  — 
Athenians,  after  the  expulsion  of  the  Locri-Ozolas.     It  is  probable  that   ._ 
Strabo  considers  as  a  fourth  war  that  which  took  place  in  the  94th  Olym- 
piad, when  the  Messenians  were  driven  from  Naupactus  by  the  Laceda)-  

monians  and  compelled  to  abandon  Greece  entirely. 


40  STRABO.  Casaijb.  362. 

The  whole  voyage  along  the  Messenian  coast  comprises 
about  800  stadia,  including  the  measurement  of  the  bays. 

11.  I  have  exceeded  the  limits  of  moderation  in  this  de- 
scription, by  attending  to  the  multitude  of  facts  which  are  re- 
lated of  a  country,  the  greatest  part  of  which  is  deserted. 
Even  Laconia  itself  is  deficient  in  population,  if  we  compare 
its  present  state  with  its  ancient  populousness.  For,  with  the 
exception  of  Sparta,  the  remaining  small  cities  are  about 
thirty ;  but,  anciently,  Laconia  had  the  name  of  Hecatompolis, 
and  that  for  this  reason  hecatombs  were  annually  sacrificed. 


1.  Next  after  the  Messenian  is  theJLaconian  Gulf,  sjtuated 
between  Taenarum  and  Maleoe,  declining  a  little  Ifom  the 
south  to  the  east.  Thyrides,  a  precipitous  rock,  beaten  by 
the  waves,  is  in  the  Messenian  Gulf,  and  distant  from  Tasna- 
rum  100  stadia.  Above  is  Taygetum,  a  lofty  and  perpendi- 
cular mountain,  at  a  short  distance  from  the  sea,  approaching 
on  the  northern  side  close  to  the  Arcadian  mountains,  so  as  to 
leave  between  them  a  valley,  where  Messenia  is  continuous 
with  Laconia. 

At  the  foot  of  Taygetum,  in  the  inland  parts,  lie  Sparta 
and  Amyclee,^  where  is  the  temple  of  Apollo,  and  Pharis.  The 
_site  of  Sparta  is  in  rather  a  hollow,  although  it_com£rises___ 
inountains  within  it ;  no  part  of  it,  however,  is  marshy, 
although,  anciently,  the  suburbs  were  so,  which  were  calleJ 
Limnae.  The  temple  of  Bacchus,  also  in  Limnse,  was  in  a  wet 
situation,  but  now  stands  on  a  dry  ground. 

In  the  bay  on  the  coast  is   Taenarum,  a  promontory  pro- 
jecting into  the  sea.2     Upoft  it,  in  a  grove,  is  the  temple  of  • 
Neptune,  and  near  the  temple  a  cave,  through  which,  accord- 
ing to  the  fable,  Cerberus  was  brought  up  by  Hercules  from 

^  Leake  supposes  Amyclae  to  have  been  situated  between  Iklavokhori 
and  Sparta,  on  the  hill  of  Agia  Kyriaki,  half  a  mile  from  the  Eurotas. 
At  this  place  he  discovered  on  an  imperfect  inscription  the  letters  AMY 
following  a  proper  name,  and  leaving  little  doubt  that  the  incomplete  word 
was  AMTKAAIOY.    See  Smith. 

*  Cape  Matapan. 

B.  VIII.  c.  V.  §  2,  3.  LACONIA.  41 

Hades.  Thence  to  the  promontory  Phycus  in  Cyrenaica,  is 
a  passage  across  towards  the  south  of  3000  stadia ;  and  to 
Pachynus,  towards  the  west,  the  promontory  of  Sicily,  4600, 
or,  according  to  some  writers,  4000  stadia  ;  to  Malese,  towards 
the  east,  including  the  measurement  of  the  bays,  670  stadia ; 
to  Onugnathus,^  a  low  peninsula  a  little  within  Maleae,  520 
stadia.  (In  front  of  Onugnathus,  at  the  distance  of  40  stadia, 
lies  Cythera,^  an  island  with  a  good  harbour,  and  a  city  of  the 
same  name,  which  was  the  private  property  of  Eurycles,  the 
commander  of  the  Lacedaemonians  in  our  time.  It  is  sur- 
rounded by  several  small  islands,  some  near  it,  others  lying 
somewhat  farther  off.)  To  Corycus,  a  promontory  of  Crete, 
the  nearest  passage  by  sea  is  250  stadia.^ 

2.  Next  to  Taenarum  on  the  voyage  to  Onugnathus  and  to 
Malese'*  is  Amathus,  (Psamathus,)  a  city;  then  follow  Asine, 
and  Gythium,^  the  naval  arsenal  of  Sparta,  situated  at  an  in- 
terval of  240  stadia.  Its  station  for  vessels,  they  say,  is  ex- 
cavated by  art.  Farther  on,  between  Gythium  and  Acrasa,  is 
the  mouth  of  the  Eurotas.^  To  this  place  the  voyage  along  the 
coast  is  about  240  stadia ;  then  succeeds  a  marshy  tract,  and 
a  village,  Helos,  which  formerly  was  a  city,  according  to  Ho- 

"  They  who  occupied  Amyclae,  and  Helos,  a  small  town  on  the  sea-coast." ' 
They  say  that  it  was  founded  by  Helius  the  son  of  Perseus. 
There  is  a  plain  also  call  Leuce  ;  then  Cyparissia,^  a  city 
upon  a  peninsula,  with  a  harbour ;  then  Onugnathus  with 
a  harbour ;  next  Boea,  a  city ;  then  Maleae.  From  these 
cities  to  Onugnathus  are  150  stadia.-  There  is  also,  Asopus,^ 
a  city  in  Laconia. 

3.  Among  the  places  enumerated  by  Homer  in  the  Cata- 
logue of  the  Ships,  Messa,  they  say,  is  no  longer  to  be  found  ; 
and  that  Messoa  is  not  a  part  of  Laconia,  but  a  part  of  Sparta 
itself,  as  was  the  Limnaeum  near  Thornax.     Some  understand 

'  The  Ass's  Jaw.  It  is  detached  from  the  continent,  and  is  now  the 
island  of  Servi.  ^  Cerigo.  ^  750  stadia.     Groskurd. 

*  By  others  written  in  the  singular  number,  Malea,  now  C.  St.  Angelo. 
^  The  site  of  Gythium  is  identified  as  between  Marathonisi  and  Trinissa. 
6  The  Iri,  or  Vasili  Potamo.  ^  II.  ii.  584. 

8  Rupina,  or  Castel  Rampano.  The  plain  of  Leuce  is  traversed  by  the 
river  Mario-revina. 

*  The  site  of  Asopus  appears,  according  to  the  ruins  indicated  in  the 
Austrian  map,  to  have  been  situated  a  little  to  the  north  of  Rupina. 

42  STRABO. 

Casaub.  364. 

Messe  to  be  a  contraction  of  Messene,  for  it  is  said  that  this 
was  a  part  of  Laconia.  [Thej  allege  as  examples  from  the 
poet,  the  words  "  cri,"  and  "  do,"  and  "  maps,"  ^  and  this  pas- 
sage also ; 

^'  The  horses  were  yoked  by  Automedon  and  Alcimus,"  ' 

instead  of  Alcimedon.  And  the  words  of  Hesiod,  who  uses 
/3p7  for  I3pidv  and  (ipiapov  ;  and  Sophocles  and  lo,  who  have  pq, 
for  pq.lLov  ;  and  Epicharmus,  Xi  for  X/av,  and  Supa/ca;  for  'Zvpa- 
Kovaai ;  Empedocles  also  has  o;//  for  o^tg  (jUt a  yiyvETai  aju0O7-£pwv 
otp  or  o-^lq)\  and  Antimachus,  ArifxrjrpoQ  tol  'EXvmvirjg  leprj  6\pf 
and  a\(pL  for  aX<piTov ;  Euphorion  has  ^\  for  rikoQ  ;  Philetes 
has  hfjujidtg  eIq  raXapovg  XevKov  ayovaiv  ept  for  'ipiov  ;  Aratus, 
eIq  avefiov  he  ret  Trr]ha  for  to.  TrrjdaXia ;  Simmias,  Dodo  for 

Of  the  rest  of  the  places  mentioned  by  the  poet,  some  are 
extinct ;  of  others  traces  remain,  and  of  others  the  names  are 
changed,  as  Augeiae  into  JEgassd  :  [the  city]  of  that  name  in 
Locris  exists  no  longer.  With  respect  to  Las,  the  Dioscuri 
are  said  to  have  taken  it  by  siege  formerly,  whence  they  had 
the  name  of  Lapersse,  (Destroyers  of  Las^and  Sophocles  says 
somewher^^-bjr- the  4wo  Lapersae,  by  Eurotas,  by  the  gods 
— ift-ArgCfs' and  Sparta."  '       '~      ^"    " 

4.  Ephorus  says  that  the  Heracleidae,  Eurysthenes  and 
Procles,  having  obtained  possession  of  Laconia,  divided  it  into 
six  parts,  and  founded  cities  throughout  the  country,  and  as- 
signed Amyclse  to  him  who  betrayed  to  them  Laconia,  and 
who  prevailed  upon  the  person  that  occupied  it  to  retire,  on 
certain  conditions,  with  the  Acheei,  into  Ionia.  Sparta  they  re- 
tained themselves  as  the  royal  seat  of  the  kingdom.  To  the 
other  cities  they  sent  kings,  permitting  them  to  receive  what- 
ever strangers  might  be  disposed  to  settle  there,  on  account  of 
the  scarcity  of  inhabitants.  Las  was  used  as  a  naval  station, 
because  it  had  a  convenient  harbour  ;  ^gys,  as  a  stronghold, 
from  whence  to  attack  surrounding  enemies  ;  Phersea,  as  a 
place  to  deposit  treasure,  because  it  afforded  security  from^  at- 
tempts from  without.  *  *  *  *  that  all  the  neighbouring 
people  submitted  to  the  Spartiatas,  but  were  to  enjoy  aiL^ 
equality  of  rights,  and  to  have  a  share  in  the  government  and 

'  KpT,  duj,  p-a.-^,  for  KQiBriy  Sa>p,a,  p,a\pidiov.  ^  II.  xix.  392. 

*  ProbabJy  an  interpolation.  *  The  text  here  is  very  corrupt. 

B.  VIII.  c.  V.  §  5.  LACONIA.  43 

in  the  offices  of  state.    They  were  called  Heilotae.    But  AgiSj 

the  son  of, Eurjsthenes,  deprived   them  of  the  equality  cf /f    I  i- 
righiv^d  ordered  them  to  pay  tribute  to  Sparta.     The  rest  n^'^ 
submitted;-  but  the  Heleii,  who  occupied  Helos^reyoltedL^andTIL^/^ 
"Were^made  prisoners  in  the  course  of  the  war  ;  they  were  a3^    -v-/7s 
judged  to  be  slaves,  with  the_£ondition^^that  the,  owner  should  !  C/10 
not  be  allowed  to  givp  thpm  tb^J^  ^^^^^^^^Ji  ^^^  s^^  them  be- 
yoad  the  boundaries  of  the  country.    This  was  called  the  war 
of  the  Heilotae.^     Tiie  system  of  Heilote-slavery,  which  con^:^~* 
tinned  from  that  time  to  the  establishment  of  the  dominion  of 
the  Romans,  was  almost  entirely  the  contrivance  of  Agis. 
They  were  a  kindjofjiublic^gtey^s^  the  Lacedaemo- 

nians  assigned  ISaHtations,  and  required  from  them  peculiar 

5.  With  respect  to  the  government  of  the  Lacones,  and  the 
changes  which  have  taken  place  among  them,  many  things, 
as  being  well  known,  may  be  passed  over,  but  some  it  may  be 
worth  while  to  relate.  It  is  said  that  the  Achaean  Phthiotag, 
who,  with  Pelops,  made  an  irruption  into  Peloponnesus,  settled 
in  Laconia,  and  were  so  much  distinguished  for  their  valour, 
that  Peloponnesus,  which  for  a  long  period  up  to  this  time 
had  the  name  of  Argos,  was  then  called  Achasan  Argos  ;  and 
not  Peloponnesus  alone  had  this  name,  but  Laconia  also  was 
thus  peculiarly  designated.  Some  even  understand  the  words 
of  the  poet, 

"  Where  was  Menelaus,  was  he  not  at  Achaean  Argos  ?  "  ^ 

as  implying,  was  he  not  in  Laconia  ?  But  about  the  time  of 
the  return  of  the  Heracleidae,  when  Philonomus  betrayed  the 
country  to  the  Dorians,  they  removed  from  Laconia  to  the 
country  of  the  lonians,  which  at  present  is  called  Achaia.  We 
shall  speak  of  them  in  our  description  of  Achaia. 

Those  who  were  in  possession  of  Laconia,  at  first  conducted 
themselves  with  moderation,  but  after  they  had  intrusted  to 
Lycurgus  the  formation  of  a  political  constitution,  they  ac- 
quired such  a  superiority  over  the  other^Greeks,  thatthey , 
alone  obtained  the  sovereignty  T)6tHnby  seaanTTStidTanSTcoai. 
tinned  to  be  the  chiefs~of  the'^reeks,  till  the  ThebaHsfaiid 
soon  afterwards  the  Macedonians,  deprived  tEeiai  of  this 
cendency.  '  "^ 

» l090  B.  c.  a  Od.  iii.  249,  251. 


44  STRABO.  Casaub.  365. 

They  did  not  however  entirely  submit  even  to  these,  but, 
preserving  their  independence,  were  continually  disputing  the 
sovereignty  both  with  the  other  Greeks  and  with  the  Mace- 
donian kings.  After  the  overthrow  of  the  latter  by  the 
Romans,  the  Lacones  living  under  a  bad  government  at  that 
time,  and  under  the  power  of  tyrants,  had  given  some  slight 
offence  to  the  generals  whom  the  Romans  sent  into  the  pro- 
vince. They  however  recovered  themselves,  and  were  held 
in  very  great  honour.  They  remained  free,  and  performed  no 
other  services  but  those  expected  from  allies.  Lately  how- 
ever Eurycles^  excited  some  disturbances  amongst  them,  having 
abused  excessively,  in  the  exercise  of  his  authority,  the  friend- 
ship of  Caesar.  The  government  soon  came  to  an  end  by  the 
death  of  Eurycles,  and  the  son  rejected  all  such  friendships. 
The  Eleuthero-Lacones  ^  however  did  obtain  some  regular 
form  of  government,  when  the  surrounding  people,  and  espe- 
cially the  Heilotae,  at  the  time  that  Sparta  was  governed  by 
tyrants,  were  the  first  to  attach  themselves  to  the  Romans. 

Hellanicus  says  that  Eurysthenes  and  Procles  regulated  the 
form  of  government,  but  Ephorus  reproaches  him  with  not 
mentioning  Lycurgus  at  all,  and  with  ascribing  the  acts  of  the 
latter  to  persons  who  had  no  concern  in  them ;  to  Lycurgus 
only  is  a  temple  erected,  and  sacrifices  are  annually  performed 
in  his  honour,  but  to  Eurysthenes  and  Procles,  although  they 
were  the  founders  of  Sparta,  yet  not  even  these  honours  were 
paid  to  them,  that  their  descendants  should  bear  the  respective 
appellations  of  Eurysthenidae  and  Procleidae.^  [The  descend- 
ants of  Agis,  however,  the  son  of  Eurysthenes,  were  called 
Agides,  and  the  descendants  of  Eurypon,  the  son  of  Procles, 
were  called  Eurypontiadse.  The  former  were  legitimate 
princes ;  the  others,  having  admitted  strangers  as  settlers, 
reigned  by  their  means ;  whence  they  were  not  regarded  as 
original  authors  of  the  settlement,  an  honour  usually  conferred 
upon  all  founders  of  cities.] 

*  His  character  is  discreditably  spoken  of  by  Josephus,  Antiq.  b.  xvi. 
c.  10,  and  Bell.  Jud.  b.  i.  c.  2G. 

^  The  cities  of  the  Eleuthero-Lacones  were  at  first  24  in  number ;  in 
the  time  of  Pausanias  18  only.  They  were  kindly  treated  by  Augustus, 
but  subsequently  they  were  excluded  from  the  coast  to  prevent  communi- 
cation with  strangers.     Pausanias,  b.  iii.  c.  21. 

'  From  hence  to  the  end  of  the  section  the  text  is  corrupt.  See  Groskurd 
for  an  attempt  to  amend  the  text  of  the  last  sentence,  which  is  here  not 

B.  VIII.  c.  V.  §  6, 7.  LACONIA.  45 

6.  As  to  the  nature  of  the  places  in  Laconia  and  Messenia, 
we  may  take  the  description  of  Euripides ;  ^ 

*'  Laconia  has  much  land  capable  of  tillage,  but  difficult  to  be  worked, 
for  it  is  hollow,  surrounded  by  mountains,  rugged,  and  difficult  of  access 
to  an  enemy." 

Messenia  he  describes  in  this  manner : 

"  It  bears  excellent  fruit ;  is  watered  by  innumerable  streams  ;  it  affords 
the  finest  pasture  to  herds  and  flocks  ;  it  is  not  subject  to  the  blasts  of 
winter,  nor  too  much  heated  by  the  coursers  of  the  sun  ;" 

and  a  little  farther  on,  speaking  of  the  division  of  the  country 
by  the  Heracleidae  according  to  lot,  the  first  was 

"  lord  of  the  Lacaenian  laud,  a  bad  soil," 
the  second  was  Messene, 

"  whose  excellence  no  language  could  express ;" 
and  Tyrtaeus  speaks  of  it  in  the  same  manner. 

But  we  cannot  admit  that  Laconia  and  Messenia  are 
bounded,  as  Euripides  says, 

"  by  the  Pamisus,^  which  empties  itself  into  the  sea  ;" 
this  river  flows  through  the  middle  of  Messenia,  and  does  not 
touch  any  part  of  the  present  Laconia.     Nor  is  he  right,  when 
he  says  that  Messenia  is  inaccessible  to  sailors,  whereas  it 
borders  upon  the  sea,  in  the  same  manner  as  Laconia. 

Nor  does  he  give  the  right  boundaries  of  Elis ; 
"  after  passing  the  river  is  Elis,  the  neighbour  of  Jove  ;" 
and  he  adduces  a  proof  unnecessarily.  For  if  he  means  the 
present  Eleian  territory,  which  is  on  the  confines  of  Messenia, 
this  the  Pamisus  does  not  touch,  any  more  than  it  touches  La- 
conia, for,  as  has  been  said  before,  it  flows  through  the  middle 
of  Messenia :  or,  if  he  meant  the  ancient  Eleia,  called  the  Hol- 
low, this  is  a  still  greater  deviation  from  the  truth.  For  after 
crossing  the  Pamisus,  there  is  a  large  tract  of  the  Messenian 
country,  then  the  whole  district  of  [the  Lepreatas],  and  of  the 
[Macistii],  which  is  called  Triphylia ;  then  the  Pisatis,  and 
Olympia  ;  then  at  the  distance  of  300  stadia  is  Elis. 

7.  As  some  persons  write  the  epithet  applied  by  Homer  to 
Lacedaemon,  KrjTweaaav,  and  others  KaisTaeaaav,  how  are  we  to 
understand  KrjTU)eaaa,  whether  it  is  derived  from  Cetos,^  or 

'  This  quotation,  as  also  the  one  which  follows,  are  from  a  tragedy  of 
Euripides,  now  lost.  *  The  Pirnatza. 

'  KiJTog.  Some  are  of  opinion  that  the  epithet  was  applied  to  Lacedae- 
mon, because  fish  of  the  cetaceous  tribe  frequented  the  coast  of  Laconia. 

46  STRABO.  Casaub.  367. 

whether  it  denotes  "  large,"  which  is  most  probable.  Some 
understand  Kaieraeaaa  to  signify,  "  abounding  with  calamin- 
thus  ; "  others  suppose,  as  the  fissures  occasioned  by  earth- 
quakes are  called  Cseeti,  that  this  is  the  origin  of  the  epithet. 
Hence  Caeietas  also,  the  name  of  the  prison  among  the  Lace- 
daemonians, which  is  a  sort  of  cave.  Some  however  say,  that 
such  kind  of  hollows  are  rather  called  Coi,  whence  the  ex- 
pression of  Homer, ^  applied  to  wild  beasts,  (prjpaiv  opeakyoiaiVf 
which  live  in  mountain  caves.^__Laconia  however  is  subject  tg,— ^ 
earthquakes,  and  some  writers  relate,  that  certain  peaks  of 

"Taygetum  have  been  broken  otf  by  the  shocks.'^    — 

^  T.nfonin,  p^ntfli"°  f\h^  q"?^ries  of  valuablemarblej^  Those 
of  the  Tsenarian  marble  in  Taenarum^are  ancient,^  and  certain 
persons,  assisted  by  the  wealth  of  the  Romans,  lately  opened  a 
large  quarry  in  Taygetum. 

8.  It  appears  from  Homer,  that  both  the  country  and  the 
city  had  the  name  of  Lacedaemon ;  I  mean  the  country  to- 
gether with  Messenia.  When  he  speaks  of  the  bow  and 
quiver  of  Ulysses,  he  says, 

"  A  present  from  Iphitus  Eury tides,  a  stranger,  who  met  him  in  Lace- 

and  adds, 

"  They  met  at  Messene  in  the  house  of  Ortilochus." 
He  means  the  country  which  was  a  part  of  Messenia.^    There 
was  then  no  difference  whether  he  said  "  A  stranger,  whom  he 
met  at  Lacedasmon,  gave  him,"  or,  "they  met  at  Messene;" 
for  it  is  evident  that  Pheras  was  the  home  of  Ortilochus : 

"  they  arrived  at  Pherae,  and  went  to  the  house  of  Diodes  the  son  of  Or- 
tilochus," ^ 

namely,  Telemachus  and  Pisistratus.  Now  Pherae"^  belongs  to 
Messenia.  But  after  saying,  that  Telemachus  and  his  friend 
set  out  from  Pherag,  and  were  driving  their  two  horses  the 
whole  day,  he  adds, 

»  II.  i.  268. 

*  This  may  have  taken  place  a  little  before  the  third  Messenian  war, 
B.  c.  464,  when  an  earthquake  destroyed  all  the  houses  in  Sparta,  with 
the  exception  of  five.     Diod.  Sic.  b.  xv.  c.  66  ;  Pliny,  b.  ii.  c.  79. 

^  Pliny,  b.  xxxvi.  c  18,  speaks  of  the  black  marble  of  Tsenarus. 

*  Od.  xxi.  13. 

*  Eustathius  informs  us  that,  according  to  some  writers,  Sparta  and  La- 
cedaemon were  the  names  of  the  two  principal  quarters  of  the  city ;  and 
adds  that  the  comic  poet,  Cratinus,  gave  the  name  of  Sparta  to  the  whole 
of  Laconia.  ®  Od.  iii.  488.  ^  C!ieramidi. 

B.  VIII.  §  1.  ARGOLIS.  47 

"  The  sun  was  setting ;  they  came  to  the  hollow  Lacedaemon  (Kj^rwccrtraj/), 
and  drove  their  chariot  to  the  palace  of  Menefeus.*'  ^ 
Here  we  must  understand  the  city  ;  and  if  we  do  not,  the  poet 
says,  that  they  journeyed  from  Lacedgemon  to  Lacedaemon. 
It  is  otherwise  improbable  that  the  palace  of  Menelaus  should 
not  be  at  Sparta ;  and  if  it  was  not  there,  that  Telemachus 
should  say, 

*'  for  I  am  going  to  Sparta,  and  to  Pylus,"' 
for  this  seems  to  agree  with  the  epithets  applied  to  the  coun- 
try,3  unless  indeed  any  one  should  allow  this  to  be  a  poetical 
licence  ;  for,  if  Messenia  was  a  part  of  Laconia,  it  would  be  a 
contradiction  that  Messene  should  not  be  placed  together  with 
Laconia,  or  with  Pylus,  (which  Was  under  the  command  of 
Nestor,)  nor  by  itself  in  the  Catalogue  of  Ships,  as  though  it 
had  no  part  in  the  expedition. 


I.  After  Maleae  follow  the  Argolic  and  Hermionic  Gulfs  ; 
the  former  extends  as  far  as  Scyllaeum,'*  it  looks  to  the  east, 
and  towards  the  Cyclades  ;^  the  latter  lies  still  more  towards 
the  east  than  the  former,  reaching  ^.gina  and  the  Epidau- 
rian  territory.^  The  Laconians  occupy  the  first  part  of  the 
Argolic  Gulf,  and  the  Argives  the  rest.  Among  the  places 
occupied  by  the  Laconians  are  Delium,^  a  temple  of  Apollo,  of 

1  Od.  iii.  487.  '  Od.  ii.  359. 

3  The  text  to  the  end  of  the  section  is  very  corrupt.  The  following  is 
a  translation  of  the  text  as  proposed  to  be  amended  by  Groskurd.  The 
epithet  of  Lacedaemon,  hollow,  cannot  properly  be  applied  to  the  country, 
for  this  peculiarity  of  the  city  does  not  with  any  propriety  agree  with  the 
epithets  given  to  the  country ;  unless  we  suppose  the  epithet  to  be  a  poet- 
ical licence.  For,  as  has  been  before  remarked,  it  must  be  concluded 
from  the  words  of  the  poet  himself,  that  Messene  was  then  a  part  of  La- 
conia, and  subject  to  Menelaus.  It  would  then  be  a  contradiction  (in 
Homer)  not  to  join  Messene,  which  took  part  in  the  expedition,  with 
Laconia  or  the  Pylus  under  Nestor,  nor  to  place  it  by  itself  in  the  Cata- 
logue, as  though  it  had  no  part  in  the  expedition. 

*  Skylli.  '  The  islands  about  Delos. 

*  The  form  thus  given  to  the  Gulf  of  Hermione  bears  no  resemblance 
to  modern  maps. 

^  Pausanias  calls  it  Epidelium,  now  S.  Angelo. 

48  STRABO.  Casaub.  368. 

the  same  name  as  that  in  Boeotia ;  Minoa,  a  fortress  of  the 
same  name  as  that  in  Megara ;  and  according  to  Artemidorus, 
Epidaurus  Limera;^  ApoUodorus,  however,  places  it  near 
Cythera,^  and  having  a  convenient  harbour,  {\ifxrjv,  limen,)  it 
was  called  Limenera,  which  was  altered  by  contraction  to  Li- 
mera.  A  great  part  of  the  coast  of  Laconia,  beginning  im- 
mediately from  Maleas,  is  rugged.  It  has  however  shelters 
for  vessels,  and  harbours.  The  remainder  of  the  coast  has 
good  ports  ;  there  are  also  many  small  islands,  not  worthy  of 
mention,  lying  in  front  of  it. 

2.  To  the  Argives  belong  Prasiae,^  and  Temenium^  where 
Temenus  lies  buried.  Before  coming  to  Temenium  is  the  dis- 
trict through  which  the  river  Lerna  flows,  that  having  the  same 
name  as  the  lake,  where  is  laid  the  scene  of  the  fable  of  the 
Hydra.  The  Temenium  is  distant  from  Argos  26  stadia  from 
the  sea-coast ;  from  Argos  to  Herseum  are  40,  and  thence  to 
Mycenas  10  stadia. 

Next  to  Temenium  is  Nauplia,  the  naval  station  of  the 
Argives.  Its  name  is  derived  from  its  being  accessible  to 
ships.  Here  they  say  the  fiction  of  the  moderns  originated 
respecting  Nauplius  and  his  sons,  for  Homer  would  not  have 
omitted  to  mention  them,  if  Palamedes  displayed  so  much 
wisdom  and  intelligence,  and  was  unjustly  put  to  death;  and 
if  Nauplius  had  destroyed  so  many  people  at  Caphareus.^  But 
the  genealogy  oiFends  both  against  the  mythology,  and  against 
chronology.  For  if  we  allow  that  he  was  the  son  of  Neptune,^ 
how  could  he  be  the  son  of  Amymone,  and  be  still  living  in 
the  Trojan  times. 

Next  to  Nauplia  are  caves,  and  labyrinths  constructed  in 
them,  which  caves  they  call  Cyclopeia. 

^  The  ruins  are  a  little  to  the  north  of  Monembasia,  Malvasia,  or  Nau- 
plia de  Malvasia.  ^  Cerigo. 

'  The  ruins  are  on  the  bay  of  Rheontas.  *  Toniki,  or  Agenitzi. 

*  Napoli  di  Romagna.  Nauplius,  to  avenge  the  death  of  his  son  Pala- 
medes, was  the  cause  of  many  Greeks  perishing  on  their  return  from  Troy 
at  Cape  Caphareus  in  Euboea,  famous  for  its  dangerous  rocks.  The 
modern  Greeks  give  to  this  promontory  the  name  of  ^vXocpdyoQ,  (Xylo- 
phagos,)  or  devourer  of  vessels.  Italian  navigators  call  it  Capo  d'Oro, 
■whii;h  in  spite  of  its  apparent  signification,  Golden  Cape,  is  probably  a 
transformation  of  the  Greek  word  Caphareus. 

•  Strabo  confounds  Nauplius,  son  of  Clytoreus,  and  father  of  Palame- 
des, with  Nauplius,  son  of  Neptune  and  Amymone,  and  one  of  the 
ancestors  of  Palamedes- 

B.  VIII.  C.  VI. 

3—5.  ARGOLIS.  49 

3.  Then  follow  other  places,  and  after  these  the  Hermionic 
Gulf.  Since  the  poet  places  this  gulf  in  the  Argive  territory, 
we  must  not  overlook  this  division  of  the  circumference  of 
this  country.  It  begins  from  the  small  city  Asine ;  ^  then 
follow  Hermione,^  and  Troezen.^  In  the  voyage  along  the 
coast  the  island  Calauria^  lies,  opposite  ;  it  has  a  compass  of 
30  stadia,  and  is  separated  from  the  continent  by  a  strait  of 
4  stadia. 

4.  Then  follows  the  Saronic  Gulf ;  some  call  it  a  Pontus  or 
sea,  others  a  Porus  or  passage,  whence  it  is  also  termed  the 
Saronic  pelagos  or  deep.  The  whole  of  the  passage,  or  Porus, 
extending  from  the  Hermionic  Sea,  and  the  sea  about  the 
Isthmus  (of  Corinth)  to  the  Myrtoan  and  Cretan  Seas,  has  this 

To  the  Saronic  Gulf  belong  Epidaurus,^  and  the  island  in 
front  of  it,  ^gina ;  then  Cenchreae,  the  naval  station  of  the 
Corinthians  towards  the  eastern  parts ;  then  Schoenus,^  a  har- 
bour at  the  distance  of  45  stadia  by  sea ;  from  Maleie  the 
whole  number  of  stadia  is  about  1800. 

At  Schoenus  is  the  Diolcus,  or  place  where  they  draw  the 
vessels  across  the  Isthmus  :  it  is  the  narrowest  part  of  it. 
Near  Schoenus  is  the  temple  of  the  Isthmian  Neptune.  At 
present,  however,  I  shall  not  proceed  with  the  description  of 
these  places,  for  they  are  not  situated  within  the  Argive  ter- 
ritory, but  resume  the  account  of  those  which  it  contains. 

5.  And  first,  we  may  observe  how  frequently  Argos  is 
mentioned  by  the  poet,  both  by  itself  and  with  the  epithet  de- 
signating it  as  Achaean  Argos,  Argos  Jasum,  Argos  Hippium, 
or  Hippoboton,  or  Pelasgicum.     The  city,  too,  is  called  Argos, 

"  Argos  and  Sparta" — ' 
those  who  occupied  Argos 

"  and  Tiryns ;" « 
and  Peloponnesus  is  called  Argos, 

"  at  our  house  in  Argos,"  • 
for  the  city  could  not  be  called  his  house ;  and  he  calls  the 
whole  of  Greece,  Argos,  for  he  calls  all  Argives,  as  he  calls 
them  Danai,  and  Achasans. 

'  Fornos.  ^  Castri.  «  Damala.  *  I.  Poros. 

*  A  place  near  the  ruins  of  Epidaurus  preserves  the  name  Pedauro.   G. 

•  Scheno.  '  II.  iv.  52.  »  II.  ii.  559.  »  II.  i.  30. 

VOL.    II.  T, 

50  STRABO.  Casaub.  369. 

He  distinguishes  the  identity  of  name  by  epithets ;  he  calls 
Thessaly,  Pelasgic  Argos ; 

"  all  who  dwelt  in  Pelasgic  Argos ;"  * 
and  the  Peloponnesus,  the  Achaean  Argos ; 

"  if  we  should  return  to  Achaean  Argos  ;"  ' 
"  was  he  not  at  Achaean  Argos ?" ^ 

intimating  in  these  lines  that  the  Peloponnesians  were  called 
peculiarly  Achseans  according  to  another  designation. 

He  calls  also  the  Peloponnesus,  Argos  Jasum ; 
"  if  all  the  Achaeans  throughout  Argos  Jasum  should  see  you,"  * 
meaning  Penelope,  she  then  would  have  a  greater  number  of 
suitors ;  for  it  is  not  probable  that  he  means  those  from  the 
whole  of  Greece,  but  those  from  the  neighbourhood  of  Ithaca. 
He  applies  also  to  Argos  terms  common  to  other  places, 
"  pasturing  horses,"  and  "  abounding  with  horses." 

6.  There  is  a  controversy  about  the  names  Hellas  and  Hel- 
lenes. Thucydides  ^  says  that  Homer  nowhere  mentions  Bar- 
barians, because  the  Greeks  were  not  distinguished  by  any 
single  name,  which  expressed  its  opposite.  Apollodorus  also 
says,  that  the  inhabitants  of  Thessaly  alone  were  called  Hel- 
lenes, and  alleges  this  verse  of  the  poet, 

"  they  were  called  Myrmidones,  and  Hellenes ;"  * 
but  Hesiod,  and  Archilochus,  in  their  time  knew  that  they 
were  all  called  Hellenes,  and  Panhellenes :  the  former  calls 
them  by  this  name  in  speaking  of  the  Proetides,  and  says  that 
Panhellenes  were  their  suitors  ;  the  latter,  where  he  says 
"  that  the  calamities  of  the  Panhellenes  centred  in  Thasus." 

But  others  oppose  to  this,  that  Homer  does  mention  Bar- 
barians, when  he  says  of  the  Carians,  that  they  spoke  a  bar- 
barous language,  and  that  all  the  Hellenes  were  comprised  in 
the  term  Hellas ; 

"  of  the  man,  whose  fame  spread  throughout  Hellas  and  Argos." '' 
And  again, 

"  but  if  you  wish  to  turn  aside  and  pass  through  Greece  and  the  midst  of 
Argos."  * 

J  II.  ii.  681.  2  II.  ix.  141.  3  Od.  iii.  251. 

*  Od.  xviii.  245.  ^  Book  i.  3.  «  II.  ii.  684. 

7  Od.  i.  344.  «  Od.  xv.  80. 

B.  VIII.  c.  VI.  §  7, 8.  ARGOLIS.  51 

7.  The  greater  part  of  the  city  of  the  Argives  is  situated  in 
a  plain.  It  has  a  citadel  called  Larisa,  a  hill  moderately  for- 
tified, and  upon  it  a  temple  of  Jupiter.  Near  it  flows  the  Ina- 
chus,  a  torrent  river ;  its  source  is  in  Lyrceium  [the  Arcadian 
mountain  near  Cynuria].  We  have  said  before  that  the 
fabulous  stories  about  its  sources  are  the  inventions  of  poets ; 
it  is  a  fiction  also  that  Argos  is  without  water — 

"  but  the  gods  made  Argos  a  land  without  water." 
Now  the  ground  consists  of  hollows,  it  is  intersected  by  rivers, 
and  is  full  of  marshes  and  lakes ;  the  city  also  has  a  copious 
supply  of  water  from  many  wells,  which  rises  near  the  surface. 

They  attribute  the  mistake  to  this  verse, 
*'  and  I  shall  return  disgraced  to  Argos  (TroXydi^iov)  the  very  thirsty."  * 
This  word  is  used  for  iroXvirodriTov,  or 

"  much  longed  after," 
or  without  the  I  for  TroXvixpiop,  equivalent  to  the  expression 
7ro\v(f)dopoy  in  Sophocles, 

"  this  house  of  the  Pelopidae  abounding  in  slaughter,"  "^ 
[for  TTpo'id-^ai  and  idxpai  and  'i\pacrdai,  denote  some  injury  or 
destruction ; 

"  at  present  he  is  making  the  attempt,  and  he  will  soon-destroy  (i^/zerai) 
the  sons  of  the  Acheei ;"  ^ 

and  again,  lest 

"  she  should  injure  (tai//y)  her  beautiful  skin  ;"  * 

"  has  prematurely  sent  down,  Trpota^f^ev,  to  Ades."*  ] ' 

Besides,  he  does  not  mean  the  city  Argos,  for  it  was  not 
thither  that  he  was  about  to  return,  but  he  meant  Pelopon- 
nesus, which,  certainly,  is  not  a  thirsty  land. 

With  respect  to  the  letter  ^,  they  introduce  the  conjunction 
by  the  figure  hyperbaton,  and  make  an  elision  of  the  vowel, 
so  that  the  verse  would  run  thus, 

Kai  Ksv  IXeyxicfTog  ttoXv  d'  i;//tov  'Apyog  iKoifxriv, 
that  is,  iroXvixpiov  "Apyocrde  iKoi/jrjv,  instead  of,  elg  "Apyog. 

8.  The  Inachus'  is  one  of  the  rivers,  which  flows  through 
the  Argive  territory ;   there  is  also  another  in  Argia,  the 

»  II.  iv.  171.  2  Sophocles,  El.  10.  ^  II.  ii.  193. 

*  Od.  ii.  376.        ^  n  [^  ^  6  Probably  an  interpolation.    Meineke. 

">  The  Planitza. 

E  2 

52  STRABO.  Casaub.  371. 

Erasinus.  It  has  its  source  in  Styraphalus  in  Arcadia,  and  in 
the  lake  there  called  Stjmphalis,  where  the  scene  is  laid  of 
the  fable  of  the  birds  called  Stymphalides,  which  Hercules 
drove  away  by  wounding  them  with  arrows,  and  by  the  noise 
of  drams.  It  is  said  that  this  river  passes  under-ground,  and 
issues  forth  in  the  Argian  territory,  and  waters  the  plain. 
The  Erasinus  is  also  called  Arsinus. 

Another  river  of  the  same  name  flows  out  of  Arcadia  to 
the  coast  near  Buras.  There  is  another  Erasinus  also  in 
Eretria,  and  one  in  Attica  near  Brauron. 

Near  Lerna  a  fountain  is  shown,  called  Amymone.  The 
lake  Xerna,  the  haunt  of  the  Hydra,  according  to  the  fable, 
belongs  to  the  Argive  and  Messenian  districts.  The  ex- 
piatory purifications  performed  at  this  place  by  persons  guilty 
of  crimes  gave  rise  to  the  proverb,  "  A  Lerna  of  evils." 

It  is  allowed  that,  although  the  city  itself  lies  in  a  spot  where 
there  are  no  running  streams  of  water,  there  is  an  abundance 
of  wells,  which  are  attributed  to  the  Danai'des  as  their  inven- 
tion ;  hence  the  line, 

"  the  Danaides  made  waterless  Argos,  Argos  the  watered." 
Four  of  the  wells  are  esteemed  sacred,  and  held  in  peculiar 
veneration.     Hence  they  occasioned  a  want  of  water,  while 
they  supplied  it  abundantly. 

9.  Danaus  is  said  to  have  built  the  citadel  of  the  Argives. 
He  seems  to  have  possessed  so  much  more  power  than  the 
former  rulers  of  the  country,  that,  according  to  Euripides, 

"  he  made  a  law  that  those  who  were  formerly  called  Pelasgiotae,  should 
be  called  Danai  throughout  Greece." 

His  tomb,  called  Palinthus,  is  in  the  middle  of  the  market- 
place of  the  Argives.  I  suppose  that  the  celebrity  of  this  city 
was  the  reason  of  all  the  Greeks  having  the  name  of  Pelasgi- 
otas,  and  Danai,  as  well  as  Argives. 

Modern  writers  speak  of  lasidse,  and  Argos  lasum,  and 
Apia,  and  Apidones.  Homer  does  not  mention  Apidones,  and 
uses  the  word  apia  only  to  express  distance.  That  he  means 
Peloponnesus  by  Argos  we  may  conclude  from  these  lines, 

"  Argive  Helen ;"  * 

"  in  the  farthest  part  of  Argos  is  a  city  Ephyra ;"  ^ 

»  II.  vi.  623.  2  II.  vi.  152. 

B.  VIII.  c.  Yi.  §  10.  ARGOLIS.  53 


"  tlie  middle  of  Argos ;"  * 

"to  rule  over  many  islands,  and  the  whole  of  Argos.'"'' 

Argos,  among  modern  writers,  denotes  a  plain,  but  not  once 
in  Homer.  It  seems  rather  a  Macedonian  and  Thessalian 
use  of  the  word. 

10.  After  the  descendants  of  Danaus  had  succeeded  to  the 
sovereignty  at  Argos,  and  the  Amythaonidas,  who  came  from 
Pisatis  and  Triphylia,  were  intermixed  with  them  by  mar- 
riages, it  is  not  surprising  that,  being  allied  to  one  another, 
they  at  first  divided  the  country  into  two  kingdoms,  in  such  a 
manner  that  the  two  cities,  the  intended  capitals,  Argos  and 
Mycenas,  were  not  distant  from  each  other  more  than  50  stadia, 
and  that  the  Heraeum  at  Mycenas  should  be  a  temple  common 
to  both.  In  this  temple  were  the  statues  the  workmanship  of 
Polycletus.  In  display  of  art  they  surpassed  all  others,  but 
in  magnitude  and  cost  they  were  inferior  to  those  of  Pheidias. 

At  first  Argos  was  the  most  powerful  of  the  two  cities.  Af- 
terwards Mycenae  received  a  great  increase  of  inhabitants  in 
consequence  of  the  migration  thither  of  the  Pelopidae.  For  when 
everything  had  fallen  under  the  power  of  the  sons  of  Atreus, 
Agamemnon,  the  elder,  assumed  the  sovereign  authority,  and 
by  good  fortune  and  valour  annexed  to  his  possessions  a  large 
tract  of  country.  He  also  added  the  Laconian  to  the  Mycenaean 
district.^  Menelaus  had  Laconia,  and  Agamemnon  Mycenae, 
and  the  country  as  far  as  Corinth,  and  Sicyon,  and  the  terri- 
tory which  was  then  said  to  be  the  country  of  lones  and 
^gialians,  and  afterwards  of  Achasi. 

After  the  Trojan  war,  when  the  dominionof  Agamemnon  was 
at  an  end,  the  declension  of  Mycenae  ensued,  and  particularly 
after  the  return  of  the  Heracleidae.'^  For  when  these  people 
got  possession  of  Peloponnesus,  they  expelled  its  former  mas- 
ters, so  that  they  who  had  Argos  possessed  Mycenae  likewise, 
as  composing  one  body.  In  subsequent  times  Mycenae  was 
razed  by  the  Argives,  so  that  at  present  not  even  a  trace  is  to 
be  discovered  of  the  city  of  the  Mycenaeans.^ 

'  Od.  i.  344.     «  II.  ii.  108.     3  About  1283,  b.  c.      "  About  1190,  a.  c. 

*  Not  strictly  correct,  as  in  the  time  of  Pausanias,  who  lived  about  150 
years  after  Strabo,  a  large  portion  of  the  walls  surrounding  Mycenae  still 
existed.     Even  in  modern  times  traces  are  still  to  be  found. 

54  8TRAB0.  CA8AUH.  372. 

If  Mycenae  experienced  this  fate,  it  is  not  surprising  that 
some  of  the  cities  mentioned  in  the  Catalogue  of  the  Ships, 
and  said  to  be  subject  to  Argos,  have  disappeared.  These  are 
the  words  of  the  Catalogue  : 

"  They  who  occupied  Argos,  and  Tiryns,  with  strong  walls,  and  Hermione, 
and  Asine  situated  on  a  deep  bay,  and  Eiones,  and  Epidaurus  with  its 
vines,  and  the  valiant  Achican  youths  who  occupied  iEgina,  and  Mases."  ' 

Among  these  we  have  already  spoken  of  Argos ;  we  must  now 
speak  of  the  rest. 

11.  ProDtus  seems  to  have  used  Tiryns  as  a  stronghold, 
and  to  have  fortified  it  by  means  of  the  Cyclopes.  There 
were  seven  of  them,  and  were  called  Gasterocheires,^  because 
they  subsisted  by  their  art.  They  were  sent  for  and  came 
from  Lycia.  Perhaps  the  caverns  about  Nauplia,  and  the 
works  there,  have  their  name  from  these  people.  The  citadel 
Licymna  has  its  name  from  Licymnius.  It  is  distant  from 
Nauplia  about  12  stadia.  This  place  is  deserted,  as  well  as  the 
neighbouring  Midea,  which  is  different  from  the  Boeotian 
Midea,  for  that  is  accentuated  Midea,  like  irpdvoiaf  but  this  is 
accentuated  Mid^a,  like  Tegea. 

Prosymna  borders  upon  Mid^a;  it  has  also  a  temple  of 
Juno.  The  Argives  have  depopulated  most  of  these  for  their 
refusal  to  submit  to  their  authority.  Of  the  inhabitants  some 
went  from  Tiryns  to  Epidaurus ;  others  from  Hermione  to  the 
Halieis  (the  Fishermen),  as  they  are  called  ;  others  were  trans- 
ferred by  the  Lacedajmonians  to  Messenia  from  Asine,  (which 
is  itself  a  village  in  the  Argive  territory  near  Nauplia,)  and 
they  built  a  small  city  of  the  same  name  as  the  Argolic  Asine. 
For  the  Laceda3monians,  according  to  Theopompus,  got  pos- 
session of  a  large  tract  of  country  belonging  to  otlier  nations, 
and  settled  there  whatever  fugitives  they  had  received,  who 
had  taken  refuge  among  them ;  and  it  was  to  this  country  the 
Nauplians  had  retreated. 

12.  Hermione  is  one  of  the  cities,  not  undistinguished. 
The  coast  is  occupied  by  Halieis,  as  they  are  called,  a  tribe 
who  subsist  by  being  employed  on  the  sea  in  fishing.  There 
is  a  general  opinion  among  the  Hermionenses  that  there  is  a 
short  descent  from  their  country  to  Hades,  and  hence  they  do 
not  place  in  the  mouths  of  the  dead  the  fare  for  crossing  the 

'  II.  ii.  559,         '  From  yaaTtjp,  the  belly,  and  x«tp>  the  hand. 

H.  VIII.  c.  VI.  §  13, 14.  ARQ0LI8.  65 

13.  It  is  said  that  Asine  as  well  as  Ilermione  was  inhabited 
by  Dryopos ;  either  Dryops  the  Arcadian  having  transferred 
them  thither  from  the  places  near  the  Spercheius,  according 
to  Aristotle;  or,  Hercules  expelled  them  from  Doris  near 

ScylljL'um  near  Hermione  has  its  name,  it  is  said,  from 
Scylla,  daughter  of  Nisus.  According  to  report,  she  was 
enamoured  of  Minos,  and  betrayed  to  him  Nisa^a.  She  was 
(howned  by  order  of  her  father,  and  her  body  was  thrown 
upon  the  shore,  and  buried  here. 

Eiones  was  a  kind  of  village  which  the  Mycensei  depopu- 
lated, and  converted  into  a  station  for  vessels.  It  was  after- 
wards destroyed,  and  is  no  longer  a  naval  station. 

14.  Troozen  is  sacred  to  Neptune, •  from  whom  it  was 
formerly  called  Poseidonia.  It  is  situated  15  stadia  from  the 
sea.  Nor  is  this  an  obscure  city.  In  front  of  its  harbour, 
called  Pogon,'^  lies  Calauria,  a  small  island,  of  about  30  stadia 
in  compass.  Here  was  a  temple  of  Neptune,  which  served  as 
an  asylum  for  fugitives.  It  is  said  that  this  god  exchanged 
Delos  for  Calauria  with  Latona,  and  Tajnarum  for  Pytho  with 
Apollo.     Ephorus  mentions  the  oracle  respecting  it : 

"  It  is  the  same  thing  to  possess  Delos,  or  Calauria, 
Tho  divine  Pytho,  or  the  windy  Tajnarum." 

There  was  a  sort  of  Amphictyonic  body  to  whom  tho  con- 
cerns of  this  temple  belonged,  consisting  of  seven  cities,  which 
performed  sacrifices  in  common.  These  were  Ilermon,  Epi- 
daurus,  iEgina,  Athenae,  Prasia?,  Nauplia,  and  Orchomenus 
Minyeius.  The  Argives  contributed  in  behalf  of  Nauplia,  and 
the  Lacedajmonians  in  behalf  of  Prasias.  Tho  veneration 
for  this  god  prevailed  so  strongly  among  the  Greeks,  that 
the  Macedonians,  even  when  masters  of  the  country,  never- 
theless preserved  even  to  tho  present  titne  the  privilege  of 
the  asylum,  and  were  restrained  by  shame  from  dragging 
away  the  suppliants  who  took  refuge  at  Calauria.  Archias 
even,  with  a  body  of  soldiers,  did  not  dare  to  use  force  to  De- 

'  Poseidon,  or  Neptune.  This  god,  after  a  dispute  with  Minerva  respect- 
ing this  place,  held  by  order  of  Jupiter,  divided  possession  of  it  with  hen 
Hence  tho  ancient  coins  of  TroRzen  b(!ar  the  trident  and  head  of  Minerva. 

'  Uojyvjv,  pogon  or  beard.  Probably  tho  name  is  derived  from  the  form 
of  the  harbour.  Hence  the  proverb,  **  Go  to  TroDzen,"  (nXtvaiiae  dt 
TpoiZrjva,)  addressed  to  those  who  had  little  or  no  beard. 

^^  STRABO.  Casaub.  374. 

mosthenes,  although  he  had  received  orders  from  Antipater 
to  bnng  him  alive,  and  all  other  orators  he  could  find  who 
were  accused  of  the  same  crimes.       He  attempted  persuasion 
but  in  vain,  for  Demosthenes  deprived  himself  of  life  by  taking 
poison  in  the  temple.^  ° 

Troezen  and  Pittheus,  the  sons  of  Pelops,  having  set  out 
from  Pisatis  to  Argos,  the  former  left  behind  him  a  city  of  his 
own  name ;  Pittheus  succeeded  him,  and  became  king.  An- 
thes,  who  occupied  the  territory  before,  set  sail,  andfounded 
Hahcarnassus.  We  shall  speak  of  him  in  our  account  of 
Caria  and  the  Troad. 

15.  Epidaurus  was  called  Epitaurus  [Epicarus?].  Aris- 
totle says,  that  Carians  occupied  both  this  place  and  Hermione, 
but  upon  the  return  of  the  Heracleidge  those  lonians,  who  had 
accompanied  them  from  the  Athenian  Tetrapolis  to  Argos 
settled  there  together  with  the  Carians.  ' 

Epidaurus  2  was  a  distinguished  city,  remarkable  particu- 
larly on, account  of  the  fame  of  ^sculapius,  who  was  sup- 
posed to  cure  every  kind  of  disease,  and  whose  temple  is 
crowded  constantly  with  sick  persons,  and  its  walls  covered 
with  votive  tablets,  which  are  hung  upon  the  walls,  and  con- 
tain accounts  of  the  cures,  in  the  same  manner  as  is  practised 
at  Cos,  and  at  Tricca.  The  city  lies  in  the  recess  of  the 
Saronic  Gulf,  with  a  coasting  navigation  of  15  stadia,  and  its 
aspect  is  towards  the  point  of  summer  sun-rise.  It  is  sur- 
rounded with  lofty  mountains,  which  extend  to  the  coast,  so 
that  it  is  strongly  fortified  by  nature  on  all  sides. 

Between  Trcezen  and  Epidaurus,  there  was  a  fortress  Me- 
thana,3  and  a  peninsula  of  the  same  name.  In  some  copies  of 
Thucydides  Methone  is  the  common  reading,-*  a  place  of  the 
sanae  name  with  the  Macedonian  city,  at  the  siege  of  which 
Philip  lost  an  eye.  Hence  Demetrius  of  Scepsis  is  of  opinion, 
that  some  persons  were  led  into  error  by  the  name,  and  sup- 
posed that  it  was  Methone  near  Troezen.  It  was  against  this 
town,  it  is  said,  that  the  persons  sent  by  Agamemnon  to  levy 
sailors,  uttered  the  imprecation,  that 

"  they  might  never  cease  to  build  walls,'* 

'  Plutarch,  Life  of  Demosthenes.  «  Pidauro. 

'  Methana  is  the  modern  name. 

*  Thucyd.  b.  ii.  c.  34.     Methone  is  the  reading  of  all  manuscripts  and 

B.  VIII.  c.  VI.  §  16.  ^GINA.  57 

but  it  was  not  these  people ;  but  the  Macedonians,  according 
to  Theopompus,  who  refused  the  levy  of  men ;  besides,  it  is 
not  probable  that  those,  who  were  in  the  neighbourhood  of 
Agamemnon,  would  disobey  his  orders. 

16.  ^gina  is  a  place  in  the  territory  of  Epidaurus.  There 
is  in  front  of  this  continent,  an  island,  of  which  the  poet  means 
to  speak  in  the  lines  before  cited.     Wherefore  some  write, 

"  and  the  island  ^gina," 
instead  of 

"  and  they  who  occupied  -<Egina," 

making  a  distinction  between  the  places  of  the  same  name. 

It  is  unnecessary  to  remark,  that  this  island  is  among  the 
most  celebrated.  It  was  the  country  of  ^acus  and  his  de- 
scendants. It  was  this  island  which  once  possessed  so  much 
power  at  sea,  and  formerly  disputed  the  superiority  with  the 
Athenians  in  the  sea-fight  at  Salamis  during  the  Persian  war.^ 
The  circuit  of  the  island  is  said  to  be  about  180  stadia.  It 
has  a  city  of  the  same  name  on  the  south-west.  Around  it 
are  Attica,  and  Megara,  and  the  parts  of  Peloponnesus  as  far 
as  Epidaurus.  It  is  distant  from  each  about  100  stadia.  The 
eastern  and  southern  sides  are  washed  by  the  Myrtoan  and 
Cretan  seas.  Many  small  islands  surround  it  on  the  side 
towards  the  continent,  but  Belbina  is  situated  on  the  side 
towards  the  open  sea.  The  land  has  soil  at  a  certain  depth, 
but  it  is  stony  at  the  surface,  particularly  the  plain  country, 
whence  the  whole  has  a  bare  appearance,  but  yields  large  crops 
of  barley.  It  is  said  that  the  ^ginetas  were  called  Myrmi- 
dones,  not  as  the  fable  accounts  for  the  name,  when  the  ants 
were  metamorphosed  into  men,  at  the  time  of  a  great  famine, 
by  the  prayer  of  -^acus ;  but  because  by  digging,  like  ants, 
they  threw  up  the  earth  upon  the  rocks,  and  were  thus  made 
able  to  cultivate  the  ground,  and  because  they  lived  in  ex- 
cavations under-ground,  abstaining  from  the  use  of  bricks 
and  sparing  of  the  soil  for  this  purpose. 

Its  ancient  name  was  CEnone,  which  is  the  name  of  two  of 
the  demi  in  Attica,  one  near  Eleutherae  ; 

"  to  inhabit  the  plains  close  to  CEnone,  (CEnoe,)  and  Eleutherae ;" 
and  another,  one  of  the  cities  of  the  Tetrapolis  near  Marathon, 
to  which  the  proverb  is  applied, 

"  CEnone  (CEnoe  ?)  and  its  torrent." 

^  Herodotus,  b.  v.  c.  83,  and  b.  viii.  c.  93. 

^^  STRABO.  Casaub.  875. 

Its  inhabitants  were  in  succession  Argives,  Cretans,  Epidauri- 
ans,  and  Dorians.  At  last  the  Athenians  divided  the  island  by- 
lot  among  settlers  of  their  own.  The  Lacedsemonians,  however, 
deprived  the  Athenians  of  it,  and  restored  it  to  the  ancient  in- 

The  ^ginetae  sent  out  colonists  to  Cydonia^  in  Crete,  and 
to  the  Ombrici.  According  to  Ephorus,  silver  was  first  struck 
as  money  by  Pheidon.  The  island  became  a  mart,  the  inhabit- 
ants, on  account  of  the  fertility  of  its  soil,  employing  them- 
selves at  sea  as  traders ;  whence  goods  of  a  small  kind  had 
the  name  of  "^gina  wares." 

17.  The  poet  frequently  speaks  of  places  in  succession  as 
they  are  situated ; 

"  they  who  inhabited  Hyria,  and  Anlis  ;"  ^ 

"  and  they  who  occupied  Argos,  and  Tiryns, 

Hermione,  and  Asine, 

Troezen,  and  Eiones."^ 

At  other  times  he  does  not  observe  any  order ; 
"  Schoenus,  and  Scolus, 
Thespeia,  and  Grsea."  * 

He  also  mentions  together  places  on  the  continent  and  islands ; 

"  they  who  held  Ithaca, 

and  inhabited  Crocyleia,"  * 

for  Crocyleia  is  in  Acarnania.  Thus  he  here  joins  with  ^gina 
Mases,  which  belongs  to  the  continent  of  Argolis. 

Homer  does  not  mention  Thyreae,  but  other  writers  speak 
of  it  as  well  known.  It  was  the  occasion  of  a  contest  between 
the  three  hundred  Argives  against  the  same  number  of  Lace- 
dasmonians  ;  the  latter  were  conquerors  by  means  of  a  strata- 
gem of  Othryadas.  Thucydides  places  Thyreee  in  Cynuria, 
on  the  confines  of  Argia  and  Laconia.^ 

Hysiee  also  is  a  celebrated  place  in  Argolica ;  and  Cenchreas, 
which  lies  on  the  road  from  Tegea  to  Argos,  over  the  moun- 
tain Parthenius,  and  the  Creopolus."^  But  Homer  was  not 
acquainted  with  either  of  these  places,  [nor  with  the  Lyr- 
ceiura,  nor  Orneae,  and  yet  they  are  villages  in  the  Argian 
territory ;  the  former  of  the  same  name  as  the  mountain  there ; 
the  latter  of  the  same  name  as  the  Orneae,  situated  between 
Corinth  and  Sicyon].^ 

*  This  colony  must  have  been  posterior  to  that  of  the  Samians,  the  first 
founders  of  Cydonia.  ^  n  j|  495^  3  ji_  ^^  559^ 

*  II.  ii.  497.  5  II,  ii.  632.  6  Thucyd.  ii.  27 ;  iv.  56. 
'  A  place  not  known.             »  Probably  interpolated. 

B.  VIII.  c.  VI. ^  18,  19.  MYCEN^.  59 

18.  Among  the  cities  of  the  Peloponnesus,  the  most  celebrated 
were,  and  are  at  this  time,  Argos  and  Sparta,  and  as  their  re- 
nown is  spread  everywhere,  it  is  not  necessary  to  describe 
them  at  length,  for  if  we  did  so,  we  should  seem  to  repeat 
what  is  said  by  all  writers. 

Anciently,  Argos  was  the  most  celebrated,  but  afterwards 
the  Lacedaemonians  obtained  the  superiority,  and  continued  to 
maintain  their  independence,  except  during  some  short  interval, 
when  they  experienced  a  reverse  of  fortune. 

The  Argives  did  not  admit  Pyrrhus  within  the  city.  He 
fell  before  the  walls,  an  old  woman  having  let  a  tile  drop  from 
a  house  upon  his  head. 

They  were,  however,  under  the  sway  of  other  kings.  When 
they  belonged  to  the  Achaean  league  they  were  subjected,  to- 
gether with  the  other  members  of  that  confederacy,  to  the 
power  of  the  Romans.  The  city  subsists  at  present,  and  is 
second  in  rank  to  Sparta. 

19.  We  shall  next  speak  of  those  places  which  are  said,  in 
the  Catalogue  of  the  Ships,  to  be  under  the  government  of 
Mycenae  and  Agamemnon :  the  lines  are  these : 

"  Those  who  inhabited  Mycenae,  a  well-built  city, 

and  the  wealthy  Corinth,  and  Cleonae  well  built, 

and  Orneiae,  and  the  lovely  Arsethyrea, 

and  Sicyon,  where  Adrastus  first  reigned, 

and  they  who  inhabited  Hyperesia,  and  the  lofty  Gonoessa, 

and  Pellene,  and  ^gium, 

and  the  whole  range  of  the  coast,  and  those  who  lived  near  the  spacious 

Helice."  ' 

Mycenae  exists  no  longer.  It  was  founded  by  Perseus. 
Sthenelus  succeeded  Perseus ;  and  Eurystheus,  Sthenelus. 
These  same  persons  were  kings  of  Argos  also.  It  is  said  that 
Eurystheus,  having  engaged,  with  the  assistance  of  the  Athe- 
nians, in  an  expedition  to  Marathon  against  the  descendants 
of  Hercules  and  lolaus,  fell  in  battle,  and  that  the  remainder 
of  his  body  was  buried  at  Gargettus,  but  his  head  apart  from 
it  at  Tricorythus^  (Corinth?),  lolaus  having  severed  it  from 
the  body  near  the  fountain  Macaria,  close  to  the  chariot-road. 
The  spot  itself  has  the  name  of  "  Eurystheus'-head." 

Mycenae  then  passed  into  the  possession  of  the  Pelopidae, 
who  had  left  the  Pisatis,  then  into  that  of  the  Heracleidae, 

»  II.  ii.  569. 

*  Tricorythus  in  place  of  Corinth  is  the  suggestion  of  Coray. 

STRABO.  Casaub.  377. 

^ho  were  also  masters  of  Argos.  But  after  the  sea-fight  at 
fealamis,  the  Argives,  together  with  the  Cleonsei,  and  the  Te- 
getse,  invaded  Mycenae,  and  razed  it,  and  divided  the  territory 
among  themselves.  The  tragic  writers,  on  account  of  the 
proximity  of  the  two  cities,  speak  of  them  as  one,  and  use  the 
name  of  one  for  the  other.  Euripides  in  the  same  play  calls 
the  same  city  in  one  place  Mycenae,  and  in  another  Argos  as 
m  the  Iphigeneia,!  and  in  the  Orestes.^ 

CleonjB  is  a  town  situated  upon  the  road  leading  from  Ar- 
gos to  Corinth,  on  an  eminence,  which  is  surrounded  on  all 
sides  by  dwellings,  and  well  fortified,  whence,  in  my  opinion, 
Ueon«  was  properly  described  as  "well  built."     There  also 
between  Cleonae  and  Phlius,  is  Nemea,  and  the  grove  where 
It  was  the  custom  of  the  Argives  to  celebrate  the  Nemean 
games:   here  is  the  scene  of  the  fable  of  the  Nemean  Lion, 
and  here  also  the  village  Bembina.     Cleonse  is  distant  from 
Argos  120  stadia,  and  80  from  Corinth.     And  we  have  our- 
selves beheld  the  city  from  the  Acrocorinthus. 
^.  ^Q-  Codntkjs^said^to^  be  opulentJrom_  its  mart.     It  is 
f^^"^^^^  ^POPthe  jgtl^Ba^a:— it  con^^^djll^^^nffi^;^,  or,a 
War  Am,  the-mHer  near  Ital^y,  and  facilitates?  bv  ]-oo°^r.  ^f  ^^ 
s^shorta  distance  between  them,  an  exchange  of  coTnmndiHpT 

oTT-tJatih  biidtj.  ■ ^  Oliuiimrn 

As  the  Sicilian  strait,  so  formerly  these  seas  were  of  diffi- 
cult navigation,  and  particularly  the  sea  above  Malese,  on  ac- 
count of  the  prevalence  of  contrary  winds ;  whence  the  com- 
mon proverb, 

"  When  you  double  Maleae  forget  your  home." 
.Jt.a^aa.JLi£sirable  thing  for  the  merchants  coming  from  Asia, 

^;2J'""-  Ttinfri  ^ nhnT  -^li,  ],    lading  at  Corinth  without 

;_gHiM<^'iffa'^  to  dfiiwblo  Capo  Malea?.     For  goods  exported 
from  Peloponnesus,  or  imported  by  land,  a  toll  was  paid  to 
_3QHa.-^aduUiaainejeys^y  the  countp:^  This  continued  after-'*' 

/terwards  for  ever,     in  after-times  the^T enjoyed  even  additional 
advantages,  for  the  Isthmian  games,  which  were  celebrated 
there,  brought  thither  great  multitudes  of  people.     The-Bac- 
\        ^iada^,  a  rich  and  numerous  family,  and  of  illustrious  descent, 
xlvA       were  tlieir.rulers,  governed  iha.state'.for, nearly  two  hundred 
^^^^^^'  ^"^  peaceably  enjoyed  the  profits  of  the  mart.  "  "Their 
^J^vv^er  jy as  destroyed  by  CypSE*tlS,~iyh6  became  king  himself, 
'  Iph.  Taur.  508  et  seq.  2  Qrest.  98, 101, 1246. 

B.  VIII.  c.  Ti.  §  21.  CORINTH.  61 

and  his  descendants  continued  to  exist  for  three  generations. 
A  proof  of  the  wealth  of  this  family  is  the  offering  which 
Cjpselus  dedicated  at  Olympia,  a  statue  of  Jupiter  of  beaten 

Demaratus,  one  of  those  who  had  been  tyrant  at  Corinth, 
flying  from  the  seditions  which  prevailed  there,  carried  with 
him  from  his  home  to  Tyrrhenia  so  much  wealth,  that  he  be- 
came sovereign  of  the  city  which  had  received  him,  and  his 
son  became  even  king  of  the  Romans. 

Tbe-teffiple  of  Venus  at  Corinth  was  so  rich,  that  it  had 
more_^than  a  thousand  women  consecrated  to  the  service  of  thg 
goddess,  courtesans,  whom  both  men  and  women  had  dedi- 
cated as  offerings  to  the  goddess.  The  city  was  frequented 
and^enriched.  bv-4,be^^attltitULdes.  who  resorted  thither  on  ac^_ 
_jiDaixLji£-th©s©~waaien.  Masters  of  ships  freely  squandered 
all  their  money,  and  hence  the  proverb, 

"  It  is  not  in  every  man's  power  to  go  to  Corinth."  ' 
The  answer  is  related  of  a  courtesan  to  a  woman  who  was 
reproaching  her  with  disliking  work,  and  not  employing  her- 
self in  spinning ; 

"  Although  I  am  what  you  see,  yet,  in  this  short  time,  I  have  aheady 
finished  three  distaffs."  ^ 

21.  The  position  of  the  city  as  it  is  described  by  Hierony- 
mus,  and  Eudoxus,  and  others,  and  from  our  own  observation, 
since  its  restoration  by  the  Romans,  is  as  follows. 

That  which  is  called  the  Acrocorinthus  is -a  lofty  mountain^ 
^^e^pgndicular,  and  about  three  stadia  a:hd  a  half  in  height.^ 
There  is  an  ascent  of  30  stadia,  and  it  terminates  in  a  sharp 
point.     The  steepest  part  is  towards  the  north.  ,Belowitlies_ 
Jstfe^city  in  a  plain  of  thejOarm  of  a  trapezium,  at  the  very  toot" 
ot^  the  A  ^.ynforiT^lt^na!     The  compass  of  the  city  itself  was  40 
stadia,  and  all   that  part  which  was  not  protected  by  the 
-laQUatain.JKaa.Jortified^  by  a- wall.     Even  the  mountain  it- 
self, the  Acrocorinthus,  was  comprehended  within  this  wall, 
wherever  it  would  admit  of  fortification.     As  I  ascended  it, 
the  ruins  of  the  circuit  of  the  foundation  were  apparent,  which 
gave  a  circumference  of  about  85  stadia.     The  other  sides  of 
the  mountain  are  less  steep ;  hence,  however,  it  stretches  on- 

^  Ov  TzavTOQ  dvSpbg  ig  KopivQov  laB'  6  irXovg,  which  Horace  has  ele- 
gantly Latinized,  Non  cviivis  homini  contingit  adire  Corinthum. 
2  iarovg — distaffs ;  also,  masts  and  sailors. 

^^  STRABO.  vASAUB.  379. 

wards,  and  is  visible  everywhere.  The  summit  has  u{)on  it  a 
small  temple  of  Venus,  and  below  it  is  the  fountain  Peirene, 
which  has  no  efflux,  but  is  continually  full  of  M^ater,  which  is 
transparent,  and  fit  for  drinking.  They  say,  that  from  the 
compression  of  this,  and  of  some  other  small  under-ground 
veins,  originates  that  spring  at  the  foot  of  the  mountain,  which 
runs  into  the  city,  and  furnishes  the  inhabitants  with  a  suf- 
ficient supply  of  water.  There  is  a  large  number  of  wells  in 
the  city,  and  it  is  said  in  the  Acrocorinthus  also,  but  this  I 
did  not  see.     When  Euripides  says, 

"  I  come  from  the  Acrocorinthus,  well-watered  on  all  sides,  the  sacred 
hill  and  habitation  of  Venus," 

the  epithet  "  well-watered  on  all  sides,"  must  be  understood  to 
refer  to  depth ;  pure  springs  and  under-ground  rills  are  dis- 
persed through  the  mountain ;  or  we  must  suppose,  that,  an- 
ciently, the  Peirene  overflowed,  and  irrigated  the  mountain. 
There,  it  is  said,  Pegasus  was  taken  by  Bellerophon,  while 
drinking ;  this  was  a  winged  horse,  which  sprung  from  the 
neck  of  Medusa  when  the  head  of  the  Gorgon  was  severed 
from  the  body.  This  was  the  horse,  it  is  said,  which  caused 
the  Hippocrene,  or  Horse's  Fountain,  to  spring  up  in  Helicon 
by  striking  the  rock  with  its  hoof. 

Below  Peirene  is  the  Sisypheium,  which  preserves  a  large 
portion  of  the  ruins  of  a  temple,  or  palace,  built  of  white  mar- 
ble. From  the  summit  towards  the  north  are  seen  Parnassus 
and  Helicon,  lofty  mountains  covered  with  snow ;  then  the 
Crissaean  Gulf,i  lying  below  both,  and  surrounded  by  Phocis, 
Boeotia,  Megaris,  by  the  Corinthian  district  opposite  to  Phocis, 
and  by  Sicyonia  on  the  west.  *  *  *  * 
_  Abov£.allJhese  are  situated  the  Oneia^  mountains,  asJhfijL^ 
.,.-^^iJalkdi.§xtendji^^  from 

the  Sceironides  rocks,  where  the  "road  leads  along  them  to 

^  22.  Lechagum  is  the  commencement  of  the  coast  on  one 
side ;  and  on  the  other,  Ceiichresej^j,  vinagejnth^ 
distant  from  the  city  about  70  stadia".     The  latter  .serves  for 
the  trade  with-Asiajjnd  Lechaeum  for  Jhat  with  Italy,_ 
Lech^um  is  situated  l)elow  the  city,  and  is  not  well  in- 

*  Strabo  here  gives  the  name  of  Crissaean  Gulf  to  the  eastern  half  of  the 
Gulf  of  Corinth. 

*  Of  or  belonging  to  asses. 

B.  VIII.  c.  VI.  §  22.  CORINTH.  63 

habited.  There  are  long  walls  of  about  1 2  stadia  in  length, 
stretching  on  each  side  of  the  road  towards  Lechaeum.  The 
sea-shore,  extending  hence  to  Pagae  in  Megaris,  is  washed  by 
the  Corinthian  Gulf.  It  is  curved,  and  forms  the  Diolcus,  or 
the  passage  along  which  vessels  are  drawn  over  the  Isthmus 
to  the  opposite  coast  at  Schoenus  near  Cenchreae. 

Between  Lechaeum  and  Pagae,  anciently,  there  was  the 
oracle  of  the  Acrsean  Juno,  and  Olmiae,  the  promontory  that 
forms  the  gulf,  on  which  are  situated  CEnoe,  and  Pagae ;  the 
former  is  a  fortress  of  the  Megarians ;  and  CEnoe  is  a  fortress 
of  the  Corinthians. 

Next  to  Cenchreae  ^  is  Schoenus,  where  is  the  narrow  part 
of  the  Diolcus,  then  Crommyonia.  In  front  of  this  coast  lies 
the  Saronic  Gulf,  and  the  Eleusiniac,  which  is  almost  the  same, 
and  continuous  with  the  Hermionic.  Upon  the  Isthmus  is  the 
temple  of  the  Isthmian  Neptune,  shaded  above  with  a  grove  of 
pine  trees,  where  the  Corinthians  celebrated  the  Isthmian  games. 

Crommyon^  is  a  village  of  the  Corinthian  district,  and  form- 
erly belonging  to  that  of  Megaris,  where  is  laid  the  scene  of 
the  fable  of  the  Crommyonian  sow,  which,  it  is  said,  was  the 
dam  of  the  Calydonian  boar,  and,  according  to  tradition,  the 
destruction  of  this  sow  was  one  of  the  labours  of  Theseus. 

Tenea  is  a  village  of  the  Corinthian  territory,  where  there 
was  a  temple  of  Apollo  Teneates.  It  is  said  that  Archias, 
who  equipped  a  colony  for  Syracuse,  was  accompanied  by  a 
great  number  of  settlers  from  this  place  ;  and  that  this  settle- 
ment afterwards  flourished  more  than  any  others,  and  at  length 
had  an  independent  form  of  government  of  its  own.  When 
they  revolted  from  the  Corinthians,  they  attached  themselves 
to  the  Romans,  and  continued  to  subsist  when  Corinth  was 

An  answer  of  an  oracle  is  circulated,  which  was  returned 
to  an  Asiatic,  who  inquired  whether  it  was  better  to  migrate 
to  Corinth  ; 

"  Corinth  is  prosperous,  but  I  would  belong  to  Tenea  ; 

'  The  remains  of  an  ancient  place  at  the  distance  of  about  a  mile  atter 
crossing  the  Erasinus,  (Kephalari,)  are  probably  those  of  Cenchreae.  Smith. 

2  Crommyon  was  distant  120  stadia  from  Corinth,  (Thuc.  iv.  45,)  and 
appears  to  have  therefore  occupied  the  site  of  the  ruins  near  the  chapel  of 
St.  Theodoras.  The  village  of  Kineta,  which  many  modern  travellers 
suppose  to  correspond  to  Crommyon,  is  much  farther  from  Corintli  than 
120  stadia.     Smith. 

^^  STRABO.  Casaub.  380. 

which  last  word  was  perverted  by  some  through  ignorance, 
and  altered  to  Tegea.  Here,  it  is  said,  Polybus  brought  up 
QEdipus.  ^ 

There  seems  to  be  some  affinity  between  the  Tenedii  and 
these  people,  through  Tennus,  the  son  of  Cycnus,  according 
to  Aristotle  ;  the  similarity,  too,  of  the  divine  honours  paid 
by  both  to  Apollo  affords  no  slight  proof  of  this  relationship.! 
^^^.JiilSSEiSlhians^  when  subject  to  Philip,  jespoused  his 
.jm^y^J:y. .iSfialausIy^and  individually  conducted  theniselves" 
SQ  contemptuously  towards  the  Romans,  that  persons  ventured 
to  throw  down  filth  upon  their  ambassadors,  when  passing  by 
their  houses.  They  were  immediately  punished  for  these  and 
other  offences  and  insults.  A  large  army  was  sent  out  under 
the  command  of  Lucius  Mummius,  who  razed  the  city.^  The 
rest  of  the  country,  as  far  as  Macedonia,  was  subjected  to  the 
Romans  under  different  generals.  The  Sicyonii,  however, 
had  the  largest  part  of  the  Corinthian  territory. 

Polybius  relates  with  regret  what  occurred  at  the  capture 
of  the  city,  and  speaks  of  the  indifference  the  soldiers  showed 
for  works  of  art,  and  the  sacred  offerings  of  the  temples.  He 
says,  that  he  was  present,  and  saw  pictures  thrown  upon  the 
ground,  and  soldiers  playing  at  dice  upon  them.  Among 
others,  he  specifies  by  name  the  picture  of  Bacchus  ^  by  Aris- 
teides,  (to  which  it  is  said  the  proverb  was  applied,  "  Nothing 
to  the  Bacchus,")  and  Hercules  tortured  in  the  robe,  the  gif^ 
of  Deianeira.^  This  I  have  not  myself  seen,  but  I  have  seen  the 
picture  of  the  Bacchus  suspended  in  the  Demetreium  at  Rome, 
a  very  beautiful  piece  of  art,  which,  together  with  the  temple, 
was  lately  consumed  by  fire.  The  greatest  number  and  the 
finest  of  the  other  offerings  in  Rome  were  brought  from  Cor- 
inth. Some  of  them  were  in  the  possession  of  the  cities  in 
the  neighbourhood  of  Rome.      For  Mummius   being  more 

'  According  to  Pausanias,  the  Teneates  derive  their  origin  from  the 
Trojans  taken  captive  at  the  island  of  Tenedos.  On  their  arrival  in  Pelo- 
ponnesus, Tenea  was  assigned  to  them  as  a  habitation  by  Agamemnon. 

'■^  B.  c.  146. 

3  Aristeides  of  Thebes,  a  contemporary  of  Alexander  the  Great.  At  a 
public  sale  of  the  spoils  of  Corinth,  King  Attalus  offered  so  large  a  price 
for  the  painting  of  Bacchus,  that  Mummius,  although  ignorant  of  art,  was 
attracted  by  the  enormity  of  the  price  offered,  withdrew  the  picture,  in 
spite  of  the  protestations  of  Attalus,  and  sent  it  to  Rome. 

*  This  story  forms  the  subject  of  the  Trachiniae  of  Sophocles. 


B.  VIII.  c.  VI.  §  23.  COEINTH.    SICYON.  66 

brave  and  generous  than  an  admirer  of  the  arts,  presented 
them  without  hesitation  to  those  who  asked  for  them.^  Lu- 
cuUus,  having  built  the  temple  of  Good  Fortune,  and  a  porti- 
co, requested  of  Mummius  the  use  of  some  statues,  under  the 
pretext  of  ornamenting  the  temple  with  them  at  the  time  of 
its  dedication,  and  promised  to  restore  them.  He  did  not, 
however,  restore,  but  presented  them  as  sacred  oflferings,  and 
told  Mummius  to  take  them  away  if  he  pleased.  Mummius 
did  not  resent  this  conduct,  not  caring  about  the  statues,  but 
obtained  more  honour  than  Lucullus,  who  presented  them  as 
sacred  offerings. 

f\nvhn^  rpmmnprl  n  Inng  ||Tr^e  dcscrted,  till  at  length  it  was        1     J 
^r^d  ^'^  fl^ff^v^t  ^f  its  patural  advantages  by  divus  Caesar,     (\0^ 
who  sent  colonists  thither,  who  consisted,  tor  the  most  part,  ot 
the  descendants  of  free-men. 

On  moving  the  ruins,  and  digging  open  the  sepulchres, 
an  abundance  of  works  in  pottery  with  figures  on  them,  and 
many  in  brass,  were  found.  The  workmanship  was  admired, 
and  all  the  sepulchres  were  examined  with  the  greatest  care. 
Thus  was  obtained  a  large  quantity  of  things,  which  were 
disposed  of  at  a  great  price,  and  Rome  filled  with  Necro- 
Corinthia,  by  which  name  were  distinguished  the  articles  taken 
out  of  the  sepulchres,  and  particularly  the  pottery.  At  first 
these  latter  were  held  in  as  much  esteem  as  the  works  of  the 
Corinthian  artists  in  brass,  but  this  desire  to  have  them  did 
not  continue,  not  only  because  the  supply  failed,  but  because 
the  greatest  p?rt  of  them  were  not  well  executed.^ 
^T^^TQ^^f^^f  PnyinfTi  w^°J^j:gfi  P"^  ^f^llf^"^  ft  all  pcHods, 
anri  promlced  a  great  number  of  staiesi»«»-«»d™i 
here  in  particular,  and  at  SIcyon,  flourished  painting,  and 
naodeliillg,  and  every  art  of  this  kind. 

The^QiljffiaajiQt.y^ry  fertile ;  its  surface  was  uneven  and 

'  Mummius  was  so  ignorant  of  the  arts,  that  he  threatened  those  who 
were  intrusted  with  the  care  of  conveying  to  Rome  the  pictures  and  sta- 
tHi^s  taken  at  Corinth,  to  have  them  replaced  by  new  ones  at  their  ex- 
pense, in  case  they  should  be  so  unfortunate  as  to  lose  them. 

*  The  plastic' krt  was  invented  at  Sicyon  by  Dibutades  ;  according  to 
others,  at  the  island  of  Samos,  by  Roecus  and  Theodorus.  From  Greece  it 
was  carried  into  Etruria  by  Demaratus,  who  was  accompanied  by  Eucheir 
and  Eugrammus,  plastic  artists,  and  by  the  painter  Cleophantus  of  Cor- 
inth, B.  c.  663.  See  b.  v.  c.  ii.  §  2. 

VOL.  n.  F 

^  STRABO.  Casaub.  382. 

rugged,  whence^l  writers  describe  Corinth  as  full  of  brows 
of  hills,  and  apply llie"provefb,  ~— — — -— 

--------*'=€«riB^rTiserWt!iri5f bw^  hills,  and  sinks  into  hollows." 

24.  Orneae  has  the  same  name  as  the  river  which  flows  be- 
side it.  At  present  it  is  deserted ;  formerly,  it  was  well  in- 
habited, and  contained  a  temple  of  Priapus,  held  in  veneration. 
It  is  from  this  place  that  Euphronius,  (Euphorius  ?)  the  author 
of  a  poem,  the  Priapeia,  applies  the  epithet  Orneates  to  the 

It  was  situated  above  the  plain  of  the  Sicyonians,  but  the 
Argives  were  masters  of  the  country. 

Arasthyrea^  is  now  called  Phliasia.  It  had  a  city  of  the 
same  name  as  the  country  near  the  mountain  Celossa.  They 
afterwards  removed  thence  and  built  a  city  at  the  distance  of 
30  stadia,  which  they  called  Phlius.^  Part  of  the  mountain 
Celossa  is  the  Carneates,  whence  the  Asopus  takes  its  rise, 
which  flows  by  Sicyon,^  and  forms  the  Asopian  district, 
which  is  a  part  of  Sicyonia.  There  is  also  an  Asopus,  which 
flows  by  Thebes,  and  Plataea,  and  Tanagra.  There  is  another 
also  in  Heracleia  Trachinia,  which  flows  beside  a  village, 
called  Parasopii,  and  a  fourth  at  Paros. 

Phlius  is  situated  in  the  middle  of  a  circle  formed  by  Sicy- 
onia, Argeia,  Cleonse,  and  Stymphalus.  At  Phlius  and  at 
Sicyon  the  temple  of  Dia,  a  name  given  to  Hebe,  is  held  in 

25.  Sicyon  was  formerly  called  Mecone,  and  at  a  still  earlier 
period,  JEgiali.  It  was  rebuilt  high  up  in  the  country  about 
20,  others  say,  about  12,  stadia  from  the  sea,  upon  an  eminence 
naturally  strong,  which  is  sacred  to  Ceres.  The  buildings 
anciently  consisted  of  a  naval  arsenal  and  a  harbour. 

Sicyonia  is  separated  by  the  river  Nemea  from  the  Corinth- 
ian territory.  It  was  formerly  governed  for  a  very  long  pe- 
riod by  tyrants,  but  they  were  always  persons  of  mild  and 
moderate  disposition.  Of  these,  the  most  illustrious  was 
Aratus,  who  made  the  city  free,  and  was  the  chief  of  the 
Achaeans,  who  voluntarily  conferred  upon  him  that  power ; 

»  II.  ii.  571. 

'  The  rums  are  situated  below  the  monastery  Kesra. 

^  Vasilika. 

B.  VIII.  C.  VII. 

ACHAIA.  67 

he  extended  the  confederacy  by  annexing  to  it  his  own  coun- 
try, and  the  other  neighbouring  cities. 

Hyperesia,  and  the  cities  next  in  order  in  the  Catalogue  of 
the  poet,  and  iEgialus,^  [or  the  sea-coast,]  as  far  as  Dyme,  and 
the  borders  of  the  Eleian  territory,  belong  to  the  Achaeans. 


1.  The  lonians,  who  were  descendants  of  the  Athenians, 
were,  anciently,  masters  of  this  country.  It  was  formerly 
called  ^gialeia,  and  the  inhabitants  ^gialeans,  but  in  later 
times,  Ionia,  from  the  former  people,  as  Attica  had  the  name 
of  Ionia,  from  Ion  the  son  of  Xuthus. 

It  is  said,  that  Hellen  was  the  son  of  Deucalion,  and  that 
he  governed  the  country  about  Phthia  between  the  Peneius 
and  Asopus,  and  transmitted  to  his  eldest  son  these  dominions, 
sending  the  others  out  of  their  native  country  to  seek  a  settle- 
ment each  of  them  for  himself.  Dorus,  one  of  them,  settled 
the  Dorians  about  Parnassus,  and  when  he  left  them,  they  bore 
his  name.  Xuthus,  another,  married  the  daughter  of  Erech- 
theus,  and  was  the  founder  of  the  Tetrapolis  of  Attica,  which 
consisted  of  QEnoe,  Marathon,  Probalinthus,  and  Tricorythus. 

Achseus,  one  of  the  sons  of  Xuthus,  having  committed  an 
accidental  murder,  fled  to  Lacedaemon,  and  occasioned  the  in- 
habitants to  take  the  name  of  Achasans.^ 

Ion,  the  other  son,  having  vanquished  the  Thracian  army 
with  their  leader  Eumolpus,  obtained  so  much  renown,  that 
the  Athenians  intrusted  him  with  the  government  of  their 
state.  It  was  he  who  first  distributed  the  mass  of  the  people 
into  four  tribes,  and  these  again  into  four  classes  according  to 
their  occupations,  husbandmen,  artificers,  priests,  and  the 
fourth,  military  guards ;  after  having  made  many  more  regu- 
lations of  this  kind,  he  left  to  the  country  his  own  name. 

'  ^gialus  was  the  most  ancient  name  of  Achaia,  and  was  given  to  it 
on  account  of  the  greater  number  of  cities  being  situated  upon  the  coast. 
The  Sicyonians,  however,  asserted  that  the  name  was  derived  from  one 
of  their  kings  named  iEgialeus. 

'  The  story  is  narrated  differently  in  Pausanias,  b.  vii.  c.  1. 
F  2 

68  STRABO.  Casaub.  383. 

It  happened  at  that  time  that  the  country  had  such  an 
abundance  of  inhabitants,  that  the  Athenians  sent  out  a  colo- 
ny of  lonians  to  Peloponnesus,  and  the  tract  of  country 
which  they  occupied  was  called  Ionia  after  their  own  name, 
instead  of  JEgialeia,  and  the  inhabitants  lonians  instead  of 
JEgialeans,  who  were  distributed  among  twelve  cities. 

After  the  return  of  the  Heracleidae,  these  lonians,  being 
expelled  by  the  Achaeans,  returned  to  Athens,  whence,  in  con- 
junction with  the  Codridae,  (descendants  of  Codrus,)  they  sent 
out  the  Ionian  colonists  to  Asia.^  They  founded  twelve  cities 
on  the  sea-coast  of  Caria  and  Lydia,  having  distributed  them- 
selves over  the  country  into  as  many  parts  as  they  occupied  in 

The  Achaeans  were  Phthiotae  by  descent,  and  were  settled  at 
Lacedaemon,  but  when  the  Heracleidae  became  masters  of  the 
country,  having  recovered  their  power  under  Tisamenus,  the 
son  of  Orestes,  they  attacked  the  lonians,  as  I  said  before, 
and  defeated  them.  They  drove  the  lonians  out  of  the  coun- 
try, and  took  possession  of  the  territory,  but  retained  the 
same  partition  of  it  which  they  found  existing  there.  They 
became  so  powerful,  that,  although  the  Heracleidae,  from  whom 
they  had  revolted,  occupied  the  rest  of  Peloponnesus,  yet  they 
defended  themselves  against  them  all,  and  called  their  own 
country  Achaea. 

From  Tisamenus  to  Ogyges  they  continued  to  be  governed 
by  kings.  Afterwards  they  established  a  democracy,  and  ac- 
<iuired  so  great  renown  for  their  political  wisdom,  that  the 
Italian  Greeks,  after  their  dissensions  with  the  Pythagoreans, 
adopted  most  of  the  laws  and  institutions  of  the  Achaeans.  After 
the  battle  of  Leuctra  the  Thebans  ^  committed  the  disputes  of 
the  cities  among  each  other  to  the  arbitration  of  the  Achaeans. 
At  a  later  period  their  community  was  dissolved  by  the  Mace- 
donians, but  they  recovered  by  degrees  their  former  power. 
At  the  time  of  the  expedition  of  Pyrrhus  into  Italy  they  be- 

'  About  1044  B.  c. 

2  The  twelve  cities  were  Phocaea,  Erythrse/Clazomenae,  Teos,  Lebedos, 
Colophon,  Ephesus,  Priene,  Myus,  Miletus,  and  Samos  and  Chios  in  the 
neighbouring  islands.  See  b.  xiv.  c  i.  §  3.  This  account  of  the  expul- 
sion of  the  lonians  from  Peloponnesus  is  taken  from  Polybius,  b.  ii.  c. 
41,  and  b.  iv.  c,  1. 

^  And  Lacedaemonians,  adds  Polybius,  b.  ii.  c.  39. 

B.  vni.  c.  VII.  §  2.  ACHAIA.  69 

gan  with  the  union  of  four  cities,  among  which  were  Patrae 
and  Djme.^  They  then  had  an  accession  of  the  twelve  cities, 
with  the  exception  of  Olenus  and  Helice ;  the  former  refused 
to  join  the  league ;  the  other  was  swallowed  up  by  the  waves. 
2.  For  the  sea  was  raised  to  a  great  height  by  an  earth- 
quake, and  overwhelmed  both  Helice  and  the  temple  of  the 
Heliconian  Neptune,  whom  the  lonians  still  hold  in  great 
veneration,  and  offer  sacrifices  to  his  honour.  They  celebrate 
at  that  spot  the  Panionian  festival.^  According  to  the  con- 
jecture of  some  persons,  Homer  refers  to  these  sacrifices  in 
these  lines, 

"  But  he  breathed  out  his  soul,  and  bellowed,  as  a  bull 

Bellows  when  he  is  dragged  round  the  altar  of  the  Heliconian  king."' 

It  is  conjectured  that  the  age  '*  of  the  poet  is  later  than  the 
migration  of  the  Ionian  colony,  because  he  mentions  the  Pani- 
onian sacrifices,  which  the  lonians  perform  in  honour  of  the 
Heliconian  Neptune  in  the  territory  of  Priene ;  for  the  Pri- 
enians  themselves  are  said  to  have  come  from  Helice ;  a  young 
man  also  of  Priene  is  appointed  to  preside  as  king  at  these 
sacrifices,  and  to  superintend  the  celebration  of  the  sacred 
rites.  A  still  stronger  proof  is  adduced  from  what  is  said  by 
the  poet  respecting  the  bull,  for  the  lonians  suppose,  that  sacri- 
fice is  performed  with  favourable  omens,  when  the  bull  bel- 
lows at  the  instant  that  he  is  wounded  at  the  altar. 

Others  deny  this,  and  transfer  to  Helice  the  proofs  alleged 
of  the  bull  and  the  sacrifice,  asserting  that  these  things  were 
done  there  by  established  custom,  and  that  the  poet  drew  his 
comparison  from  the  festival  celebrated  there.  Helice  ^  was 
overwhelmed  by  the  waves  two  years  before  the  battle  of 

*  Patras  and  Paleocastro. 

'  This  festival,  Panionium,  or  assembly  of  all  the  lonians,  was  cele- 
brated at  Mycale,  or  at  Priene  at  the  base  of  Mount  Mycale,  opposite  the 
island  of  Samos,  in  a  place  sacred  to  Neptune.  The  lonians  had  a  temple 
also  at  Miletus  and  another  at  Teos,  both  consecrated  to  the  Heliconian 
Neptune.     Herod,  i.  148.  Pausanias,  b.  vii.  c.  24. 

»  II.  XX.  403. 

*  The  birth  of  Homer  was  later  than  the  establishment  of  the  lonians  in 
Asia  Minor,  according  to  the  best  authors.  Aristotle  makes  him  contem- 
porary with  the  Ionian  migration,  140  years  after  the  Trojan  war. 

*  jElian,  De  Natura  Anim.  b.  ii.  c.  19,  and  Pausanias,  b.  vii.  c.  24, 
25,  give  an  account  of  this  catastrophe,  which  was  preceded  by  an  earth- 
quake, and  was  equally  destructive  to  the  city  Bura.  b.  c.  373. 


STRABO.  Casaub.  384. 

Leuctra.  Eratosthenes  says,  that  he  himself  saw  the  place, 
and  the  ferrymen  told  him  that  there  formerly  stood  in  the 
strait  a  brazen  statue  of  Neptune,  holding  in  his  hand  a  hip- 
pocampus,^ an  animal  which  is  dangerous  to  fishermen. 
^  According  to  Heracleides,  the  inundation  took  place  in  his 
time,  and  during  the  night.  The  city  was  at  the  distance 
of  12  stadia  from  the  sea,  which  overwhelmed  the  whole  inter- 
mediate country  as  well  as  the  city.  Two  thousand  men  were 
sent  by  the  Acha-ans  to  collect  the  dead  bodies,  but  in  vain. 
The  territory  was  divided  among  the  bordering  people.  This 
calamity  happened  in  consequence  of  the  anger  of  Neptune, 
for  the  lonians,  who  were  driven  from  Helice,  sent  particularly 
to  request  the  people  of  Helice  to  give  them  the  image  of 
Neptune,  or  if  they  were  unwilling  to  give  that,  to  furnish 
them  with  the  model  of  the  temple.  On  their  refusal,  the 
lonians  sent  to  the  Achaean  body,  who  decreed,  that  they  should 
comply  with  the  request,  but  they  would  not  obey  even  this 
injunction.  The  disaster  occurred  in  the  following  winter, 
and  after  this  the  Achaeans  gave  the  lonians  the  model  of  the 

Hesiod  mentions  another  Helice  in  Thessaly. 

3.  The  Achaeans,  during  a  period  of  five  and  twenty  years, 
elected,  annually,  a  common  secretary,  and  two  military  chiefs. 
Their  common  assembly  of  the  council  met  at  one  place,  called 
Arnarium,  (Homarium,  or  Amarium,)  where  these  persons, 
and,  before  their  time,  the  lonians,  consulted  on  public  affairs. 
They  afterwards  resolved  to  elect  one  military  chief.  When 
Aratus  held  this  post,  he  took  the  Acrocorinthus  from  Anti- 
gonus,  and  annexed  the  city  as  well  as  his  own  country  to 
the  Ach^an  league.^  He  admitted  the  Megareans  also  into 
the  body,  and,  having  destroyed  the  tyrannical  governments  in 
each  state,  he  made  them  members,  after  they  were  restored 
to  liberty,  of  the  Achjean  league.  *****     He  freed,  in  a 

^  The  Syngathus  Hippocampus  of  Linnaeus,  from  tTTTrof ,  a  horse,  and 
Ka/xTTij,  a  caterpillar.  It  obtained  its  name  from  the  supposed  resemblance 
of  its  head  to  a  horse  and  of  its  tail  to  a  caterpillar.  From  this  is  de- 
rived the  fiction  of  sea-monsters  in  attendance  upon  the  marine  deities. 
It  is,  however,  but  a  small  animal,  abundant  in  the  Mediterranean. 
The  head,  especially  when  dried,  is  like  that  of  a  horse.  Pliny,  b.  xxxii. 
c.  9—11.  -^lian,  De  Nat.  Anim.  b.  xiv.  c.  20. 

-  This  distinguished  man  was  elected  general  of  the  Achaean  League, 
B.C.  245.  ^ 

B.  VIII.  c.  VII.  §  4.  ACHAIA.  71 

short  time,  Peloponnesus  from  the  existing  tyrannies;  thus 
Argos,  Hermion,  Phlius,  and  Megalopolis,  the  largest  of  the 
Arcadian  cities,  were  added  to  the  Achaean  body,  when  they 
attained  their  greatest  increase  of  numbers.  It  was  at  this 
time  that  the  Romans,  having  expelled  the  Carthaginians 
from  Sicily,  undertook  an  expedition  against  the  Galatae, 
who  were  settled  about  the  Po.^  The  Achaeans  remained 
firmly  united  until  Philopoemen  had  the  military  command, 
but  their  union  was  gradually  dissolved,  after  the  Romans 
had  obtained  possession  of  the  whole  of  Greece.  The  Ro- 
mans did  not  treat  each  state  in  the  same  manner,  but  per- 
mitted some  to  retain  their  own  form  of  government,  and  dis- 
solved that  of  others.  *  *  *  *  * 
«             *             *             *             *             *             * 

[He  then  assigns  reasons  for  expatiating  on  the  subject  of  the 
Achaeans,  namely,  their  attainment  of  such  a  degree  of  power 
as  to  be  superior  to  the  Lacedagmonians,  and  because  they 
were  not  as  well  known  as  they  deserved  to  be  from  their  im- 
portance.] ^ 

4.  The  order  of  the  places  which  the  Achaeans  inhabited,  ac- 
cording to  the  distribution  into  twelve  parts,  is  as  follows. 
Next  to  Sicyon  is  Pellene ;  ^geira,  the  second ;  the  third, 
JEgsd,  with  a  temple  of  Neptune ;  Bura,  the  fourth ;  then 
Helice,  where  the  lonians  took  refuge  after  their  defeat  by  the 
Achseans,  and  from  which  place  they  were  at  last  banished ; 
after  Helice  are  ^gium,  Rhypes,  Patrae,  and  Phara ;  then  Ole- 
nus,  beside  which  runs  the  large  river  [Peirus  ?]  ;  then  Dyme, 
and  Tritseeis.  The  lonians  dwelt  in  villages,  but  the  Achaeans 
founded  cities,  to  some  of  which  they  afterwards  united  others 
transferred  from  other  quarters,  as  ^gae  to  JEgeira,  (the  in- 
habitants, however,  were  called  ^gaei,)  and  Olenus  to  Dyme. 

Traces  of  the  ancient  settlement  of  the  Olenii  are  to  be 
seen  between  Patrae  and  Dyme :  there  also  is  the  famous  tem- 
ple of  ^sculapius,  distant  from  Dyme  40,  and  from  Patrae  80 

In  Euboea  there  is  a  place  of  the  same  name  with  the 

*  The  expulsion  of  the  Carthaginians  from  Sicily  took  place  241  b.  c. 
The  war  of  the  Romans  against  the  Cisalpine  Gauls  commenced  224  b.  c, 
when  the  Romans  passed  the  Po  for  the  first  time. 

^  Text  abbreviated  by  the  copyist. 

"^^  STRABO.  Casatjb.  386. 

-^gas  here,  and  there  is  a  town  of  the  name  of  Olenus  in 
^tolia,  of  which  there  remain  only  vestiges. 

The  poet  does  not  mention  the  Olenus  in  Achaia,  nor  many 
Other  people  living  near  ^gialus,  but  speaks  in  general  terms  j 

*'  along  the  whole  of  iEgialus,  and  about  the  spacious  Helice."  * 
But  he  mentions  the  iEtolian  Olenus  in  these  words  j 
"  those  who  occupied  Pleuron  and  Olenus."  '^ 

He  mentions  both  the  places  of  the  name  of  ^g£e;  the 
Achaean  JEgae  in  these  terms, 

"  who  bring  presents  to  Helice,  and  to  ^gje."  « 

But  when  he  says, 

"  ^gae,  where  his  palace  is  in  the  depths  of  the  sea, 
There  Neptune  stopped  his  coursers,"  * 

it  is  better  to  understand  ^gae  in  Euboea;  whence  it  is 
probable  the  ^g£ean  Sea  had  its  name.  On  this  sea,  accord- 
mg  to  story,  Neptune  made  his  preparations  for  the  Troian 
war.  "^ 

Close  to  the  Achaean  ^gae  flows  the  river  Crathis,^  aug- 
mented by  the  waters  of  two  rivers,  and  deriving  its  name 
from  the  mixture  of  their  streams.  To  this  circumstance  the 
river  Crathis  in  Italy  owes  its  name. 

5.^  Each  of  these  twelve  portions  contained  seven  or  eight 
demi,  so  great  was  the  population  of  the  country. 

Pellene,6  situated  at  the  distance  of  60  stadia  from  the  sea, 
is  a  strong  fortress.  There  is  also  a  village  of  the  name  of 
Pellene,  whence  they  bring  the  Pellenian  mantles,  which  are 
offered  as  prizes  at  the  public  games.  It  lies  between  ^gium^ 
and  Pellene.  But  Pellana,  a  different  place  from  these,  be- 
longs to  the  Lacedaemonians,  and  is  situated  towards  the  ter- 
ritory of  Megalopolitis. 

«  II.  ii.  576.  «  II.  ii.  639.  8  II.  viii  203. 

*  II.  xiii.  21,  34. 

*  Kpa^tf— K(oa0^j/at.  The  Acrata.  The  site  of  ^g£e  is  probably  the 
Khan  of  Acrata.     Smith. 

«  From  the  heights  on  which  it  was  situated,  descends  a  small  river, 
(the  Crius,)  which  discharges  itself  into  the  sea  near  Cape  Augo- 

'  Vostitza. 

B.  viii.  c.  VII.  §  5.  ACHAIA.  73 

^geira '  is  situated  upon  a  hill.  Bura  is  at  the  distance 
from  the  sea-coast  of  about  40  stadia.  It  was  swallowed  up 
by  an  earthquake.  It  is  said,  that  from  the  fountain  Sybaris 
which  is  there,  the  river  Sybaris  in  Italy  had  its  name. 

Mga  (for  this  is  the  name  by  which  jEgae  is  called)  is  not 
now  inhabited,  but  the  ^gienses  occupy  the  territory.  JEgium, 
however,  is  well  inhabited.  It  was  here,  it  is  said,  that  Ju- 
piter was  suckled  by  a  goat,  as  Aratus  also  says, 

"  the  sacred  goat,  -wliicli  is  said  to  have  applied  its  teats  to  the  lips  of 

lie  adds,  that, 

"the  priests  call  it  the  Olenian  goat  of  Jupiter," 

and  indicates  the  place  because  it  was  near  Olenus.  There 
also  is  Ceryneia,  situated  upon  a  lofty  rock.  This  place,  and 
Helice,  belong  to  the  ^gienses,^  and  the  iEnarium,  [Homari- 
um,]the  grove  of  Jupiter,  where  the  Achaeans  held  their  con- 
vention, when  they  were  to  deliberate  upon  their  common  affairs. 

The  river  Selinus  flows  through  the  city  of  the  ^gienses. 
It  has  the  same  name  as  that  which  was  beside  Artemisium 
at  Ephesus,  and  that  in  Elis,  which  has  its  course  along  the 
spot,  that  Xenophon'*  says  he  purchased  in  compliance  with 
the  injunction  of  an  oracle,  in  honour  of  Artemis.  There  is 
also  another  Selinus  in  the  country  of  the  Hybloei  Mega- 
tenses,  whom  the  Carthaginians  expelled. 

Of  the  remaining  Achaean  cities,  or  portions,  Rhypes  is  not 
inhabited,  but  the  territory  called  Rhypis  was  occupied  by 
^gienses  and  Pharians.      jEschylus  also  says  somewhere, 

"the  sacred  Bura,  and  Rhypes  struck  with  lightning." 

Myscellus,  the  founder  of  Croton,  was  a  native  of  Rhypes. 
Leuctrum,  belonging  to  the  district  Rhypis,  was  a  demus 
of  Rhypes.  Between  these  was  Patrae,  a  considerable  city, 
and  in  the  intervening  country,  at  the  distance  of  40  sta- 
dia from  Patrae,  are  Rhium,^  and  opposite  to  it,  Antir- 
rhium.^  Not  long  since  the  Romans,  after  the  victory  at  Ac- 
tium,  stationed  there  a  large  portion  of  their  army,  and  at 

*  Leake  places  the  port  of  ^geira  at  Maura-Litharia,  the  Black  Rocks, 
on  the  left  of  which  on  the  summit  of  a  hill  are  some  vestiges  of  an  an- 
ient city,  which  must  have  been  ^geira. 

»  Phoen.  163.  ^  See  above,  §  8.  ♦  Anab.  v.  3.  8. 

*  Castel  di  Morea.  *  Castel  di  Runieli. 

"^^  STRABO.  Casaub.  387. 

present  it  is  very  well  peopled,  since  it  is  a  colony  of  the 
Romans.  It  has  also  a  tolerably  good  shelter  for  vessels. 
Next  is  Dyme,i  a  city  without  a  harbour,  the  most  westerly  of 
all  the  cities,  whence  also  it  has  its  name.  It  was  formerly  call- 
ed Stratos.2  It  is  separated  from  Eleia  at  Buprasium  by  the 
river  Larisus,^  which  rises  in  a  mountain,  called  by  some  per- 
sons ScoUis,  but  by  Homer,  the  Olenian  rock. 

Antimachus  having  called  Dyme  Cauconis,  some  writers 
suppose  that  the  latter  word  is  used  as  an  epithet  derived 
from  the  Caucones,  who  extended  as  far  as  this  quarter,  as  I 
have  said  before.  Others  think  that  it  is  derived  from  a  river 
Caucon,  in  the  same  way  as  Thebes  has  the  appellation  of 
Dircsean,  and  Asopian ;  and  as  Argos  is  called  Inachian,  and 
Troy,  Simuntis."* 

^  A  little  before  our  time,  Dyme  had  received  a  colony  con- 
sisting of  a  mixed  body  of  people,  a  remnant  of  the  piratical 
bands,  ^yhose  haunts  Pompey  had  destroyed.  Some  he  settled 
at  Soli  in  Cilicia,  and  others  in  other  places,  and  some  in  this 

Phara  borders  upon  the  Dymasan  territory.  The  inhabit- 
ants of  this  Phara  are  called  Pharenses ;  those  of  the  Mes- 
senian  Phara,  Pharatoe.  In  the  territory  of  Phara  there  is  a 
fountain  Dirce,  of  the  same  name  as  that  at  Thebes. 

Olenus  is  deserted.  It  lies  between  Patrse  and  Dyme. 
The  territory  is  occupied  by  the  Dymaei.  Next  is  Araxus,^ 
the  promontory  of  the  Eleian  district,  distant  from  the  isth- 
mus 1000  stadia. 


1 .  Arcadia  is  situated  in  the  middle  of  Peloponnesus,  and 
contaiflaJ^he_greatest  portion  of  the  mounlainQus  tract  in  thaiL___^ 

'  Sun-set. 

^  Gossellin  suggests  that  the  name  Stratos  was  derived  from  a  spot 
called  the  Tomb  of  Sostratus,  held  in  veneration  by  the  inhabitants  of 

^  The  Risso  or  Mana. 

*  From  the  fountain  Dirce,  and  the  rivers  Asopus,  Inachus,  and 

*  Cape  Papa. 

B.  VIII.  c.  VIII.  §  2.  ARCADIA.  '75 

country.  Its  largest  mountain  is  Cjllene.^  Its  perpendicular 
""Tieiftrt^  according  to  some  writers,  is  20,  according  to  others, 
about  15  stadia. 

The  Arcadian  nations,  as  the  Azanes,  and  Parrhasii,  and 
other  similar  tribes,  seem  to  be  the  most  ancient  people  of 

In  consequence  of  the  complete  devastation  of  this  country, 
it  is  unnecessary  to  give  a  long  description  of  it.  The  cities, 
although  formerly  celebrated,  have  been  destroyed  by  con- 
tinual wars ;  and  the  husbandmen  abandoned  the  country  at 
the  time  that  most  of  the  cities  were  united  in  that  called 
Megalopolis  (the  Great  City).  At  present  Megalopolis  itself 
has  undergone  the  fate  expressed  by  the  comic  poet ; 

"the  great  city  is  a  great  desert." 

^  There  are  rich  pastures  for  cattle,  and  particularly  for  horses 
"^and  asses,^whicli  are  used  as  stallions.  The  race  of  Arcadian 
horsesTsr^ell  as  the  Argolic  and  Epidaurian,  is  preferred 
before  all  others.  The  uninhabited  tracts  of  country  in  -^tolia 
and  Acarnania  are  not  less  adapted  to  the  breeding  of  horses 
than  Thessaly. 

2.  Man  tinea  owes  its  fame  to  Epaminondas,  who  conquered 
the  Lacedaemonians  there  in  a  second  battle,  in  which  he  lost 
his  life.^ 

This  city,  together  with  Orchomenus,  Herasa,  Cleitor,  Phe- 
neus,  Stymphalus,  Msenalus,  Methydrium,  Caphyeis,  and  Cy- 
naetha,  either  exist  no  longer,  or  traces  and  signs  only  of  their 
existence  are  visible.  There  are  still  some  remains  of  Tegea, 
and  the  temple  of  the  Alaean  Minerva  remains.  The  latter 
is  yet  held  in  some  little  veneration,  as  well  as  the  temple  of 
the  Lycaean  Jupiter  on  the  Lycaean  mountain.  But  the  places 
mentioned  by  the  poet,  as 

"  Rhipe,  and  Stratia,  and  the  windy  Enispe," 

are  difficult  to  discover,  and  if  discovered,  would  be  of  no  use 
from  the  deserted  condition  of  the  country. 

*  Now  bears  the  name  of  Zyria ;  its  height,  as  determined  by  theFrench 
commission,  is  7788  feet  above  the  level  of  the  sea.     Smith. 

'  The  Arcadians  called  themselves  Autochthones,  indigenous,  and  also 
Proseleni,  born  before  the  moon ;  hence  Ovid  speaking  of  them  says, 
"  Luna  gens  prior  ilia  fuit.'* 

»  B.  c.  371. 

"^^  STRABO.  CASAim.  389. 

3.  The  mountains  of  note,  besides  Cyllene,  are  Pholoe,^  Lj- 
caeum,2  Maenalus,  and  the  Parthenium,^  as  it  is  called,  which 
extends  from  the  territory  of  Tegea  to  that  of  Argos. 

4.  We  have  spoken  of  the  extraordinary  circumstances  re- 
lative to  the  Alpheius,  Eurotas,  and  the  Erasinus,  which 
issues  out  of  the  lake  Stymphalis,  and  now  flows  into  the 
Argive  country. 

Formerly,  the  Erasinus  had  no  efflux,  for  the  Berethra, 
which  tl^e  Arcadians  call  Zerethra,'*  had  no  outlet,  so  that  the 
city  of  the  Stymphalii,  which  at  that  time  was  situated  upon 
the  lake,  is  now  at  the  distance  of  50  stadia. 

The  contrary  was  the  case  with  the  Ladon,  which  was  at 
one  time  prevented  running  in  a  continuous  stream  by  the 
obstruction  of  its  sources.  For  the  Berethra  near  Pheneum, 
through  which  it  now  passes,  fell  in  in  consequence  of  an 
earthquake,  which  stopped  the  waters  of  the  river,  and  af- 
fected far  down  the  veins  which  supplied  its  source.  This 
is  the  account  of  some  writers. 

Eratosthenes  says,  that  about  the  Pheneus,  the  river  called 
Anias  forms  a  lake,  and  then  sinks  under-ground  into  certain 
openings,  which  they  call  Zerethra.  When  these  are  ob- 
structed, the  water  sometimes  overflows  into  the  plains,  and 
when  they  are  again  open  the  water  escapes  in  a  body 
from  the  plains,  and  is  discharged  into  the  Ladon  ^  and  the  Al- 
pheius,6  so  that  it  happened  once  at  Olympia,  that  the  land 
about  the  temple  was  inundated,  but  the  lake  was  partly  emp- 
tied. The  Erasinus^  also,  he  says,  which  flows  by  Stymphalus, 
sinks  into  the  ground  under  the  mountain  (Chaon  ?),  and  re- 
appears in  the  Argive  territory.  It  was  this  that  induced 
Iphicrates,  when  besieging  Stymphalus,  and  making  no  pro- 
gress, to  attempt  to  obstruct  the  descent  of  the  river  into  the 
ground  by  means  of  a  large  quantity  of  sponges,  but  desisted 
in  consequence  of  some  portentous  signs  in  the  heavens. 

Near  the  Pheneus  there  is  also  the  water  of  the  Styx,  as  it 
is  called,  a  dripping  spring  of  poisonous  water,  which  was 
esteemed  to  be  sacred. 

So  much  then  respecting  Arcadia. 

'  Mauro  vuni.  »  Mintha.  3  Partheni. 

*  Called  Katavothra  by  modern  Greeks. 

*  The  Landona.  «  The  Carbonaro.  '  The  Kephalari. 

B.  VIII.  c.  viii.  §  5.  AECADIA.  77 

5.^  Polybius  having  said,  that  from  Maleae  towards  the  north 
as  far  as  the  Danube  the  distance  is  about  10,000  stadia,  is  cor- 
rected by  Artemidorus,  and  not  without  reason ;  for,  accord- 
ing to  the  latter,  from  Maleae  to  JEgium  the  distance  is  1400 
stadia,  from  hence  to  Cirrha  is  a  distance  by  sea  of  200  stadia ; 
hence  by  Heraclea  to  Thaumaci  a  journey  of  500  stadia ; 
thence  to  Larisa  and  the  river  Peneus,  340  stadia;  then 
through  Tempe  to  the  mouth  of  the  Peneus,  240  stadia  ;  then 
to  Thessalonica,  660  stadia;  then  to  the  Danube,  through 
Idomene,  and  Stobi,  and  Dardanii,  it  is  3200  stadia.  Ac- 
cording to  Artemidorus,  therefore,  the  distance  from  the 
Danube  to  Maleae  would  be  6500.  The  cause  of  this  differ- 
ence is  that  he  does  not  give  the  measurement  by  the  shortest 
road,  but  by  some  accidental  route  pursued  by  a  general  of  an 

It  is  not,  perhaps,  out  of  place  to  add  the  founders  men- 
tioned by  Ephorus,  who  settled  colonies  in  Peloponnesus  after 
the  return  of  the  Heracleidae ;  as  Aletes,  the  founder  of  Cor- 
inth ;  Phalces,  of  Sicyon  ;  Tisamenus,  of  cities  in  Achaea  ;  Ox- 
ylus,  of  Elis,  Cresphontes,  of  Messene ;  Eurysthenes  and  Pro- 
cles,  of  Lacedaemon  ;  Temenus  and  Cissus,  of  Argos ;  and 
Agrajus  and  Deiphontes,  of  the  towns  about  Acte. 

*  The  following  section  is  corrupt  in  the  original ;  it  is  translated  ac- 
cording to  the  corrections  proposed  by  Kramer,  Gossellin,  «&c. 

78  STRABO. 

Casaub.  390. 



Continuation  of  the  geography  of  Greece.  A  panegyrical  account  of  Athens. 
A  description  of  Boeotia  and  Thessaly,  with  the  sea-coast. 


1.  Having  completed  the  description  of  Peloponnesus, 
which  we  said  was  the  first  and  least  of  the  peninsulas  of 
which  Greece  consists,  we  must  next  proceed  to  those  which 
are  continuous  with  it.^ 

We  described  the  second  to  be  that  which  joins  Megaris 
to  the  Peloponnesus  [so  that  Crommyon  belongs  to  Megaris, 
and  not  to  the  Corinthians]  ;2  the  third  to  be  that  which  is 
situated  near  the  former,  comprising  Attica  and  Boeotia,  some 
part  of  Phocis,  and  of  the  Locri  Epicnemidii.  Of  these  we 
are  now  to  speak. 

Eudoxus  says,  that  if  we  imagine  a  straight  line  to  be 
drawn  towards  the  east  from  the  Ceraunian  Mountains  to 
Sunium,  the  promontory  of  Attica,  it  would  leave,  on  the 
right  hand,  to  the  south,  the  whole  of  Peloponnesus,  and  on 
the  left,  to  the  north,  the  continuous  coast  from  the  Ceraunian 

'  The  peninsulas  described  by  Strabo,  are : 

1.  The  Peloponnesus,  properly  so  called,  bounded  by  the  Isthmus  of 

2.  The  peninsula  bounded  by  a  line  drawn  from  Pagae  to  Nisaea,  and 
including  the  above. 

3.  The  peninsula  bounded  by  a  line  drawn  from  the  recess  of  the 
Crissaean  Gulf,  properly  so  called,  (the  Bay  of  Salona,)  to  Thermopylae, 
and  includes  the  two  first. 

4.  The  peninsula  bounded  by  a  line  drawn  from  the  Ambracic  Gulf 
to  Thermopylae  and  the  Maliac  Gulf,  and  includes  the  three  former. 

5.  The  peninsula  bounded  by  a  line  drawn  from  the  Ambracic  Gulf 
to  the  recess  of  the  Thermaic  Gulf,  and  contains  the  former  four  penin- 

'  These  words  are  transposed  from  after  the  word  Epicnemidii,  as  sug- 
gested by  Cramer. 

B.  IX.  c.  I.  §  2,  3.  ATTICA.  79 

Mountains  to  the  Crisaeau  Gulf,  and  the  whole  of  Megaris 
and  Attica.  He  is  of  opinion  that  the  shore  which  extends 
from  Sunium  to  the  Isthmus,  would  not  have  so  great  a  curva- 
ture, nor  have  so  great  a  bend,  if,  to  this  shore,  were  not 
added  the  parts  continuous  with  the  Isthmus  and  extending 
to  the  Hermionic  Bay  and  Acte ;  that  in  the  same  manner 
the  shore,  from  the  Ceraunian  Mountains  to  the  Gulf  of 
Corinth,  has  a  similar  bend,  so  as  to  make  a  curvature,  form- 
ing within  it  a  sort  of  gulf,  where  Rhium  and  Antirrhium 
contracting  together  give  it  this  figure.  The  same  is  the 
case  with  the  shore  about  Crissa  and  the  recess,  where  the 
Crissaean  Sea  terminates.^ 

2.  As  this  is  the  description  given  by  Eudoxus,  a  mathe- 
matician, skilled  in  the  delineations  of  figures  and  the  in- 
clinations of  places,  acquainted  also  with  the  places  them- 
selves, we  must  consider  the  sides  of  Attica  and  Megaris, 
extending  from  Sunium  as  far  as  the  Isthmus,  to  be  curved, 
although  slightly  so.  About  the  middle  of  the  above-men- 
tioned line  2  is  the  Piraeus,  the  naval  arsenal  of  the  Athenians. 
It  is  distant  from  Schoenus,  at  the  Isthmus,  about  350  stadia ; 
from  Sunium  330.  The  distance  from  the  Piraeus  to  Pagas^ 
and  from  the  Piraeus  to  Schoenus  is  nearly  the  same,  yet  the 
former  is  said  to  exceed  the  latter  by  10  stadia.  After  having 
doubled  Sunium,  the  navigation  along  the  coast  is  to  the 
north  with  a  declination  to  the  west. 

3^...A^te_( Attica)  is  washed  by  two   seas;   it  is  at  first 
narrow,  then  it  widens  towards  the  middle,  yeFlt,  neverlTie-^" 
less,  takes  a  lunated  bend  towards  Oropus  in  Boeotia,  having 
the  convex  side  towards  the  sea.     This  is  the  second,  the 
eastern  side  of  Attica. 

The  remaining  side  is  that  to  the  north,  extending  from 
the  territory  of  Oropus  towards  the  west,  as  far  as  Megaris, 
and  consists  of  the  mountainous  tract  of  Attica,  having  a 
variety  of  names,  and  dividing  Boeotia  from  Attica ;  so  that, 
as  I  have  before  remarked,  Boeotia,  by  being  connected  with 

'  The  Crissaean  Gulf,  properly  so  called,  is  the  modern  Bay  of  Salona. 
But  probably  Strabo  (or  rather  Eudoxus,  whose  testimony  he  alleges)  in- 
tended to  comprehend,  under  the  denomination  of  Crissaean,  the  whole 
gulf,  more  commonly  called  Corinthian  by  the  ancients,  that  is,  the  gulf 
which  commenced  at  the  strait  between  Rhium  and  Antirrhium,  and  of 
which  the  Crissaean  Gulf  was  only  a  portion.  The  text  in  the  above 
passage  is  very  corrupt. 

^  From  Sunium  to  the  Isthmus.  ^  Libadostani. 

80  STRABO.  Casaub.  391. 

two  seas,  becomes  the  Isthmus  of  the  third  peninsula,  which 
we  have  mentioned  before,  and  this  Isthmus  includes  within 
it  the  Peloponnesus,  Megaris,  and  Attica.  For  this  reason 
therefore  the  present  Attica  was  called  by  a  play  upon  the 
words  Acta  and  Actica,  because  the  greatest  part  of  it  lies 
under  the  mountains,  and  borders  on  the  sea  ;  it  is  narrow, 
and  stretches  forwards  a  considerable  length  as  far  as  Suni- 
um.  We  shall  therefore  resume  the  description  of  these 
sides,  beginning  from  the  sea-coast,  at  the  point  where  we 
left  off. 

4.  After  Crommyon,  rising  above  Attica,  are  the  rocks 
called  Scironides,  which  afford  no  passage  along  the  sea-side. 
Over  them,  however,  is  a  road  which  leads  to  Megara  and 
Attica  from  the  Isthmus.  The  road  approaches  so  near  the 
rocks  that  in  many  places  it  runs  along  the  edge  of  precipices, 
for  the  overhanging  mountain  is  of  great  height,  and  impass- 

Here  is  laid  the  scene  of  the  fable  of  Sciron,  and  the 
Pityocamptes,  or  the  pine-breaker,  one  of  those  who  infested 
with  their  robberies  the  above-mentioned  mountainous  tract. 
They  were  slain  by  Theseus. 

The  wind  Argestes,'  which  blows  from  the  left  with 
violence,  from  these  summits  is  called  by  the  Athenians 

After  the  rocks  Scironides  there  projects  the  promontory 
Minoa,  forming  the  harbour  of  Nissea.  Nisaea  is  the  arsenal 
of  Megara,  and  distant  18  stadia  from  the  city ;  it  is  join- 
ed to  it  by  walls  on  each  side.^  This  also  had  the  name  of 

5.  In  former  times  the  lonians  occupied  this  country,  and 
were  also  in  possession  of  Attica,  before  the  time  of  the 
building  of  Megara,  wherefore  the  poet  does  not  mention 
these  places  by  any  appropriate  name,  but  when  he  calls  all 
those  dwelling  in  Attica,  Athenians,  he  comprehends  these 
also  in  the  common  appellation,  regarding  them  as  Athenians ; 
so  when,  in  the  Catalogue  of  the  Ships,  he  says, 

"  And  they  who  occupied  Athens,  a  well-built  city,"^ 

'  N.  W.  by  W.,  i  W. 

'  Literally,  "  by  legs  on  each  side."  Nisaea  was  united  to  Megara,  as 
the  Piraeus  to  Athens,  by  two  long  walls.  ^  n  j^^  r^^Q^ 

B.  IX.  c.  I.  §  6,  7.  ATTICA.  81 

we  must  understand  the  present  Megarenses  also,  as  having 
taken  a  part  in  the  expedition.  The  proof  of  this  is,  that 
Attica  was,  in  former  times,  called  Ionia,  and  las,  and  when 
the  poet  says, 

"  There  the  Boeoti,  and  laones,"  ^ 

he  means  the  Athenians.  But  of  this  Ionia  Megaris  was  a 

6.  Besides,  the  Peloponnesians  and  lonians  having  had  fre- 
quent disputes  respecting  their  boundaries,  on  which  Crom- 
myonia  also  was  situated,  assembled  and  agreed  upon  a  spot 
of  the  Isthmus  itself,  on  which  they  erected  a  pillar  having 
an  inscription  on  the  part  towards  Peloponnesus, 

"this   is   TELOPONNESUS,    not   IONIA  ;'* 

and  on  the  side  towards  Megara, 

"this    is    not    PELOPONNESUS,    BUT    IONIA." 

Although  those,  who  wrote  on  the  history  of  Attica,^  differ 
in  many  respects,  yet  those  of  any  note  agree  in  this,  that 
when  there  were  four  Pandionidae,  ^geus,  Lycus,  Pallas, 
and  Nisus ;  and  when  Attica  was  divided  into  four  .por- 
tions, Nisus  obtaineiJ,'by  lot,  Megaris,  and  founded  NisaeaT 
TP1iiloChtyrugr"saysrihar^his  government  extencTpd' from' tl?e 
Isthmus  to  Pythium,^  but  according  to  Andron,  as  far  as 
Eleusis  and  the  Thriasian  plain. 

Since,  then,  different  writers  give  different  accounts  of  the 
division  of  the  country  into  four  parts,  it  is  enough  to  adduce 
these  lines  from  Sophocles  where  ^geus  says, 

"My  father  determined  that  I  should  go  away  to  Acta,  having  assigned 
to  me,  as  the  elder,  the  best  part  of  the  land  ;  to  Lycus,  the  opposite  gar- 
den of  Eubcea ;  for  Nisus  he  selects  the  irregular  tract  of  the  shore  of 
Sciron  ;  and  the  rugged  Pallas,  breeder  of  giants,  obtained  by  lot  the  part 
to  the  south."* 

Such  are  the  proofs  which  are  adduced  to  show  that  Me- 
^  garis  was  a  part  of  Attica. 

7.  After  the  returu-of-the  Heraclidae,  and  the  partition  of 
the  country,  many  of  the  former  possessors  were  banished  from 
their  own  land  hj  the  Heraclidse,  and  by  the  Dorians,  who 
came  with  them,  and  migrated  to  Attica.  Among  these  was 
Melanthus,  the  king  of  Messene.     He  was  voluntarily  ap- 

'  II.  xiii.  685.  '  See  note  to  vol.  i.  page  329. 

'  This  place  is  unkno-vvn.  ■*  From  a  lost  tragedy  of  Sophocles. 

VOL.   II.  o 


82  STRABO.  Casavb.  393. 

pointed  king  of  the  Athenians,  after  having  overcome  in 
single  combat,  Xanthus,  the  king  of  the  Boeotians.  When 
Attica  became  populous  by  the  accession  of  fugitives,  the 
HeraclidaB  were  alarmed,  and  invaded  Attica,  chiefly  at  the 
instigation  of  the  Corinthians  and  Messenians;  the  former 
of  whom  were  influenced  by  proximity  of  situation,  the  latter 
by  the  circumstance  that  Codrus,  the  son  of  Melanthus,  was 
at  that  time  king  of  Attica.  They  were,  however,  defeated 
in  battle  and  relinquished  the  whole  of  the  country,  except 
the  territory  of  Megara,  of  which  they  kept  possession,  and 
founded  the  city  Megara,  where  they  introduced  as  inhabit- 
ants Dorians  in  place  of  lonians.  They  destroyed  the  pillar 
also  which  was  the  boundary  of  the  country  of  the  lonians 
and  the  Peloponnesians. 

8.  The  city  of  the  Megarenses,  after  having  experienced 
many  changes,  still  subsists.  It  once  had  schools  of  philoso- 
phers, who  had  the  name  of  the  Megaric  sect.  They  suc- 
ceeded Euclides,  the  Socratic  philosopher,  who  was  by  birth  a 
Megarensian,  in  the  same  manner  as  the  Eleiaci,  among  whom 
was  Pyrrhon,  who  succeeded  Phaedon,  the  Eleian,  who  was  also 
a  Socratic  philosopher,  and  as  the  Eretriaci  succeeded  Mene- 
demus  the  Eretrean. 

MegaxiSyJike^Attica,  is  very  g^ATMlp^^^^nJ  th^  g^'f'ater  part  of 
it  is  occuBJgdbywhat  argnmlled  the  Oneii  mountain5^_,au-kitt4 
of  ridge,  whichTeXlendltig  fromTHe^cironides  rocks  to  Boeotia 
and  to  Cithaeron,  separates  the  sea  at  Nisasa  from  that  near 
Pagae,  called  the  Alcyonian  Sea. 

9.  In  sailing  from  Nisaea  to  Attica  there  lie,  in  the  course 
of  the  voyage,  five  small  islands.  Then  succeeds  Salamis, 
which  is  about  70,  and  according  to  others,  80,  stadia  in 
length.  It  has  two  cities  of  the  same  name.  The  ancient 
city,  which  looked  towards  ^gina,  and  to  the  south,  as 
JEschylus  has  described  it ; 

"^gina  lies  towards  the  blasts  of  the  south  :  " 

it  is  uninhabited.  The  other  is  situated  in  a  bay  on  a  spot  of  a 
peninsular  form  contiguous  to  Attica.  In  former  times  it 
had  other  names,  for  it  was  called  Sciras,  and  Cychreia,  from 
certain  heroes  ;  from  the  former  Minerva  is  called  Sciras  ; 
hence  also  Scira,  a  place  in  Attica ;  Episcirosis,  a  religious 
rite ;  and  Scirophorion,  one  of  the  months.     From  Cychreia 

B.  IX.  c.  J.§  10.  ATTICA.  83 

the  serpent  Cychrides  had  its  name,  which  Hesiod  says 
Cychreus  bred,  and  Eurylochus  ejected,  because  it  infested 
the  island,  but  that  Ceres  admitted  it  into  Eleusis,  and  it  be- 
came her  attendant.  Salamis  was  called  also  Pityussa  from 
"  pitys,"  the  pine  tree.  The  island  obtained  its  renown  from 
the  ^acidae,  who  were  masters  of  it,  particularly  from  Ajax, 
the  son  of  Telamon,  and  from  the  defeat  of  Xerxes  by  the 
Greeks  in  a  battle  on  the  coast,  and  by  his  flight  to  his  own 
country.  The  ^ginetae  participated  in  the  glory  of  that  en- 
gagement, both  as  neighbours,  and  as  having  furnished  a  con- 
siderable naval  force.  [In  Salamis  is  the  river  Bocarus,  now 
called  Bocalia.]  ^ 

10.  At  present  the  Athenians  possess  the  island  Salamis. 
In  former  times  they  disputed  the  possession  of  it  with  the 
Megarians.  Some  allege,  that  Pisistratus,  others  that 
Solon,  inserted  in  the  Catalogue  of  Ships  immediately  after 
this  verse, 

"  Ajax  conducted  from  Salamis  twelve  vessels,"  ^ 
the  following  words, 

"  And  stationed  them  by  the  side  of  the  Athenian  forces ;" 

and  appealed  to  the  poet  as  a  witness,  that  the  island  origin- 
ally belonged  to  the  Athenians.  But  this  is  not  admitted  by 
the  critics,  because  many  other  lines  testify  the  contrary. 
For  why  does  Ajax  appear  at  the  extremity  of  the  line  not 
with  the  Athenians,  but  with  the  Thessalians  under  the  com- 
mand of  Protesilaus ; 

*'  There  were  the  vessels  of  Ajax,  and  Protesilaus."  ^ 
And  Agamemnon,  in  the  Review*  of  the  troops, 

"  found  the  son  of  Peteus,  Menestheus,  the  tamer  of  horses,  standing, 
and  around  were  the  Athenians  skilful  in  war :  near  stood  the  wily 
Ulysses,  and  around  him  and  at  his  side,  the  ranks  of  the  Cephalleni ; "  * 

and  again,  respecting  Ajax  and  the  Salarainii ; 

"  he  came  to  the  Ajaces,*** 

and  near  them, 

'•  Idomeneus  on  the  other  side  amidst  the  Cretans,"  ' 

not  Menestheus.     The  Athenians  then  seem  to  have  alleired 


»  Probably  interpolated.  =  II.  ii.  557.  "  II.  xiii.  681. 

*  II.  iv.  327.  5  II.  iv.  273.  «  II.  iii.  230. 

G  2 

84  STRABO.  Casaub.  394. 

some  such  evidence  as  this  from  Homer  as  a  pretext,  and  the 
Megarians  to  have  replied  in  an  opposite  strain  of  this  kind ; 
''  Ajax  conducted  ships  from  Salamis,  from  Polichna,  from  ^girussa, 
from  Nisaea,  and  from  Tripodes,"' 

vrhich  are  places  in  Megaris,  of  which  Tripodes  has  the  name 
of  Tripodiscium,  situated  near  the  present  forum  of  Megara. 

11.  Some  say,  that  Salamis  is  unconnected  with  Attica,  be- 
cause the  priestess  of  Minerva  Polias,  who  may  not  eat  the 
new  cheese  of  Attica,  but  the  produce  only  of  a  foreign 
land,  yet  uses  the  Salaminian  cheese.  But  this  is  a  mis- 
take, for  she  uses  that  which  is  brought  from  other  islands, 
that  are  confessedly  near  Attica,  for  the  authors  of  this 
custom  considered  all  produce  as  foreign  which  was  brought 
over  sea. 

It  seems  as  if  anciently  the  present  Salamis  was  a  separate 
state,  and  that  Megara  was  a  part  of  Attica. 

On  the  sea-coast,  opposite  to  Salamis,  the  boundaries  of 
Megara  and  Attica  are  two  mountains  called  Cerata,  or 

9.  Next  is  the  ojt^Eleusis,^  in  which  isjhe  temple  of  the 
Eleusinian  Ceres,  and  the  MysticJbjnclosure  ("Secos)^,^  whigk^. 
Ictinjos  buiit,^  capable  of  containingThe  crowd  of  a  theatre. 
It  was~tliTs  person  that  built  ^  the  Parthenon  in  the  Acropolis, 
in  honour  of  Minerva,  when  Pericles  was  the  superintendent 
of  the  public  works.  The  city  is  enumerated  among  the 
demi,  or  burghs. 

13.  Then  follows  the  Thriasian  plain,  and  the  coast,  a 
demus  of  the  same  name,"^  then  the  promontory  Amphiale,^ 
above  which  is  a  stone  quarry  ;  and  then  the  passage  across 
the  sea  to  Salamis,  of  about  2  stadia,  which  Xerxes  en- 
deavoured to  fill  up  with  heaps  of  earth,  but  the  sea-fight . 
and  the  flight  of  the  Persians  occurred  before  he  had  ac- 
complished it. 

1  II.  ii.  557. 

2  These  horns,  according  to  Wheler,  are  two  pointed  rocks  on  the  sum- 
mit of  the  mountain  situated  between  Eleusis  and  Megara.  On  one  of  these 
rocks  is  a  tower,  called  by  the  modern  Greeks  Cerata  or  Kerata-Pyrga. 

^  Lepsina.  *  'LrjKOQ.  ^  KUTeffKevaaev. 

^  Ittoitjo-e.  Ictinus  was  also  the  architect  of  the  temple  of  Apollo 
Epicurius  near  Phigalia  in  Arcadia. 

^  Thria. 

8  Scaramandra ;  from  the  height  above  .-Egaleos,  Xerxes  witnessed 
the  battle  of  Salamis. 

B.  IX.  c.  I.  §  14—16.  ATTICA.  85 

There  also  are  the  Pharmacussae,^  two  small  islands,  in  the 
larger  of  which  is  shown  the  tomb  of  Circe. 

14.  Above  this  coast  is  a  mountain  called  Corydallus,  and 
the  demus  Corjdalleis  :  then  the  harbour  of  Phoron,  (Robbers,) 
and  Psyttalia,  a  small  rocky  desert  island,  which,  according  to 
some  writers,  is  the  eye-sore  of  the  Piraeus. 

Near  it  is  Atalanta,  of  the  same  name  as  that  between 
Euboea  and  the  Locri ;  and  another  small  island  similar  to 
Psyttalia  i  thenthePirgus,  which  is  also  reckoned  among  the_ 

L5.  The  Munychia  is__a  hill  in  the  shape  of  a^eniufmln 
hollow,  and  a  great  part  of  it  excavated  both  by^atureand 
"art,  soas^o  serve  for  dwellings,  with  an  entrance  by  a  nar- 
— jQw  opening.  Beneath  it  are  three  harbours.  J^'ormerly  the 
Munychia  was  surrounded  by  a  wall,  and  occupied  by  dwell- 
ings, nearly  in  the  same  manner  as  the  city  of  the  Rhodians, 
comprehending  within  the  circuit  of  the  walls  the  Piraeus  and 
the  harbours  fulL-o£-mat^ria1fi^for  ship-Sufldlng ;  ""TTere  also 
was  the  armoury,  the  work  of  Philon.  "^'hp  nniVnl^^ation 
was  capable  of  receiving  the  four  hundred  vessels  ;^which 
was  the  smallest  number  the  Athenians  were  in  the  habit  of 
keeping  in  readiness  for  sea.     With  this  wall  were  connected 


Keepmg  m  reaainess  lor  sea.      vv  iin  inis  wan  were  connectea  \    ^ 
the  legs,  that  stretched  out  from  the  Asty.     Thes&.werp  tber  /OclSIs^ 

lQng_walls,3Q- ^^^'^^^    ^"    length,    joining   fhp^Asty^   in  tlm- 

Pirseus]  TTi^  in  POTisfr^iiT(Rnfp  of  frpqnpr^t  wars,  the  wall  and 
t.hp.  f()rt.ifip,ation_of_the  Munychia  were  demolished  ;  the. . 
Pir«>l]g  ^^r'^'i  rnntvsio.toAto  flr-ftffiaitztnWh,  extending  round  the 
harbfturf^^  nnd  thr  tempk  of  Jupiter  Soter.  The  small  por- 
ticoes of  the  temple  contain  admirable  paintings,  the  work  of 
celebrated  artists,  and  the  hypaethrum,  statues.  The  lon^ 
j^alls  also*  were  destroyed,  first  demolished  by  the  Lacedaemo- 
"maSl'^HT^terwarHs  by  tlieTTonians,  when  feyiia  took  tke 
"TiraBUS  and  the  Asty  by  siege.^ 

16.  What  is  properly  the  Asty  is  a  rock,  situated  in  a 
plain,  with  dwellings  around  it.     Upon  the  rock  is  the  temple 

^  Megala  Kyra,  Micra  Kyra. 

2  TO  darv,  the  Asty,  was  the  upper  town,  in  opposition  to  the  lower 
town,  of  Piraeus.  See  Smith's  Dictionary  for  a  very  able  and  interesting 
article,  At  hence  ;  also  Kiepert's  Atlas  von  Hellas. 

^  Sylla  took  Athens,  after  a  long  and  obstinate  siege,  on  the  J  st  March, 
B.  c.  86.    The  city  was  given  up  to  rapine  and  plunder. 

86  STRABO.  Casaub.  396. 

of  Minerva,  and  the  ancient  shrine  of  Minerva  Polias,  in 
which  is  the  never-extinguished  lamp  ;  .andLlh£L-Earthenon,- 
built_by  Ictinus^JnjKhiclLisJhe  Minerva,  in  ivory,  the  work 
of  Pheidias.  ~~         " 

-^"When,  however,  I  consider  the  multitude  of  objects,  so 
celebrated  and  far-famed,  belonging  to  this  city,  I  am  re- 
luctant to  enlarge  upon  them,  lest  what  I  write  should  depart 
too  far  from  the  proposed  design  of  this  work.^  For  the 
words  of  Hegesias^  occur  to  me ; 

"  I  behold  the  acropolis,  there  is  the  symbol  of  the  great  trident ;  ^  I  see 
Eleusis  ;  I  am  initiated  in  the  sacred  mysteries ;  that  is  Leoeorium  ;*  this 
the  Theseium.*  To  describe  all  is  beyond  my  power,  for  Attica  is  the 
chosen  residence  of  the  gods;  and  the  possession  of  heroes  its  pro- 

Yet  this  very  writer  mentions  only  one  of  the  remarkable 
things  to  be  seen  in  the  Acropolis.  Polemo  Periegetes  ^  how- 
ever composed  four  books  on  the  subject  of  the  sacred  offer- 
ings which  were  there.  Hegesias  is  similarly  sparing  of 
remarks  on  other  parts  of  the  city,  and  of  the  territory :  after 
speaking  of  Eleusis,  one  of  the  hundred  and  seventy  demi,  to 
which  as  they  say  four  are  to  be  added,  he  mentions  no  other 
by  name. 

17.  Many,  if  not  all  the  demi,  have  various  fabulous  tales 
and  histories  connected  with  them:  with  Aphidiia  is  con- 
nected the  rape  of  Helen  by  Theseus,  the  sack  of  the  place  by 
the  Dioscuri,  and  the  recovery  of  their  sister  rjKith  Maxa- 

'  Strabo  thus  accounts  for  his  meagre  description  of  the  public  build- 
ings at  Athens,  for  which,  otherwise,  he  seems  to  have  had  no  inclination. 

2  Hegesias  was  an  artist  of  great  celebrity,  and  a  contemporary  of 
Pheidias.  The  statues  of  Castor  and  Pollux  by  Hegesias,  are  supposed  by 
Winkelman  to  be  "the  same  as  those  which  now  stand  on  the  stairs  lead- 
ing to  the  Capitol,  but  this  is  very  doubtful.     Smith. 

^  In  the  Erechtheium. 

*  The  Heroum,  or  temple  dedicated  to  the  daughters  of  Leos,  who  were 
offered  up  by  their  father  as  victims  to  appease  the  wrath  of  Minerva  in 
a  time  of  pestilence.  The  position  of  the  temple  is  doubtfully  placed  by 
Smith  below  the  Areiopagus. 

*  The  well-known  temple  of  Theseus  being  the  best  preserved  of  all 
the  monuments  of  Greece. 

*  An  eminent  geographer.  He  made  extensive  journeys  through 
Greece  to  collect  materials  for  his  geographical  works,  and  as  a  collector 
of  inscriptions  on  votive  offerings  and  columns,  he  was  one  of  the  earlier 
contributors  to  the  Greek  Anthology.     Smith. 

B.  IX.  c.  I.  §  18, 19.  ATTICA.  87 

thon,  the  ha^^^,  ypih^i.hp'.  Persians ;  at  Rhamnus  was  the 
statue  of  Nemesis,  which,  according  to  some  writers,  is  the 
work  of  Diodotus,  according  to  others,  of  Agoracritqs,  the 
Parian,  so  well  executed,  both  as  to  size  and  beautj,  as  to 
rival  the  art  of  Pheidias.  Deceleia  was  the  rf^ndpzvQ'ig  r^f  fiia  ^ 
p^|f^)pnnnp«ait^l]<i  in  the  DeccHc  war.  From  Phyle  Thrasybu- 
lus  brought  back  the  people  to  the  Pirseus,  and  thence  to  the 
Asty.  Thus  also  much  might  be  told  respecting  many  other 
places ;  the  Leocorium,  the  Theseium,  and  the  Lyceum  have 
their  own  fables,  and  the  Olympicum,  called  also  the  Olym- 
pium,  which  the  king,  who  dedicated  it,  left,  at  his  death, 
half  finished  ;  so  also  much  might  be  said  of  the  Academia, 
of  the  gardens  of  the  philosophers,  of  the  Odeium,^  of  the 
Stoa  Poecile,  [or  painted  Portico,]  and  of  the  temples  in  the 
city,  all  of  which  contain  the  works  of  illustrious  artists. 

18.  The  account  would  be  much  longer  if  we  were  to  in- 
quire who  were  the  founders  of  the  city  from  the  time  of 
Cecrops,  for  writers  do  not  agree,  as  is  evident  from  the  names 
of  persons  and  of  places.  For  example,  Attica,^  they  say, 
was  derived  from  Actaeon ;  Atthis,  and  Attica,  from  Atthis, 
the  daughter  of  Cranaus,  from  whom  the  inhabitants  had  the 
name  Cranai ;  Mopsopia  from  Mopsopus ;  Ionia  from  Ion,  the 
son  of  Xuthus ;  Poseidonia  and  Athense,  from  the  deities  of 
that  name.  We  have  said,  that  the  nation  of  the  Pelasgi  seem 
to  have  come  into  this  country  in  the  course  of  their  migra- 
tions, and  were  called  from  their  wanderings,  by  the  Attici, 
Pelargi,  or  storks. 

19.  In  proportion  as  an  earnest  desire  is  excited  to  ascer- 
tain the  truth  about  remarkable  places  and  events,  and  in 
proportion  as  writers,  on  these  subjects,  are  more  numerous, 
so  much  the  more  is  an  author  exposed  to  censure,  who  does 
not  make  himself  master  of  what  has  been  written.  For  ex- 
ample, in  "the  Collection  of  the  Rivers,"  Callimachus  says, 
that  he  should  laugh  at  the  person,  who  would  venture  to 
describe  the  Athenian  virgins  as 

•  The  Odeium  was  a  kind  of  theatre  erected  by  Pericles  in  the  Ce- 
ramic quarter  of  the  city,  for  the  purpose  of  holding  musical  meetings. 
The  roof,  supported  by  columns,  was  constriicted  out  of  the  wreck  of  the 
Persian  fleet  conquered  at  Salarais.  There  was  also  the  Odeium  of 
Regilla,  but  this  was  built  in  the  time  of  the  Antonines. 

^  The  country  was  called  Actica  from  Actaeos.     Parian  Chronicle. 

88  STRABO.  Casaub.  397. 

"  drinking  of  the  pure  waters  of  the  Eridanus," 
from  which  even  the  herds  would  turn  away.  There  are 
indeed  fountains  of  water,  pure  and  fit  for  drinking,  it  is  said, 
without  the  gate  called  Diochares,  near  the  Lyceium  ;  formerly 
also  a  fountain  was  erected  near  it,  which  afforded  a  large  sup- 
ply of  excellent  water ;  but  if  it  is  not  so  at  present,  is  it  at 
all  strange,  that  a  fountain  supplying  abundance  of  pure  and 
potable  water  at  one  period  of  time,  should  afterwards  have 
the  property  of  its  waters  altered  ? 

In  subjects,  however,  which  are  so  numerous,  we  cannot 
enter  into  detail ;  yet  they  are  not  so  entirely  to  be  passed 
over  in  silence  as  to  abstain  from  giving  a  condensed  account 
of  some  of  them. 

20.  It  will  suffice  then  to  add,  that,  according  to  Philo- 

chorus,  when  the  country  was  devastated  on  the  side  of  the 

sea  by  the  Carians,  and  by  land  by  the  Boeotians,  whom  they 

called  Aones,  Cecrops  first  settled  a  large  body  of  people  in 

twelve  cities,  the  names  of  which  were  Cecropia,  Tetrapolis, 

Epacria,  Deceleia,  Eleusis,  Aphidna,  (although  some  persons 

write  it  in  the  plural  number,  Aphidnae,)  Thoricus,  Brauron, 

Cytherus,  Sphettus,  Cephisia  [Phalerus].     Again,  at  a  sub- 

.        sequent  period,  Theseus  is  said  to  have  collected  the  inhabit- 

V      ants  of  the  twelve  cities  into  one,  the  present  city^r — ^ 

V  Formerly,  th^AthQniftf>s^wft  p;nvprnfeid.  bjr  J^ing^s  : they 

tyrants  were  their  masters,  as  Pisistratus  an'd-^is  sons  •  after- 
wards  therewas^an  oligarchy  both  of  the  touTlmjaj^r^fr^d 
of  the  thirty  tyranrs,  whom  the  ijacedaemonii  set  over  them ; 
these  were  expelled  by  the  Athenians,  who  retained  the  form 
of  a  democracy,  till  the  Romans  established  their  empire. 
For,  although  they  were  somewhat  oppressed  by  the  Macedo- 
nian kings,  so  as  to  be  compelled  to  obey  them,  yet  they  pre- . 
served  entire  the  same  form  of  government.  Some  say,  that 
the  government  was  very  well  administered  during  a  period 
of  ten  years,  at  the  time  that  Casander  was  king  of  the 
Macedims^m.  For  this  person,  althougTiifi  other  respects 
*~Tie  was  disposed  to  be  tyrannical,  yet,  when  he  was  master  of 
the  city,  treated  the  Athenians  witlrkind«ess  and  generosity. 
He  placed  at  the  head  of  the  citizens  Demetrius  the  Phalerean,  "^ 
a  disciple  of  Theophrastus  the  philosopher,  who,  far  from 
dissolving,  restored  the  democracy.     This  appears  from  his 

B.  IX,  c.  I.  §  21, 22.  ATTICA.  89 

memoirs,  which  he  composed  concerning  this  mode  of  govern- 
ment. But  so  much  hatred  and  dislike  prevailed  against 
anything  connected  with  oligarchy,  that,  after  the  death  of 
Casander,  he  was  obliged  to  fly  into  Egypt. ^  The  insurgents 
pulled  down  more  than  three  hundred  of  his  statues,  which 
were  melted  down,  and  according  to  some  were  cast  into 
chamber-pots.  The  Romans,  after  their  conquest,  finding 
them  governed  by  a  democracy,^  maintained  their  independ- 
ence and  liberty.  During  the  Mithridatic  war,  the  king  set 
over  them  such  tyrants  as  he  pleased.  Aristio,  who  was  the 
most  powerful  of  these  persons,  oppressed  the  city ;  he  was 
taken  by  Sylla,  the  Roman  general,  after  a  siege,^  and  put  to 
death.  The  citizens  were  pardoned,  and,  to  this  time,  the 
city  enjoys  liberty,  and  is  respected  by  the  Romans. 

21.  Next  to  the  Pirseus  is  the  demus  Phalereis,  on  the  suc- 
ceeding line  of  coast,  then  Halimusii,  ^xoneis,  Alaeeis,  the 
jExonici,  Anagyrasii ;  then  Theoris,  Lampesis ;  ^gilieis, 
Anaphlystii,  Azenieis ;  these  extend  as  far  as  the  promontory 
Sunium.  Between  the  above-mentioned  demi  is  a  long 
promontory.  Zoster,"*  the  first  after  the  ^xoneis ;  then  an- 
other promontory  after  Thoreis,  Astypalaea ;  in  the  front  of 
the  former  of  these  is  an  island,  Phabra,^  and  of  the  latter  an 
island,  Eleiissa,^  opposite  the  -^xoneis  is  Hydrussa.  About 
Anaphlystum  is  the  Paneum,  and  the  temple  of  Venus  Colias. 
Here,  they  say,  were  thrown  up  by  the  waves  the  last  por- 
tions of  the  wrecks  of  the  vessels  after  the  naval  engagement 
with  the  Persians  near  Salamis,  of  which  remains  Apollo  pre- 

"  The  women  of  Colias  shall  shudder  at  the  sight  of  oars." 
In  front  of  these  places  lies  off,  at  no  great  distance,  the  island 
Belbina ;  and  the  rampart  of  Patroclus ;  but  most  of  these 
islands  are  uninhabited. 

22.  On  doubling  the  promontory  at  Sunium,  we  meet  with 
Sunium,  a  considerable  demus  ;  then  Thoricus,  next  a  demus 
called  Potamus,  from  which  the  inhabitants  are  called  Po- 
tamii ;  next  Prasia,'^  Steiria,  Brauron,  where  is  the  temple  of 

'  Demetrius  Phalereus  was  driven  from  Athens,  307  b.  c,  whence  he 
retired  to  Thebes.     The  death  of  Casander  took  place  298  b,  c. 

^  Aratus,  the  Achaean  general,  245  b.  c,  drove  from  Attica  the  Lace- 
daemonian garrisons,  and  restored  liberty  to  the  Athenians. 

^  B.  G.  87.        *  C.  Halikes.        *  Falkadi.        «  Elisa.        '  Raphti. 

90  STRABO.  Casaub.  399. 

Diana  Brauronia,  Halse  Araplienides,  where  is  the  temple 
of  Diana  Tauropola;  then  Myrrhinus,  Probalinthus,  Mara- 
thon, where  Miltiades  entirely  destroyed  the  army  of  Datis 
the  Persian,  without  waiting  for  the  Lacedaemonians,  who  de- 
ferred setting  out  till  the  full  moon.  There  is  laid  the  scene 
of  the  fable  of  the  Marathonian  bull,  which  Theseus  killed. 

Next  to  Marathon  is  Tricorynthus,  then  Rhamnus,  where  is 
the  temple  of  Nemesis ;  then  Psaphis,  a  city  of  the  Oropii. 
Somewhere  about  this  spot  is  the  Amphiaraeum,  an  oracle 
once  in  repute,  to  which  Amphiareus  fled,  as  Sophocles  says, 

'*  The  dusty  Theban  soil  opened  and  received  him  with  his  armour,  and 
the  four-horse  chariot." 

Oropus  has  frequently  been  a  subject  of  contention,  for  it  is 
situated  on  the  confines  of  Attica  and  Boeotia. 

In  front  of  this  coast,  before  Thoricum  and  Sunium,  is 
the  island  Helena ;  it  is  rocky  and  uninhabited,  extending  in 
length  about  60  stadia,  which,  they  say,  the  poet  mentions  in 
the  words,  in  which  Alexander  addresses  Helen, 

"  Not  when  first  I  carried  thee  away  from  the  pleasant  Lacedeemon, 
across  the  deep,  and  in  the  island  Cranae  embraced  thee." ' 

For  Cranae,  from  the  kind  of  intercourse  which  took  place 
there,  is  now  called  Helena.  Next  to  Helena,^  Euboea^ 
lies  in  front  of  the  following  tract  of  coast.  It  is  long  and 
narrow,  and  stretching  along  the  continent  like  Helena. 
From  Sunium  to  the  southern  point  of  Euboea,  which  is  called 
Leuce  Acte,'*  [or,  the  white  coast,]  is  a  voyage  of  300  stadia, 
but  we  shall  speak  hereafter  of  Euboea. 

It  would  be  tedious  to  recite  the  names  of  the  Demi  of 
Attica  in  the  inland  parts,  on  account  of  their  number.^ 

23.  Among  the  mountains  which  are  most  celebrated,  are 

the  Hymettus,  Brilessus,  Lycabettus,  Parnes,  and  Corydallus.^ 

Near  the  city  are  excellent  quarries  of  Hymettian  and  Pen- 

telic  marble.     The  Hymettus  produces  also  the  finest  honey. 

_^Jlhe- •9ik'€l^ -mines  mJAttica  &t  JSrst  of  importance^  but, 

— ai-«  now  "UA4««ftted.«»-Jl^^jaa3iito£.n,  when  the  mines  yielded 

*  II.  iii.  443.  2  Macronisi.  '  Negropont. 

*  From  C.  Colonna  to  C.  Mantelo. 

*  Smith  gives  an  alphabetical  list  of  160  demi, 

*  Monte  San  Giorgio. 

B.  IX.  c.  II.  §  1.  BCEOTIA.  91     ' 

a  badjeturn  to  their  labour^,£QjiMaftitte^4<>-^rtte'^i>ftmcfy4ho  old  ■■■ 
refuse  and  scoria,  and  hence  obtained  very  pure  silver,  for^ 
Lhy  ftjl'UlW  WUrktaeirilM  carrtedon  the  process  in  the  furnace"^ 

Although  the  Attic  is  the  best  of  all  the  kinds  of  honey, 
yet  by  far  the  best  of  the  Attic  honey  is  that  found  in  the 
country  of  the  silver  mines,'  which  they  call  acapniston,  or  un- 
smoked,  from  the  mode  of  its  preparation. 

24.  Among  the  rivers  is  the  Cephissus,  having  its  source 
from  the  Trinemeis,  it  flows  through  the  plain  (where  are  the 
Gephyra,  and  the  Gephyrismi)  between  the  legs  or  walls  ex- 
tending from  the  Asty  to  the  PiraBus,  and  empties  itself  into 
the  Phalericum.  Its  character  is  chiefly  that  of  a  winter 
torrent,  for  in  the  summer  time  it  fails  altogether.  Such 
also,  for  the  most  part,  is  the  Ilissus,  which  flows  from  the 
other  side  of  the  Asty  to  the  same  coast,  from  the  parts  above 
Agra,  and  the  Lyceium,  and  the  fountain  celebrated  by  Plato 
in  the  Phaedrus.     So  much  then  respecting  Attica. 


1.  Next  in  order  is  Boeotia.  When  I  speak  of  this  country, 
and  of  the  contiguous  nations,  I  must,  for  the  sake  of  per- 
spicuity, repeat  what  I  have  said  before. 

We  have  said,  that  the  sea-coast  stretches  from  Sunium  to 
the  north  as  far  as  Thessalonica,  inclining  a  little  toward  the 
west,  and  having  the  sea  on  the  east,  that  parts  situated  above 
this  shore  towards  the  west  extend  like  belts  ^  parallel  to  one 
another  through  the  whole  country.  The  first  of  these  belts 
is  Attica  with  Megaris,  the  eastern  side  of  which  extends 

*  As  Mount  Hymettus  was  always  celebrated  for  producing  the  best 
honey,  it  would  appear  from  this  passage  that  there  were  silver  mines  in 
it.  It  appears  however  that  the  Athenians  had  failed  to  discover  silver 
in  Hymettus.  It  is  not  impossible  that  Strabo  has  adopted  literally  some 
proverb  or  saymg  of  the  miners,  such  as,  "  Ours  is  the  best  honey." 

^  In  the  following  description  of  Greece,  Strabo  employs  the  term  belts 
or  bands  (raiviag)  for  the  territory  intercepted  between  the  lines  forming 
the  peninsulas.    See  note,  chap.  i.  §  1,  of  this  book. 

^^  STRABO.  Casaub.  400. 

from  Sunium  to  Oropus,  and  Boeotia ;  on  the  western  side  is 
the  isthmus,  and  the  Alcyonian  sea  commencing  at  Pagse  and 
extending  as  far  as  the  boundaries  of  Boeotia  near  Creusa, 
the  remaining  two  sides  are  formed  by  the  sea-shore  from 
Sunium  to  the  Isthmus,  and  the  mountain  tract  nearly  paral- 
lel with  this,  which  separates  Attica  from  Boeotia. 

The  second  belt  is  Boeotia,  stretching  from  east  to  west 
from  the  Euboean  sea  to  the  Crisaean  Gulf,  nearly  of  equal 
length  with  Attica,  or  perhaps  somewhat  less ;  in  quality  of 
soil  however  it  greatly  surpasses  Attica. 

2.  Ephorus  declares  the  superiority  of  Boeotia  over  the 
bordering  nations  not  only  in  this  respect,  but  also  because  it 
alone  has  three  seas  adjoining  it,  and  a  great  number  of 
harbours.  At  the  Crisaean  and  Corinthian  Gulfs  it  received 
the  commodities  of  Italy,  Sicily,  and  Africa.  Towards  Eu- 
boea  the  sea-coast  branches  off  on  each  side  of  the  Euripus ; 
in  one  direction  towards  Aulis  and  Tanagrica,  in  the  other, 
to  Salganeus  and  Anthedon ;  on  one  side  there  is  an  open 
sea  to  Egypt,  and  Cyprus,  and  the  islands ;  on  the  other  to 
Macedonia,  the  Propontis,  and  the  Hellespont.  He  adds  also 
that  Euboea  is  almost  a  part  of  Boeotia,  because  the  Euripus  is 
very  narrow,  and  the  opposite  shores  are  brought  into  commu- 
nication by  a  bridge  of  two  plethra  in  length.^ 

For  these  reasons  he  praises  the  country,  and  says,  that  it 
has  natural  advantages  for  obtaining  supreme  command,  but 
that  from  want  of  careful  education  and  learning,  even  those 
who  were  from  time  to  time  at  the  head  of  affairs  did  not  long 
maintain  the  ascendency  they  had  acquired,  as  appears  from 
the  example  of  Epaminondas  ;  at  his  death  the  Thebans  imme- 
diately lost  the  supremacy  they  had  just  acquired.  This  is 
to  be  attributed,  says  Ephorus,  to  their  neglect  of  learning,  and 
of  intercourse  with  mankind,  and  to  their  exclusive  cultiva- 
tion of  military  virtues.  It  must  be  added  also,  that  learning 
and  knowledge  are  peculiarly  useful  in  dealing  with  Greeks, 
but  in  the  case  of  Barbarians,  force  is  preferable  to  reason.  In 
fact  the  Romans  in  early  times,  when  carrying  on  war  with 
savage  nations,  did  not  require  such  accomplishments,  but 
from  the  time  that  they  began  to  be  concerned  in  transac- 
tions with  more  civilized  people,  they  applied  themselves  to 
learning,  and  so  established  universal  dominion. 
*  About  67  yards.     See  also  b.  x.  ch.  i.  §  8. 

B.  IX.  c.  II.  §  3, 4.  BCEOTIA.  93 

3.  Boeotia  was  first  occupied  bj  Barbarians,  Aones,  and 
Temmices,  a  wandering  people  from  Sunium,  by  Leleges,  and 
Hyantes.  Then  the  Phoenicians,  who  accompanied  Cadmus, 
possessed  it.  He  fortified  the  Cadmeian  land,  and  trans- 
mitted the  government  to  his  descendants.  The  Phoenicians 
founded  Thebes,  and  added  it  to  the  Cadmeian  territory.  They 
preserved  their  dominion,  and  exercised  it  over  the  greatest 
part  of  the  Boeotians  till  the  time  of  the  expedition  of  the 
Epigoni.  At  this  period  they  abandoned  Thebes  for  a  short 
time,  but  returned  again.  In  the  same  manner  when  they 
were  ejected  by  Thracians  and  Pelasgi,  they  established  their 
rule  in  Thessaly  together  with  the  Arnjei  for  a  long  period, 
so  that  all  the  inhabitants  obtained  the  name  of  Boeotians. 
They  returned  afterwards  to  their  own  country,  at  the  time 
the  ^olian  expedition  was  preparing  at  Aulis  in  Boeotia 
which  the  descendants  of  Orestes  were  equipping  for  Asia. 
After  having  united  the  Orchomenian  tract  to  Boeotia  (for 
formerly  they  did  not  form  one  community,  nor  has  Homer 
enumerated  these  people  with  the  Boeotians,  but  by  them- 
selves, calling  them  Minyse)  with  the  assistance  of  the  Orcho- 
menians  they  drove  out  the  Pelasgi,  who  went  to  Athens,  a 
part  of  which  city  is  called  from  this  people  Pelasgic.  The 
Pelasgi  however  settled  below  Hyraettus.  The  Thracians 
retreated  to  Parnassus.  The  Hyantes  founded  Hyampolis  in 

4.  Ephorus  relates  that  the  Thracians,  after  making  treaty 
with  the  Boeotians,  attacked  them  by  night,  when  encamped 
in  a  careless  manner  during  a  time  of  peace.  The  Thracians 
when  reproached,  and  accused  of  breaking  the  treaty,  replied, 
that  they  had  not  broken  it,  for  the  conditions  were  "by 
day,"  whereas  they  had  made  the  attack  by  night,  whence 
the  common  proverb,  "  a  Thracian  shuffle." 

The  Pelasgi  and  the  Boeotians  also  went  during  the  war  to 
consult  the  oracle.  He  cannot  tell,  he  says,  what  answer  was 
given  to  the  Pelasgi,  but  the  prophetess  replied  to  the  Boeo- 
tians that  they  would  prosper  by  committing  some  act  of 
impiety.  The  messengers  sent  to  consult  the  oracle  suspecting 
the  prophetess  of  favouring  the  Pelasgi  on  account  of  their 
relationship,  (for  the  temple  had  originally  belonged  to  the 
Pelasgi,)  seized  the  woman,  and  threw  her  upon  a  burning 
pile,  considering,  that  whether  her  conduct  had  been  right  or 

94  STRABO.  Casal-b.  402. 

wrong,  in  either  case  they  were  right ;  for  if  she  had  uttered 
a  deceitful  answer  she  was  duly  punished ;  but  if  not,  they 
had  only  complied  with  the  command  of  the  oracle.  Those 
in  charge  of  the  temple  did  not  hke  to  put  to  death,  particu- 
larly in  the  temple,  the  perpetrators  of  this  act  without  a 
formal  judgment,  and  therefore  subjected  them  to  a  trial. 
They  were  summoned  before  the  priestesses,  who  were  also  the 
prophetesses,  being  the  two  survivors  out  of  the  three.  The 
Boeotians  alleged  that  there  was  no  law  permitting  women  to 
act  as  judges ;  an  equal  number  of  men  were  therefore  chosen. 
The  men  acquitted ;  the  women  condemned.  As  the  votes 
were  equal,  those  for  acquittal  prevailed.  Hence  at  Dodona 
it  is  to  the  Boeotians  only  that  men  deliver  oracles.  The 
prophetesses  however  give  a  different  meaning  to  the  answer 
of  the  oracle,  and  say,  that  the  god  enjoins  the  Boeotians  to 
steal  the  tripods  used  at  home,  and  to  send  them  annually  to 
Dodona.  This  they  did,  for  they  were  in  the  habit  of  carry- 
ing away  by  night  some  of  the  dedicated  tripods,  which  they 
concealed  in  their  clothes,  in  order  to  convey  them  clandes- 
tinely as  offerings  to  Dodona. 

5.  After  this  they  assisted  Penthilus  in  sending  out  the 
-^olian  colony,  and  despatched  a  large  body  of  their  own  peo- 
ple with  him,  so  that  it  was  called  the  Boeotian  colony. 

A  long  time  afterwards  the  country  was  devastated  during 
the  war  with  the  Persians  at  Plataeae.  They  afterwards  so 
far  recovered  their  power,  that  the  Thebans,  having  van- 
quished the  Lacedaemonians  in  two  battles,^  disputed  the  sove- 
reignty of  Greece.  Epaminondas,  however,  was  killed,  and 
they  were  disappointed  in  their  hope  of  obtaining  this  supre- 
macy. They,  nevertheless,  fought  in  defence  of  the  Greeks 
against  the  Phoceeans,  who  had  plundered  their  common  tem- 
ple. Reduced  by  this  war,  and  by  the  Macedonians,  at  the 
time  they  invaded  Greece,  they  lost  their  city,  which  was 
afterwards  restored  to  them,  and  rebuilt  by  the  Macedonians 
themselves,  who  had  razed  it.^     From  that  period  to  our  own 

^  Leuctra  and  Mantineia. 

'  The  Thebans,  who  were  formerly  the  allies  of  the  Macedonians,  were 
opposed  to  Philip  of  Macedon  at  the  battle  of  Chaeroneia.  On  the  acces- 
sion to  the  throne  of  Alexander,  the  city  was  destroyed,  b.  c.  335 ;  6000 
of  the  inhabitants  were  killed,  and  30,000  sold  as  slaves.  The  city  was 
rebuilt,  b.  c.  316,  by  Casander.    Pausanias,  ix.  7.     The  ravages  com- 

6—8.  BCEOTIA. 


times  their  affairs  have  continued  to  decline,  nor  do  they  retain 
the  appearance  even  of  a  considerable  village.  Other  cities 
(of  Boeotia)  have  experienced  a  similar  fate,  with  the  excep- 
tion of  Tanagra  and  Thespise,  which  in  comparison  with 
Thebes  are  in  a  tolerable  condition. 

6.  We  are  next  to  make  a  circuit  of  the  country,  beginning 
at  the  sea-coast,  opposite  Euboea,  which  is  continuous  with 
that  of  Attica. 

We  begin  this  circuit  from  Oropus,  and  the  Sacred  Har- 
bour,^ which  is  called  Delphinium,  opposite  to  which  is  the 
ancient  Eretria  in  Euboea,  having  a  passage  across  of  60 
stadia.  After  Delphinium,  at  the  distance  of  20  stadia,  is 
Oropus,  and  opposite  to  this  is  the  present  Eretria.^  There 
is  a  passage  over  to  it  of  40  stadia. 

7.  Next  is  Delium,3  a  place  sacred  to  Apollo,  in  imitation 
of  that  at  Delos.  It  is  a  small  town  of  the  Tanagraeans,  at 
the  distance  of  30  stadia  from  Aulis. 

To  this  place  the  Athenians,  after  their  defeat  in  battle, 
fled  in  disorder.'*  In  the  flight,  Socrates  the  philosopher 
(who  having  lost  his  horse,  was  serving  on  foot)  observed 
Xenophon,  the  son  of  Gryllus,  upon  the  ground,  fallen  from 
his  horse  ;  he  raised  him  upon  his  shoulders  and  carried  him 
away  in  safety,  a  distance  of  many  stadia,  until  the  rout  was 
at  an  end. 

8.  Then  follows  a  great  harbour,  which  is  called  Bathys 
(or  deep  harbour) :  then  Aulis,^  a  rocky  spot,  and  a  village 
of  the  Tanagraeans,  with  a  harbour  capable  of  containing  50 
small  vessels.      So  that  probably  the  naval  station  of  the 

mitted  by  Sylla  in  the  war  against  Mithridates,  which  completed  the  final 
ruin  of  Thebes,  must  have  been  fresh  in  the  memory  of  Stfabo. 

*  Hieros  Limen. 

2  New  Eretria  stood  at  Paleocastro,  and  old  Eretria  at  Vathy. 
'  Dramesi.  *  Athenaeus,  v.  15. 

*  Livy  states  (xlv.  27)  that  Aulis  was  distant  three  miles  from  Chalcis  ; 
by  Homer  (II.  ii.  303)  it  is  called  AvXtg  TriTpriEaaa.  About  three  miles 
south  of  Chalcis,  on  the  Boeotian  coast,  are  two  bays,  separated  from  each 
other  by  a  rocky  peninsula :  the  northern  is  small  and  winding,  the  south- 
ern spreads  out  at  the  end  of  a  channel  into  a  large  circular  basin.  The 
latter  harbour,  as  well  as  a  village  situated  a  mile  to  the  southward  of  it, 
is  called  Vathy,  a  name  evidently  derived  from  (3a9vQ  Xifiriv.  We  may 
therefore  conclude  that  Aulis  was  situated  on  the  rocky  peninsula  be- 
tween these  two  bays.     Leake  and  Smith. 

^^  STRABO.  Casaub.  403. 

Greeks  was  in  the  Great  Harbour.  Near  it  is  the  Chalcidic 
Euripus,  to  which,  from  Sunium,  are  70  stadia.  On  the 
Euripus,  as  I  have  already  said,  there  is  a  bridge  of  two 
plethra  in  length ;  ^  at  each  end  is  a  tower,  one  on  the  side  of 
Chalcis,  the  other  on  the  side  of  Boeotia ;  and  a  passage  (for 
the  water)  is  constructed  between  them.^  With  regard  to  the 
tide  of  the  Euripus,  it  is  sufficient  to  say  thus  much,  that  ac- 
cording to  report,  it  changes  seven  times  each  day  and  night ; 
the  cause  must  be  investigated  elsewhere. 

9.  Salganeus  is  a  place  situated  near  the  Euripus,  upon  a 
height.  It  has  its  name  from  Salganeus,  a  Boeotian,  who  was 
buried  there.  He  was  guide  to  the  Persians,  when  they 
sailed  into  this  passage  from  the  Maliac  Gulf.  It  is  said, 
that  he  was  put  to  death  before  they  reached  the  Euripus,  by 
the  commander  of  the  fleet,  Megabates,  as  a  traitor,  for  con- 
ducting the  fleet  deceitfully  into  a  narrow  opening  of  the  sea, 
having  no  outlet.  The  Barbarian,  however,  perceived  his 
mistake,  and  regretting  what  he  had  done,  thought  him  wor- 
thy of  burial,  because  he  had  been  unjustly  put  to  death. 

10.  Near  Oropus^  is  a  place  called  Graia,  the  temple  also 
of  Amphiaraus,  and  the  monument  of  Narcissus  the  Eretrian, 
surnamed  Sigelus,  (the  Silent,)  because  passers-by  keep  si- 
lence. Some  say  that  Graia  and  Tanagra*  are  the  same. 
The  territory  of  Poemandris,  however,  is  the  same  as  that  of 
Tanagra.  The  Tanagreeans  are  also  called  Gephyrseans.  The 
temple  of  Amphiaraus  was  transferred  by  command  of  an 
oracle  to  this  place  from  the  Thebaic  Cnopia. 

11.  Mycalessus  is  a  village  in  the  Tanagrian  district.  It 
lies  upon  the  road  from  Thebes  to  Chalcis.  It  is  called  in 
the  Boeotian  dialect  Mycalettus.  Harma,  also,  an  uninhabited 
village  in  the  Tanagrian  territory,  derives  its  name  from  the 

^  See  above,  c.  ii.  §  2. 

'  di(fKod6firiTaL  d'  elg  avTovg  avpiyli.  The  passage  does  not  give  a  clear 
explanation  of  the  fact.     Livy,  b.  xxviii.  c.  6. 

3  Thucydides,  b.  ii.  ch.  23,  says  that  Graia  is  on  the  road  leading  from 
Oropus  to  Athens. 

*  In  modern  maps  a  modern  town,  Skoimandri,  is  laid  down  near  the 
ruins  of  Tanagra.  Pausanias,  b.  ix.  ch.  20,  informs  us  why  Tanagra  was 
called  both  Poimandria  and  Graia.  Tanagra  was  the  daughter  of  tEoIus 
and  wife  of  Poimandrus ;  she  arrived  at  such  an  extreme  old  age,  as  to 
receive  the  title  of  Graia,  the  Old. 

B.  IX.  c.  II.  §  12.  B(EOTIA.  97 

chariot  (ap/za)  of  Amphiaraus,  and  is  a  different  place  from 
Harma  in  Attica,  near  Phyle,'  a  demus  of  Attica  bordering 
upon  Tanagra.     There  the  proverb  originated, 

"  When  it  has  lightened  through  Harma," 

The  Pytha'istae,  as  they  are  called,  signify,  by  the  order  of  an 
oracle,  the  occurrence  of  any  lightning  when  they  are  look- 
ing in  the  direction  of  Harma,  and  despatch  the  sacrifice  to 
Delphi  whenever  it  is  observed.  They  were  to  keep  watch 
for  three  months,  and  for  three  days  and  nights  in  each  month, 
at  the  altar  of  Jupiter  Astrapius,  or  Dispenser  of  lightning. 
This  altar  is  in  the  wall,  between  the  Pythium  and  the  Olym- 
pium.  Respecting  the  Boeotian  Harma,  some  say,  that  Am- 
phiaraus fell  in  battle  out  of  his  chariot,  [harma,]  near  the 
spot  where  his  temple  now  stands,  and  that  the  chariot  was 
drawn  empty  to  the  place,  which  bears  the  same  name 
[ Harma]. ^  Others  say,  that  the  chariot  of  Adrastus,  in  his 
flight,  was  there  dashed  in  pieces,  but  that  he  himself  escaped 
on  his  horse  Areion.  According  to  Philochorus,  his  life  was 
preserved  by  the  inhabitants  of  the  village ;  in  consequence 
of  which  they  obtained  among  the  Argives  the  right  of  citi- 

12.  On  going  from  Thebes  to  Argos,^  on  the  left  hand  is 
Tanagra  ;  and  [near  the  road]  on  the  right  lies  Hyria.  Hyria 
now  belongs  to  the  Tanagrian  territory,  but  formerly  to  the 
Thebais.  Here  Hyrieus  is  fabled  to  have  lived,  and  here  is 
the  scene  of  the  birth  of  Orion,  which  Pindar  mentions  in  the 
dithyrambics.  It  is  situated  near  Aulis.  Some  persons  say 
that  HysiaB  is  called  Hyria,  which  belongs  to  Parasopia,  situ- 
ated below  Cithaeron,  near  Erythras,  in  the  inland  parts ;  it  is 
a  colony  of  the  Hyrienses,  and  was  founded  by  Nycteus,  the 
father  of  Antiope.  *  There  is  also  in  the  Argive  territory  a 
village,  Hysise,  the  inhabitants  of  which  are  called  HysiataB. 
Erythras  in  Ionia  is  a  colony  of  this  Erythras. 

'  Argyrokastro. 

'  The  exact  site  of  Harma  is  uncertain.  Leake  supposes  it  to  have 
occupied  the  important  pass  on  the  road  from  Thebes  to  Chalcis,  leading 
to  the  maritime  plain.  Pausanias,  b.  ix.  ch.  19,  says  that  it  obtained  its 
name  from  the  chariot  of  Amphiaraus  having  disappeared  there. 

'  We  should  perhaps  read  Harma,  says  Kramer;  but  in  that  case 
Tanagra  of  Boeotia  would  be  upon  the  right  hand.  The  reading  Argos  is 
a  manifest  error,  and  the  whole  passage  is  corrupt. 

VOL.    II.  H 

98  STRABO.  Casaub.  405 

Heleon,  a  Tanagrian  village,  has  its  name  from  (Hele)  the 
marshes  there. 

13.  After  Salganeus  is  Anthedon,  a  city  with  a  harbour, 
the  last  on  the  Boeotian  coast  towards  Euboea,  as  the  poet 

"  Anthedon  at  the  extremity."  * 

As  we  proceed  a  little  farther,  there  are  besides  two  small 
towns,  belonging  to  the  Boeotians,  Larymna,  near  which  fhe 
Cephissus  discharges  its  waters ;  and  farther  above,  Halee,  of 
the  same  name  as  the  Attic  demus.  Opposite  to  this  coast  is 
situated,  it  is  said,  JEgae^  in  Euboea,  where  is  the  temple  of 
the  ^gaean  Neptune,  of  which  we  have  before  spoken.  There 
is  a  passage  across  from  Anthedon  to  -^gae  of  120  stadia,  and 
from  the  other  places  much  less  than  this.  The  temple  is 
situated  upon  a  lofty  hill,  where  was  once  a  city.  Near  JEgeB 
was  Orobiae.^  In  the  Anthedonian  territory  is  the  mountain 
Messapius,'*  which  has  its  name  from  Messapus,  who  when  he 
came  into  lapygia  called  it  Messapia.  Here  is  laid  the  scene 
of  the  fable  respecting  the  Anthedonian  Glaucus,  who,  it  is 
said,  was  transformed  into  a  sea-monster.^ 

14.  Near  Anthedon  is  a  place  called  Isus,  and  esteemed 
sacred,  belonging  to  Boeotia ;  it  contains  remains  of  a  city,  and 
the  first  syllable  of  Isus  is  short.  Some  persons  are  of  opinion, 
that  the  verse  ought  to  be  written,  ^laov  te  ^aderjv  'Avdrjdova 
T  iayjXTOiiitjav, 

"The  sacred  Isus,  and  the  extreme  Anthedon," 

lengthening  the  first  syllable  by  poetical  licence  for  the  sake 
of  the  metre,  instead  of  Wiaav  te  i^adirjv, 

"  The  sacred  Nisa ;  " 

for  Nisa  is  not  to  be  found  anywhere  in*  Boeotia,  as  Apollo- 
dorus  says  in  his  observations  on  the  Catalogue  of  the  Ships  ; 

'  II.  ii.  508. 

2  Leake  supposes  Mgx  to  have  stood  near  Limni.  Strabo,  below,  ch. 
vii.  §  4,  says  that  probably  the  ^gsean  Sea  had  its  name  from  this  place. 

^  Of  this  place,  although  mentioned  by  Thucydides,  b.  iii.  ch.  89,  veiy 
little  is  known,  in  consequence  no  doubt  of  its  having  almost  entirely 
disappeared  by  an  earthquake,  which  took  place  about  426  or  425 
years  b.  c.  *  Ktypa-vuna. 

*  Near  Anthedon  was  a  place  called  the  Leap  of  Glaucus,  where  he 
threw  himself  into  the  sea.   Pausanias,  ix.  22.     The  ruins  of  Anthedon 


B.  IX.  c.  II.  §  15,  16.  BCEOTIA.  99 

so  that  Nisa  could  not  stand  in  this  passage,  unless  by  Nisa 
Homer  meant  Isus,  for  there  was  a  city  Nisa,  in  Megaris, 
from  whence  Isus  was  colonized,  situated  at  the  base  of 
Cithaeron,  but  it  exists  no  longer.^  Some  however  write 
Kpevffdv  re  ^aderjVy 

"  The  sacred  Creusa," 

meaning  the  present  Creusa,  the  arsenal  of  the  Thespieans, 
situated  on  the  Crisaean  Gulf.  Others  write  the  passage 
'^apdg  T£  i^aOiag, 

"  The  sacred  Pharae," 

Pharge  is  one  of  the  four  villages,  (or  Tetracomiae,)  near  Ta- 
nagra,  namely,  Heleon,  Harma,  Mycalessus,  Pharae.  Others 
again  write  the  passage  thus,  Nuadv  re  <^a0£i?v, 

"  The  sacred  Nysa." 

Nysa  is  a  village  of  Helicon. 

Such  then  is  the  description  of  the  sea-coast  opposite 

15.  The  places  next  in  order,  in  the  inland  parts,  are 
hollow  plains,  surrounded  everywhere  on  the  east  and  west  by 
mountains ;  on  the  south  by  the  mountains  of  Attica,  on  the 
north  by  those  of  Phocis :  on  the  west,  Cithaeron  inclines,  ob- 
liquely, a  little  above  the  Crisaean  Sea ;  it  begins  contiguous 
to  the  mountains  of  Megaris  and  Attica,  and  then  makes  a 
bend  towards  the  plains,  and  terminates  near  the  Theban 

16.  Some  of  these  plains  become  lakes,  by  rivers  spreading 
over  or  falling  into  them  and  then  flowing  off.  Some  are 
dried  up,  and  being  very  fertile,  are  cultivated  in  every  pos- 
sible way.  But  as  the  ground  underneath  is  full  of  caverns 
and  fissures,  it  has  frequently  happened,  that  violent  earth- 
quakes have  obstructed  some  passages,  and  formed  others  un- 
der-ground, or  on  the  surface,  the  water  being  carried  off, 
either  by  subterranean  channels,  or  by  the  formation  of  lakes 
and  rivers  on  the  surface.  If  the  deep  subterranean  passages 
are  stopped  up,  the  waters  of  the  lakes  increase,  so  as  to  inun- 
date and  cover  cities  and  whole  districts,  which  become  un- 
covered, if  the  same  or  other  passages  are  again  opened.  The 
same  regions  are  thus  traversed  in  boats  or  on  foot,  according 

^  This  passage  is  very  corrupt. 
H  2 

100  STRABO.  Casaub.  40S. 

to  circumstances  ;  and  the  same  cities  are,  occasionally,  on  the 
borders  of,  or  at  a  distance  from,  a  lake. 

17.  One  of  two  things  took  place.  The  cities  either  re- 
tained their  sites,  when  the  rise  of  the  water  was  insufficient 
to  overflow  the  houses,  or  they  were  deserted  and  rebuilt  in 
some  other  place,  when  the  inhabitants,  being  frequently  ex- 
posed to  danger  from  their  vicinity  to  the  lake,  released  them- 
selves from  further  apprehension,  by  changing  to  a  more 
distant  or  higher  situation.  It  followed  that  the  cities  thus 
rebuilt  retained  the  same  name.  Formerly,  they  might  have 
had  a  name  derived  from  some  accidental  local  circumstance, 
but  now  the  site  does  not  correspond  with  the  derivation  of 
the  name.  For  example,  it  is  probable  that  Platasee  was  so 
called,  from  TrXar?;,  or  the  flat  part  of  the  oar,  and  Plataeans 
from  gaining  their  livelihood  by  rowing ;  but  at  present, 
since  they  live  at  a  distance  from  the  lake,  the  name  can  no 
longer,  with  equal  propriety,  be  derived  from  this  local  cir- 
cumstance. Helos  also,  and  Heleon,  and  Heilesium^  were  so 
called  from  their  situation  close  to  eXrj,  (Hele,)  or  marshes ; 
but  at  present  the  case  is  different  with  all  these  places ;  either 
they  have  been  rebuilt,  or  the  lake  has  been  greatly  reduced 
in  height  by  a  subsequent  efflux  of  its  waters  ;  for  this  is  pos- 

18.  This  is  exemplified  particularly  in  the  Cephissus,^ 
which  fills  the  lake  Copais.^  When  the  increase  of  the  water 
of  that  lake  was  so  great,  that  Copoe  was  in  danger  of  being 
swallowed  up,  (the  city  is  mentioned  by  the  poet,  and  from  it 
the  lake  had  its  name,)'^  a  fissure  in  the  ground,  which  took 
place  not  far  from  the  lake,  and  near  Copaj,  opened  a  subter- 
raneous channel,  of  about  30  stadia  in  length,  and  received  the 
river,  which  reappeared  on  the  surface,  near  Upper  Larymna 
in  Locris  ;  for,  as  has  been  mentioned,  there  is  another  Larymna, 
in  Boeotia,  on  the  sea,  surnamed  the  Upper  by  the  Romans. 
The  place  where  the  river  rises  again  is  called  Anchoe,  as 
also  the  lake  near  it.  It  is  from  this  point  that  the  Cephissus 
begins  its  course^  to  the  sea.  When  the  overflowing  of  the 
water  ceased,  there  was  also  a  cessation  of  danger  to  the  in- 
habitants on  the  banks,  but  not  before  some  cities  had  been 

'  The  sites  of  these  places  are  unknown. 

2  Mauro-potamos.  ^  Lake  of  Livadhia.  *  Kmtt}],  an  oar. 

'  That  is,  by  natural  or  artificial  subterraneous  channels. 

B.  IX.  c.  II.  §  19.  BCEOTIA.  101 

already  swallowed  up.  When  the  outlets  were  again  ob- 
structed, Crates  the  Miner,  a  man  of  Chalcis,  began  to  clear 
away  the  obstructions,  but  desisted  in  consequence  of  the  Boeo- 
tians being  in  a  state  of  insurrection ;  although,  as  he  himself 
says,  in  the  letter  to  Alexander,  many  places  had  been  already 
drained  ;  among  these,  some  writers  supposed  was  the  site  of 
the  ancient  Orchomenus ;  others,  that  of  Eleusis,  and  of 
Athens  on  the  Triton.  These  cities  are  said  to  have  been 
founded  by  Cecrops,  when  he  ruled  over  Boeotia,  then  called 
Ogygia,  but  that  they  were  afterwards  destroyed  by  inunda- 
tions. It  is  said,  that  there  was  a  fissure  in  the  earth  near 
Orchomenus,  that  admitted  the  river  Melas,^  which  flows 
through  the  territory  of  Haliartus,  and  forms  there  a  marsh, 
where  the  reed  grows  of  which  the  musical  pipe  is  made.^ 
But  this  river  has  entirely  disappeared,  being  carried  off  by 
the  subterraneous  channels  of  the  chasm,  or  absorbed  by  the 
lakes  and  marshes  about  Haliartus ;  whence  the  poet  calls 
Haliartus  grassy, 

"  And  the  grassy  Haliartus."' 
19.  These  rivers  descend  from  the  Phocian  mountains,  and 
among  them  the  Cephissus,'*  having  its  source  at  Lilaea,  a 
Phocian  city,  as  Homer  describes  it ; 

*'  And  they  who  occupied  Lilaea,  at  the  sources  of  Cephissus."* 

It  flows  through  Elateia,^  the  largest  of  the  cities  among  the 
Phocians,  through  the  Parapotamii,  and  the  Phanoteis,  which 
are  also  Phocian  towns ;  it  then  goes  onwards  to  Chgeroneia 
in  Boeotia;  afterwards,  it  traverses  the  districts  of  Orcho- 
menus and  Coroneia,  and  discharges  its  waters  into  the  lake 
Copais.  The  Permessus  and  the  Olmeius''^  descend  from  Heli- 
con, and  uniting  their  streams,  fall  into  the  lake  Copais 
near  Haliartus.  The  waters  of  other  streams  likewise  dis- 
charge themselves  into  it.  It  is  a  large  lake  with  a  cir- 
cuit of  380  stadia  ;^   the  outlets  are  nowhere  visible,  if  we 

'  Mauroneri.  2  pjiny,  b.  xvi.  c.  36,  ^  n  ^  503. 

*  There  were  several  rivers  of  this  name.     See  below,  c.  iii.  §  16. 

*  II.  ii.  523. 

^  See  below,  ch.  iii.  §  15.  Elatei^  is  represented  by  the  modem  village 
of  Elefta. 

'  See  ch.  ii.  §  26.  , 

'  It  is  impossible  to  make  any  exact  statement  respecting  its  extent, 
since  it  varied  so  much  at  different  times  of  the  year  and  in  different  sea- 

102  STRABO.  Casaub.  407. 

except  the  chasm  which  receives  the  Cephissus,  and  the 

20.  Among  the  neighbouring  lakes  are  Trephea  ^  and  Ce- 
phissis.     Homer  mentions  it ; 

"  Who  dwelt  in  Hyla,  intent  upon  amassing  wealth,  close  to  the  lake  Ce- 
phissis  ;  " ' 

for  he  did  not  mean  to  specify  the  lake  Copais,  as  some  sup- 
pose, but  that  called  Hylicus,^  from  the  neighbouring  village, 
which  is  called  Hylae :  nor  did  he  mean  Hyda,  as  some  write 
the  passage, 

"  He  lived  in  Hyda," 

for  there  is  a  place  of  this  name  in  Lydia, 

"  at  the  foot  of  the  snowy  Tmolus,  in  the  fruitful  country  of  Hyda  ;  "  * 

and  another  in  Boeotia ;  he  therefore  adds  to 

"  behind  the  lake  Cephissis," 
these  words, 

"  near  dwelt  other  Boeotians." 

For  the  Copais  is  of  great  extent,  and  not  situated  in  the 
Theban  district,  but  the  other  is  small,  and  filled  from  the 
former  by  subterraneous  channels ;  it  is  situated  between 
Thebes^  and  Anthedon.  Homer  however  makes  use  of  the 
word  in  the  singular  number,  sometimes  making  the  first 
syllable  long  by  poetical  licence,  as  in  the  Catalogue,  r}2'  "YXrjv 
Kal  IleTEiopa,^  and  sometimes  shortening  it,  as  in  this  instance  ; 
"Oe  jo'  er  ^YXy  vaieaKe  ;  and  again,  Tychius  HiKworofKor  o\ 
api(TT(fQ"Y\]]  euL  olda  valiovJ  Nor  do  some  persons  correctly 
write  in  this  passage,  "'Y^rj  eVt, 

"  In  Hyda," 
for  Ajax  was  not  to  send  for  his  shield  from  Lydia. 

21.  ^The   lakes  themselves  would  indicate   the  order   in 

sons.  On  the  northern  and  eastern  sides  its  extent  is  limited  by  a  range 
of  heights,  but  on-  the  opposite  quarter  there  is  no  such  natural  boundary 
to  its  size.  Smith,  v.  Boeotia,  which  contains  also  a  useful  map  from 
Forschamer's  Hellenica  of  the  Basin  of  the  Copais. 

'  There  appears  to  be  no  modern  lake  in  the  position  assigned  to  Tre- 
phea by  Kiepert.  Kramer  suggests  the  omission  here  of  the  word  Tre- 

2  II.  V.  708.  3  Makaris.  *  II.  xx.  385.  *  Thiva. 

«   II.  ii.  500.  ^  II.  vii.  221. 

*  The  text  is  in  a  very  imperfect  state.  The  section  is  translated  as 
proposed  to  be  emended  by  Kramer. 

B.  IX.  c.  II.  §  22-2 i.  BCEOTIA.  103 

which  the  places  stand,  and  thence  it  would  be  easy  to  perceive 
that  the  poet,  when  naming  them,  whether  they  were  places  of 
importance  or  otherwise,  has  observed  no  order.  Indeed  it 
would  be  difficult  in  the  enumeration  of  so  many  places,  obscure 
for  the  most  part,  and  situated  in  the  interior,  to  preserve  a 
regular  order.  The  sea-coast  affords  more  convenient  means 
oT  doing  this  ;  the  places  there  are  better  known,  and  the  sea 
affords  greater  facilities  for  marking  their  position.  We  shall 
therefore  endeavour  to  take  our  point  of  departure  from  the 
sea-coast,  and  without  further  discussion,  shall  follow  the  poet 
in  his  enumeration  of  places ;  at  the  same  time,  taking  from 
other  sources  whatever  may  prove  useful  to  us,  but  which 
has  been  omitted  by  him.  He  begins  from  Hyria  and  Aulis, 
of  which  we  have  already  spoken. 

22.  Schoenus  ^  is  a  district  of  the  Theban  territory  on  the 
road  to  Anthedon,  distant  from  Thebes  about  50  stadia.  A 
river  of  the  name  of  Schoenus  flows  through  it. 

23.  Scolus^  is  a  village  belonging  to  the  district  of  Paraso- 
pia  situated  at  the  foot  of  Cithaeron ;  it  is  a  rugged  place,  and 
scarcely  habitable,  hence  the  proverbial  saying, 

"  Neither  go  yourself,  nor  follow  any  one  going  to  Scolus." 

It  is  said  that  Pentheus  was  brought  from  thence,  and  torn  in 
pieces.  There  was  among  the  cities  near  Olynthus  another  of 
the  name  of  Scolus.  We  have  said  that  in  the  Heracleian 
Trachinia  there  was  a  village  of  the  name  of  Parasopii,  beside 
which  runs  a  river  Asopus,  and  that  there  is  another  river 
Asopus  in  Sicyonia,  and  that  the  country  through  which  it 
flows  is  called  Asopia.  There  are  however  other  rivers  of 
the  same  name. 

24.  The  name  of  Eteonus  was  changed  to  that  of  Scar- 
phe,  which  belongs  to  Parasopia.  [Parasopia  belongs  to  the 
Thebais,]  for  the  Asopus  and  the  Ismenus  flow  through  the 
plain  in  front  of  Thebes.  There  is  the  fountain  Dirce,  and 
also  Potniae,  where  is  laid  the  fable  of  Glaucus  of  PotnisD, 
who  was  torn  in  pieces  near  the  city  by  Potnian  mares.  The 
Cithaeron  3  terminates  not  far  from  Thebes.  The  Asopus 
flows  by  it,  and  washes  the  foot  of  the  mountain,  and  occa- 
sions the  Parasopii  to  be  distributed  among  several  settle- 
ments, but  all  of  these  bodies  of  people  are  subject  to  the 

'  Morikios.  *  Kalyvi.  »  Mount  Elatea. 

^^^  STRABO.  Casaub.  409. 

Thebans.  (Other  writers  say,  that  Scolus,  Eteonus,  and 
Erythrae,  are  in  the  district  of  Platsese,  for  the  Asopus  flows 
past  Platsese,  and  discharges  its  waters  into  the  sea  near  Tana- 
gra.)  In  the  Theban  territory  are  Therapnse  and  Teumessus, 
which  Antimachus  has  extolled  in  a  long  poem,  enumerat- 
ing excellencies  which  it  had  not ; 

"  There  is  a  small  hill  exposed  to  the  winds,"  &c. : 
but  the  lines  are  well  known. 

25.  He  calls  the  present  place  Thespiae  ^  by  the  name  of 
Thespia,  for  there  are  many  names,  of  which  some  are  used 
both  in  the  singular  and  in  the  plural  number,  in  the 
masculine  and  in  the  feminine  gender,  and  some  in  either  one 
or  the  other  only.  It  is  a  city  close  to  Helicon,  lying  more 
to  the  south.  The  city  itself  and  Helicon  are  situated  on  the 
Crisaean  Gulf.  Thespias  has  an  arsenal  Creusa,  or,  as  it  is 
also  named,  Creusia.  In  the  Thespian  territory,  in  the  part 
lying  towards  Helicon,  is  Ascra,^  the  birth-place  of  Hesiod. 
It  is  on  the  right  of  Helicon,  situated  upon  a  lofty  and  rocky 
spot,  at  the  distance  of  about  40  stadia  from  Thespia.  Hesiod 
has  satirized  it  in  verses  addressed  to  his  father,  for  formerly 
emigrating  (to  this  place)  from  Cume  in  ^tolia,  as  follows  : 

"  He  dwelt  near  Helicon  in  a  wretched  village,  Ascra  ;  bad  in  winter,  in 
summer  intolerable,  and  worthless  at  any  season."  ' 

Helicon  is  contiguous  to  Phocis  on  its  northern,  and  partly 
on  its  western  side,  as  far  as  the  last  harbour  of  Phocis,  which 
is  called  from  its  characteristic  situation,  Mychus,  or  the 

'  There  is  some  doubt  respecting  the  modern  name  of  Thespiae ;  the 
Austrian  map  places  the  ruins  near  Erimokastro. 

2  Placing  Ascra  at  Pyrgaki,  there  is  little  doubt  that  Aganippe,  whence 
the  Muses  were  called  Aganippides,  is  the  fountain  which  issues  from  the 
left  bank  of  the  torrent  flowing  midway  between  Paleopanaghea  and 
Pyrgaki.  Around  this  fountain  Leake  observed  numerous  square  blocks, 
and  in  the  neighbouring  fields  stones  and  remains  of  habitations.  The 
position  of  the  Grove  of  the  Muses  is  fixed  at  St.  Nicholas,  by  an  inscrip- 
tion which  Leake  discovered  there  relating  to  the  Museia,  or  the  games 
of  the  Muses,  which  were  celebrated  there  under  the  presidency  of  the 
Thespians.  Paus.  b.  ix.  c.  31.  In  the  time  of  Pausanias  the  Grove  of 
the  Muses  contained  a  larger  number  of  statues  than  any  other  place  in 
Bceotia,  and  this  writer  has  given  an  account  of  many  of  them.  The 
statues  of  the  Muses  were  removed  by  Constantino  from  this  place  to  his 
new  capital,  where  they  were  destroyed  by  fire,  in  a.  d.  404.     Smith. 

3  Works  and  Days,  639. 

B.  IX.  c.  II.  §  25.  BCEOTIA.  105 

Just  above  this  part  of  the  Crisaean  Gulf,  Helicon,  As- 
cra,  Thespige,  and  its  arsenal  Creusa,  are  situated.  This  is 
considered  as  the  part  of  the  Crissean  and  of  the  Corinthian 
Gulf  which  recedes  most  inland.  The  coast  extends  90  stadia 
from  the  recess  of  the  harbour  to  Creusa,  and  thence  120  as 
far  as  the  promontory  called  Holmiae.  In  the  most  retired 
part  of  the  Crisaean  Gulf,  Pagae  and  CEnoa,  which  I  have 
already  mentioned,  are  situated. 

Helicon,  not  far  distant  from  Parnassus,  rivals  it  in  height  * 
and  circumference.  Both  mountains  are  covered  with  snow, 
and  are  rocky.  They  do  not  occupy  a  circuit  of  ground  of  great 
extent.  There  are,  the  fane  of  the  Muses,  the  Horse-fountain 
Hippocrene,^  and  the  grottoes  of  the  nymphs,  the  Leibethrides. 
Hence  it  might  be  conjectured,  that  Helicon  w^as  consecrated 
to  the  Muses,  by  Thracians,  who  dedicated  also  Pieris,  the 
Leibethrum,  and  Pimpleia  to  the  same  goddesses.  The 
Thracians  were  called  Pieres,  and  since  their  expulsion,  the 
Macedonians  possess  these  places. 

It  has  been  remarked,  that  the  Thracians,  (having  expelled 
the  Boeotians  by  force,)  and  the  Pelasgi,  and  other  barbarous 
people,  settled  in  this  part  of  Boeotia. 

Thespiae  was  formerly  celebrated  for  a  statue  of  Cupid  by 
Praxiteles.  Glycera  the  courtesan,  a  native  of  Thespiae,  re- 
ceived it  as  a  present  from  the  artist,  and  dedicated  it  as  a 
public  offering  to  her  fellow-citizens. 

Persons  formerly  used  to  repair  thither  to  see  the  Cupid, 
w^here  there  was  nothing  else  worth  seeing.  This  city,  and 
Tanagra,  alone  of  the  Boeotian  cities  exist  at  present,  while  of 
others  there  remain  nothing  but  ruins  and  names. 

'  This  is  a  mistake,  since  the  loftiest  summit  of  Helicon  is  barely  5000 
feet  high,  whilst  that  of  Parnassus  is  upwards  of  8000  feet.  Smith.  He- 
licon is  a  range  of  mountains  with  several  summits,  of  which  the  loftiest 
is  a  round  mountain  now  called  Paleovuni.  Smith.  The  Austrian  map 
gives  the  modern  name  Zagora  to  Helicon. 

2  Twenty  stadia  from  the  Grove  of  the  Muses  was  the  fountain  Hip- 
pocrene,  which  was  said  to  have  been  produced  by  the  horse  Pegasus 
striking  the  ground  with  his  foot.  Pans.  b.  ix.  ch.  31.  Hippocrene  was 
probably  at  Makariotissa,  which  is  noted  for  a  fine  spring  of  water.  Smith. 
The  Austrian  map  places  it  at  Kukuva.  Leibethrum,  or  Leibethreium, 
is  described  by  Pausanias  as .  distant  40  stadia  from  Coroneia,  and  is 
therefore  probably  the  mount  Zagora.     Smith. 

^^^  STRABO.  Casaub.  410. 

26.  After  ThespiaB  the  poet  enumerates  Graia  and  Myca- 
lessus,  of  which  we  have  before  spoken. 

He  proceeds  as  before, 

"  They  who  lived  near  Harma,  Eilesium,  and  Erythrs, 
And  they  who  occupied  Eleon,  Hyle,  and  Peteon."  * 

Peteon  is  a  village  of  the  Thebais  near  the  road  to  Anthedon. 
Ocalea  is  midway  between  Haliartus,^  and  AlalcomenEe,^  it  is 
distant  from  each  30  stadia.  A  small  river  of  the  same  name 
flows  by  it.  Medeon,  belonging  to  Phocis,  is  on  the  Crissean 
Gulf,  distant  from  Boeotia  160  stadia.  The  Medeon  of  Eoeo- 
tia  has  its  name  from  that  in  Phocis.  It  is  near  Onchestus, 
under  the  mountain  Phoeniciura/  whence  it  has  the  appella- 
tion of  Phoenicis.  This  mountain  is  likewise  assigned  to  the 
Theban  district,  but  by  others  to  the  territories  of  Haliartus, 
as  also  Medeon  and  Ocalea. 

27.  Homer  afterwards  names, 

"  Copse,  and  Eutresis,  and  Thisbe,  abounding  with  doves.'" 

»  II.  ii.  499. 

'  The  remains  of  Haliartus  are  situated  upon  a  hill  about  a  mile  from 
the  village  of  Mazi,  on  the  road  from  Thebes  to  Lebadeia,  and  at  the  dis- 
tance of  about  15  miles  from  either  place.  Although  the  walls  of  the 
town  are  scarcely  anywhere  traceable,  its  extent  is  marked  on  the  east 
and  west  by  two  small  rivers,  of  which  that  to  the  west  issues  from  the 
foot  of  the  hill  of  Mazi,  the  eastern,  called  the  Kafalari,  has  its  origin  in 
Mount  Helicon.  The  stream  on  the  western  side  of  the  city  is  the  one 
called  Hoplites  by  Plutarch,  where  Lysander  fell  in  battle  with  the  The- 
bans,  B.  c.  395,  and  is  apparently  the  same  as  the  Lophis  of  Pausanias. 
The  stream  on  the  eastern  side,  the  Kafalari,  is  formed  by  the  union  of 
two  rivulets,  which  appear  to  be  the  Permessus  and  Olmeius,  which  are 
described  by  Strabo  as  flowing  from  Helicon,  and  after  their  union  enter- 
ing the  Lake  Copais,  near  Haliartus.    Smith. 

'  It  was  celebrated  for  the  worship  of  Athena,  who  is  hence  called 
Alalcomeneis  in  Homer.  The  temple  of  the  goddess  stood  at  a  little  dis- 
tance from  the  town,  on  the  Triton,  a  small  stream  flowing  into  the  Lake 
Copais.     The  modern  village  Sulinari  is  the  site  of  Alalcomense.    Smith. 

*  Phcenicium,  or  Sphingium,  now  called  Faga,  the  mountain  between 
the  Lakes  Copais  and  Hylica,  connecting  Mount  Ptoum  with  the  range  of 
Helicon.  Forchamer  supposes  that  Phoenicium  and  Sphingium  are  the 
names  of  two  diff"erent  mountains,  separated  from  one  another  by  the  small 
plain  of  the  stream  Daulos  ;  but  the  name  of  Phcenicium  rests  only  on  the 
authority  of  Strabo,  and  it  is  probably  a  corruption  of  Phicium.  $i?  is 
the  ^olic  form  of  '2<p'Ly%,  (Hes.  Theog.  326,)  and  therefore  there  can  be 
no  doubt  that  Phicium  and  Sphingium  are  two  different  forms  of  the  same 
name.     Sjnith.  ^  II.  ii.  502. 

B.  IX.  c.  II.  §  28,  29.    .  BCEOTIA.  107 

We  have  spoken  of  Copse.  It  lies  towards  the  north  on  the 
lake  Copais.  The  other  cities  around  are,  Acraephiae,  Phoe- 
nicis,  Onchestus,  Haliartus,  Ocalea,  Alalcomense,  Tilphusium, 
Coroneia.  Formerly,  the  lake  had  no  one  general  name,  but 
derived  its  appellation  from  every  settlement  on  its  banks,  as 
Copais  from  Cop£e,VHaliartis  from  Haliartus,  and  other  names 
from  other  places,  but  latterly  the  whole  has  been  called 
Copais,  for  the  lake  is  remarkable  for  forming  at  Copae  the 
deepest  hollow.  Pindar  calls  it  Cephissis,  and  places  near  it, 
not  far  from  Haliartus  and  Alalcomenae,  the  fountain  Til- 
phossa,  which  flows  at  the  foot  of  Mount  Tilphossius.  At  the 
fountain  is  the  monument  of  Teiresias,  and  in  the  same  place 
the  temple  of  the  Tilphossian  Apollo. 

28.  After  Copae,  the  poet  mentions  Eutresis,  a  small  village 
of  the  Thespians.^  Here  Zethus  and  Amphion  lived  before 
they  became  kings  of  Thebes. 

Thisbe  is  now  called  Thisbas.  The  place  is  situated  a  little 
above  the  sea-coast  on  the  confines  of  the  Thespienses,  and 
the  territory  of  Coroneia ;  on  the  south  it  lies  at  the  foot  of 
Cithaeron.  It  has  an  arsenal  in  a  rocky  situation  abounding 
with  doves,  whence  the  poet  terms  it 

"  Thisbe,  with  its  flights  of  doves.*' 
Thence  to  Sicyon  is  a  voyage  of  160  stadia. 

29.  He  next  recites  the  names  of  Coroneia,  Haliartus,  Pla- 
taeae,  and  Glissas. 

Coroneia^  is  situated  upon  an  eminence,  near  Helicon.  The 
Boeotians  took  possession  of  it  on  their  return  from  the  Thes- 
salian  Arne,  after  the  Trojan  war,  when  they  also  occupied 
Orchomenus.  Having  become  masters  of  Coroneia,  they  built 
in  the  plain  before  the  city  the  temple  of  the  Itonian  Minerva, 
of  the  same  name  as  that  in  Thessaly,  and  called  the  river 

*  It  was  still  in  existence  in  the  time  of  Pausanias ;  the  modern  village 
Topolia  occupies  the  site. 

2  Leake  conjectures  that  there  is  an  error  in  the  text,  and  that  for 
Oeairiujv  we  ought  to  read  Qiafiuiv,  since  there  is  only  one  spot  in  the  ten 
miles  betAveen  Plataea  and  Thespiae  where  any  town  is  likely  to  have 
stood,  and  that  was  occupied  by  Leuctra.     See  Smith. 

^  It  was  here  that  the  Athenians  under  Tolmides  were  defeated  by  the 
Boeotians  in  b.  c.  447  ;  in  consequence  of  which  defeat  the  Athenians  lost 
the  sovereignly  which  they  had  for  some  years  exercised  over  Bceotia. 
The  plain  of  Coroneia  was  also  the  scene  of  the  victory  gained  by  Agesi- 
laus  over  the  Thebans  and  their  allies  in  b.  c.  394. 

108  •  STRABO.  Casaub.  411. 

flowing  by  it,  Cuarius,  the  name  of  the  Thessalian  river. 
Alcagus,  however,  calls  it  Coralius  in  these  words, 

"  Minerva,  warrior  queen,  who  o'er  Coroneia  keepest  watch  before  thy 
temple,  on  the  banks  of  Coralius." 

The  festival  Pamboeotia  was  here  celebrated.  Hades  is  asso- 
ciated with  Minerva,  in  the  dedication  of  the  temple,  for  some 
mystical  reason.  The  inhabitants  of  the  Boeotian  Coroneia 
are  called  Coronii,  those  of  the  Messenian  Coroneia,  Coronenses. 

30.  Haliartus  *  is  no  longer  in  existence,  it  was  razed  in  the 
war  against  Perseus.  The  territory  is  occupied  by  the  Athe- 
nians, to  whom  it  was  given  by  the  Romans.  It  was  situated 
in  a  narrow  spot  between  an  overhanging  mountain  and  the 
lake  Copais,  near  the  Permessus,  the  Olmeius,  and  the  marsh 
that  produces  the  flute-reed. 

31.  Plataeae,  which  the  poet  uses  in  the  singular  number, 
lies  at  the  foot  of  Cithaeron,  between  this  mountain  and  Thebes, 
on  the  road  to  Athens  and  Megara ;  it  is  on  the  borders  of 
Attica  and  Bosotia,  for  Eleutherae  is  near,  which  some  say  be- 
longs to  Attica,  others  to  Boeotia.  We  have  said  that  the 
Asopus  flows  beside  Plataeae.  There  the  army  of  the-  Greeks 
entirely  destroyed  Mardonius  and  three  hundred  thousand 
Persians.  They  dedicated  there  a  temple  to  Jupiter  Eleu- 
therius,  and  instituted  gymnastic  games,  called  Eleutheria,  in 
which  the  victor  was  crowned.  The  tombs  erected  at  the 
public  expense,  in  honour  of  those  who  died  in  the  battle,  are 
to  be  seen  there.  In  the  Sicyonian  district  is  a  demus  called 
Plataeae,  where  the  poet  Mnasalces  was  born  : 

"  the  monument  of  Mnasalces  of  Plataeae." 
Glissas,^  Homer  says,  is  a  village  on  Mount  Hypatus,  which 
is  near  Teumessus  and  Cadmeia,  in  the  Theban  territory. 
*******  beneath  is  what  is  called  the  Aonian  plain, 
which  extends  from  Mount  Hypatus  [to  Cadmeia  ?].^ 

*  Pausanias,  b.  ix.  33,  mentions  the  Heroum  of  Lysander  in  Hali- 
artus, and  some  ruined  temples,  which  had  been  burnt  by  the  Persians, 
and  had  been  purposely  left  in  that  state.     Smith. 

^  Leake  identifies  Glisas  with  the  ruins  on  the  bank  of  the  torrent 
Platanaki,  above  which  rises  the  mountain  Siamata,  the  ancient  Hypatus. 
'  The  following  is  the  original  of  this  corrupt  passage.     Kramer  suggests 
that  the  words  y.  5.  have  been  introduced  from  the  margin  into  the  text. 
ytoj\o<l>a  KoXeiTai  dpi\_*   *    *  (^  i/7ro7r]t7rrat  to 
'Aoviov  Kokoufjievov  Tttdiov  o  diaruvH  *   * 
*   *   *   *  CLTTO  rov  'YTrdrou  bpovQ. 

B.  IX.  c.  II.  §  32—34.  B(EOTIA.  109 

32.  By  these  words  of  the  poet, 

"  those  who  occupied  under  Thebes,"  * 
some  understand  a  small  town,  called  Under-Thebes,  others 
Potniae,  for  Thebes  was  abandoned  after  the  expedition  of  the 
Epigoni,  and  took  no  part  in  the  Trojan  war.  Others  say 
that  they  did  take  part  in  it,  but  that  they  Hved  at  that  time 
under  Cadmeia,  in  the  plain  country,  after  the  incursion  of  the 
Epigoni,  being  unable  to  rebuild  the  Cadmeia.  As  Thebes 
was  called  Cadmeia,  the  poet  says  that  the  Thebans  of  that 
time  lived  "under  Thebes"  instead  of  "under  Cadmeia." 

33.  The  Amphictyonic  council  usually  assembled  at  On- 
chestus,  in  the  territory  of  Haliartus,  near  the  lake  Copais, 
and  the  Teneric  plain.  It  is  situated  on  a  height,  devoid  of 
trees,  where  is  a  temple  of  Neptune  also  without  trees.  For 
the  poets,  for  the  sake  of  ornament,  called  all  sacred  places 
groves,  although  they  were  without  trees.  Such  is  the  lan- 
guage of  Pindar,  when  speaking  of  Apollo  : 

"He  traversed  in  his  onward  way  the  earth  and  sea ;  he  stood  upon  the 
heights  of  the  lofty  mountains ;  he  shook  the  caves  in  their  deep  recesses, 
and  overthrew  the  foundations  of  the  sacred  groves"  or  temples. 

As  Alcasus  is  mistaken  in  the  altering  the  name  of  the  river 
Cuarius,  so  he  makes  a  great  error  in  placing  Onchestus  at 
the  extremities  of  Helicon,  whereas  it  is  situated  very  far  from 
this  mountain. 

34.  The  Teneric  plain  has  its  name  from  Tenerus.  Ac- 
cording to  mythology,  he  was  the  son  of  Apollo  and  Melia, 
and  declared  the  answers  of  the  oracle  at  the  mountain  Ptoum,^ 
which,  the  same  poet  says,  had  three  peaks : 

"  At  one  time  he  occupied  the  caves  of  tlie  three-headed  Ptoum ; " 

and  he  calls  Tenerus 

"  the  prophet,  dwelling  in  the  temple,  and  having  the  same  name  as  the 
soil  on  which  it  stands." 

The  Ptoum  is  situated  above  the  Teneric  plain,  and  the  lake 
Copa'is,  near  Acraephium. 

Pausanias,  b.  ix.  ch.  19,  makes  mention  of  a  tumulus  covered  with 
trees,  near  the  ruins  of  Glisas  or  Glissas,  which  was  the  burial-place  of 
^gialus  and  his  companions,  and  also  of  other  tumuli.  These  were  pro- 
bably the  yfwXo^a  dpia,  woody  hillocks.  The  obscurity,  however,  still 

*  II.  ii.  505. 

'  The  three  summits  of  Ptoum  bear  the  names  of  Palea,  Stranitza,  and 

110  STRABO.  Casaub.  413. 

Both  the  oracle  and  the  mountain  belonged  to  the  Thebans. 

Acraephium  ^  itself  is  situated  upon  a  height.  This,  it  is 
said,  is  the  place  called  Arne  bj  the  poet,  having  the  same 
name  as  the  Thessalian  Arne. 

35.  Some  say  that  Arne  ;ind  Mideia  were  swallowed  up  by 
the  lake.    Zenodotus,  however,  when  he  writes  the  verse  thus, 

"  they  who  occupied  Ascra  abounding  with  vines,"  ^ 

does  not  seem  to  have  read  Hesiod's  description  of  his  native 
country,  and  what  has  been  said  by  Eudoxus,  who  relates 
things  much  more  to  the  disparagement  of  Ascra.  For  how 
could  any  one  believe  that  such  a  place  could  have  been  de- 
scribed by  the  poet  as 

"  abounding  with  vines  ?  " 

Neither  are  those  persons  in  the  right,  who  substitute  in  this 
passage  Tarne  for  Arne,  for  there  is  not  a  place  of  the  name 
of  Tarne  to  be  found  in  Boeotia,  although  there  is  in  Lydia. 
Homer  mentions  it, 

"  Idomeneus  then  slew  Phaestus,  the  son  of  Borus,  the  artificer,  who  came 
from  the  fruitful  soil  of  Tarne." ' 

Besides  Alalcomenae  and  Tilphossium,  which  are  near  the 
lake,  Choeroneia,  Lebadia,  and  Leuctra,  are  worthy  of  notice. 

36.  The  poet  mentions  Alalcomenae,'*  but  not  in  the  Cata- 
logue ; 

"the  Argive  Juno  and  Minerva  of  Alalcomenae."* 

It  has  an  ancient  temple  of  Minerva,  which  is  held  in  great 
veneration.  It  is  said  that  this  was  the  place  of  her  birth,  as 
Argos  was  that  of  Juno,  and  that  Homer  gave  to  both  these 
goddesses  designations  derived  from  their  native  places.  Per- 
haps for  this  reason  he  has  not  mentioned,  in  the  Catalogue, 
the  inhabitants  ;  for  having  a  sacred  character,  they  were  ex- 
empted from  military  service.  Indeed  the  city  has  never  suf- 
fered devastation  by  an  enemy,  although  it  is  inconsiderable 
in  size,  and  its  position  is  weak,  for  it  is  situated  in  a  plain. 

*  The  ruins  are  situated  at  a  short  distance  south  of  Kardhitza.  The 
site  of  Cierium,  the  modern  village  Mataranga,  was  first  discovered  by 
Leake,  who  identifies  it  with  Arne,  and  supposes,  with  much  probability, 
that  the  name  Arne  may  have  been  disused  by  the  Thessalian  conquerors, 
because  it  was  of  Boeotian  origin,  and  that  the  new  appellation  may  have 
been  taken  from  the  neighbouring  river  Curalius  or  Cuarius. 

2  11.  ii.  507.  3  11,  V.  43.  ♦  Sulinari.  «  II.  iv.  8. 

B  IX.  c.  11.  §  37—40.  BCEOTIA.  1 1 1 

All  in  reverence  to  the  goddess  abstained  from  every  act  of 
violence ;  wherefore  the  Thebans,  at  the  time  of  the  expedi- 
tion of  the  Epigoni,  abandoning  their  own  city,  are  said  to 
have  taken  refuge  here,  and  on  the  strong  mountain  above  it, 
the  Tilphossium.^  Below  Tilphossium  is  the  fountain  Til- 
phossa,  and  the  monument  of  Teiresias,  who  died  there  on 
the  retreat. 

37.  Chseroneia^  is  near  Orchomenus,^  where  Philip,  the  son 
of  Amyntas,  after  having  overcome,  in  a  great  battle,^  the 
Athenians,  Boeotians,  and  Corinthians,  became  the  master  of 
Greece.  There  are  seen  the  sepulchres  erected  at  the  public 
charge  of  the  persons  who  fell  in  that  battle. 

38.  At  Lebadeia^  is  the  oracle  of  Jupiter  Trophonius, 
having  a  descent  through  an  opening,  which  leads  under- 
ground. The  person  himself,  who  consults  the  oracle,  de- 
scends into  it.  It  is  situated  between  Helicon  and  Chaeroneia, 
near  Coroneia. 

39.  Leuctra^  is  the  place  where  Epaminondas  overcame  the 
Lacedaemonians  in  a  great  battle,  and  first  weakened  their 
power ;  for  after  that  time  they  were  never  able  to  regain  the 
supremacy  over  the  Greeks,  which  they  before  possessed, 
and  particularly  after  they  were  defeated  in  a  second  battle  at 
Mantinea.  Even  after  these  reverses  they  preserved  their 
independence  until  the  establishment  of  the  Roman  dominion, 
and  were  always  respected  by  that  people  on  account  of  the 
excellency  of  their  form  of  government.  The  field  of  battle 
is  shown  on  the  road  which  leads  from  Platseae  to  Thespiae. 

40.  The  poet  next  mentions  the  Orchomenians  in  the  Cata- 
logue, and  distinguishes  them  from  the  Boeotian  nation.  He 
gives  to  Orchomenus  the  epithet  Minyeian  from  the  nation  of 
the  Minyae.  They  say  that  a  colony  of  the  Minyeians  went 
hence  to  lolcus,"^  and  from  this  circumstance  the  Argonauts 
were  called  Minyae.     It  appears  that,  anciently,  it  was  a  rich 

*  Petra.  '  Kapurna.  ^  Scripu. 

*  On  the  7th  of  August,  b.  c.  338.  Of  the  details  of  this  battle  we  have 
no  account.  The  site  of  the  monument  is  marked  by  a  tumulus  about  a 
mile  or  a  little  more  from  the  Khan  of  Kapurna,  on  the  right  side  of  the 
road  towards  Orchomenus.  A  few  years  ago  (according  to  Mure)  the 
mound  of  earth  was  excavated  and  a  colossal  lion  discovered,  deeply  im- 
bedded in  its  interior.     See  Smith. 

*  Livadhia.  «  LePKa. 
'  See  below,  ch..  v.  §  15. 

112  STRABO.  Casaub.  414. 

and  very  powerful  city.  Homer  bears  witness  to  its  wealth, 
for  in  his  enumeration  of  places  of  great  opulence,  he  says, 

"  Not  all  that  is  brought  to  Orchomenus,  or  to  Egyptian  Thebes."  * 
Of  its  power  there  is  this  proof,  that  the  Thebans  always  paid 
tribute  to  the  Orchomenians,  and  to  Erginus  their  king,  who  it 
is  said  was  put  to  death  by  Hercules.  Eteocles,  one  of  the 
kings  that  reigned  at  Orchomenus,  first  displayed  both  wealth 
and  power.  He  built  a  temple  dedicated  to  the  Graces,  who 
were  thus  honoured  by  him,  either  because  he  had  been  for- 
tunate in  receiving  or  conferring  favours,  or  perhaps  for  both 
these  reasons. 

[For  one  who  was  inclined  thus  to  honour  these  god- 
desses, must  have  been  naturally  disposed  to  be  a  benefactor, 
and  he  must  have  possessed  the  power.  But  for  this  purpose 
wealth  is  required.  For  he  who  has  not  much  cannot  give 
much,  nor  can  he  who  does  not  receive  much  possess  much ; 
but  when  giving  and  receiving  unite,  then  there  is  a  just  ex- 
change. For  a  vessel  which  is  simultaneously  emptied  and 
filled  is  always  full ;  but  he  who  gives  and  does  not  receive 
cannot  succeed  in  either  giving  or  receiving,  for  the  giver 
must  desist  from  giving  from  failure  of  means.  Givers  also 
will  desist  from  giving  to  him  who  receives  only,  and  confers 
no  benefits,  so  that  he  must  fail  in  receiving.  The  same  may 
be  said  of  power.     For  independently  of  the  common  saying, 

"  That  money  is  the  thing  most  highly  valued, 
And  has  the  greatest  influence  in  human  affairs,"' 

we  may  examine  the  subject  more  in  detail.  We  say,  for  ex- 
ample, that  kings  have  the  greatest  power,  (/uaXtora  IvvacQai,) 
whence  the  name,  dynasty.  Their  power  is  exerted  by  lead- 
ing the  multitude  whither  they  like,  by  persuasion  or  by  force. 
Their  power  of  persuasion  chiefly  rests  in  doing  acts  of  kind- 
ness ;  for  persuasion  by  words  is  not  princely,  but  belongs  to 
the  orator.  By  princely  persuasion,  I  mean,  when  kings  di- 
rect and  lead  men  whither  .they  please  by  acts  of  kindness. 
They  persuade  by  acts  of  kindness,  but  compel  by  means  of 
arms.  Both  power  and  possessions  may  be  purchased  by 
money.  For  he  has  the  largest  body  of  forces,  who  is  able  to 
maintain  the  largest ;  and  he  who  has  the  largest  possessions, 
can  confer  the  greatest  benefits.^] 

*    II.  Ix.  381.      *  Euripides,  Phoen.  422.      ^  probably  an  interpolation. 

B.  IX.  c.  II.  Hl>  42.  PHOCIS.  113 

The  spot  which  the  present  lake  Copais  occupies,  was  form- 
erly, it  is  said,  dry  ground,  and  was  cultivated  in  various 
ways  by  the  Orchomenians,  who  lived  near  it ;  and  this  is  al- 
leged as  a  proof  of  wealth. 

41.  Some  persons  use  the  word  Aspledon^  without  the  first 
syllable,  Spledon.  The  name  both  of  the  city  and  of  the  ter- 
ritory was  changed  to  Eudeielos,^  which  expressed  perhaps 
some  peculiar  advantage  the  inhabitants  derived  from  their 
western  position,  and  especially  the  mild  winters.  The  ex- 
treme parts  of  the  day  are  the  coldest.  Of  these  the  evening 
is  colder  than  the  morning,  for  as  night  approaches  the  cold  is 
more  intense,  and  as  night  retires  the  cold  abates.  The 
severity  of  the  cold  is  mitigated  by  the  heat  of  the  sun,  and 
the  part  which  during  the  coldest  season  has  received  most  of 
the  sun's  heat,  is  mildest  in  winter. 

It  is  distant  from  Orchomenus^  20  stadia.  The  river 
Melas  is  between  them. 

42.  Panopeus,  a  Phocian  city,  and  Hyampolis'*  are  situated 
above  Orchomenus.  Opus,  the  metropolis  of  the  Locri  Epic- 
nemidii,  borders  upon  these  places.  It  is  said,  that  Orcho- 
menus was  formerly  situated  on  a  plain,  but,  as  the  waters 
overflowed,  the  settlers  removed  to  the  mountain  Acontium, 
which  extends  60  stadia  in  length,  as  far  as  Parapotamii  in 
Phocis.  It  is  said,  that  those  people,  who  are  called  Achaei  in 
Pontus,  are  colonists  from  the  Orchomenians,  who,  after  the 
capture  of  Troy,  wandered  thither  under  the  conduct  of  lal- 
menus.     There  was  also  an  Orchomenus  near  Carystus. 

The  writers  on  the  Catalogue  of  Ships  [in  Homer],  have 
furnished  us  with  these  materials,  and  they  have  been  fol- 
lowed, wherever  they  introduced  anything  adapted  to  the 
design  of  this  work. 



1.  Next  to  Boeotia  and  Orchomenus  is  Phocis,  lying  along 
the  side  of  Boeotia  to  the  north,  and,  anciently,  nearly  from  sea 

*  Leake  places  it  at  Tzamali,  but  Forchammer  with  more  probability 
at  Avro-Kastro. 

^  EvSiieXog.  '  Scripu.  *  Bof}:cl;ina, 

VOL.    II.  I 

114  STRABO.  Casaub.  416. 

to  sea.  For  at  that  time  Daphnus  belonged  to  Phocis,  dividing 
Locris  into  two  parts,  and  situated  midway  between  the  Opun- 
tian  Gulf  and  the  sea-coast  of  the  Epicnemidii.  At  present, 
however,  the  district  belongs  to  the  Locri ;  but  the  town  is  in 
ruins,  so  that  Phocis  no  longer  extends  to  the  sea  opposite  Eu- 
boea ;  but  it  is  close  to  the  Crissean  Gulf.  For  Crisa  itself  be- 
longs to  Phocis,  and  is  situated  immediately  upon  the  sea. 
Cirrha,  Anticyra,^  and  the  places  above  them,  in  the  interior 
near  Parnassus  in  continuous  succession,  namely,  Delphi,^ 
Cirphis,  and  Daulis,^  belong  to  Phocis,  so  also  Parnassus  it- 
self, which  is  the  boundary  of  the  western  side. 

In  the  same  manner  as  Phocis  lies  along  the  side  of  Boeotia, 
so  are  both  the  divisions  of  Locris  situated  with  respect  to 
Phocis,  for  Locris  is  composed  of  two  parts,  being  divided  by 
Parnassus.  The  western  part  lies  along  the  side  of  Parnassus, 
occupies  a  portion  of  it,  and  extends  to  the  Crisaean  Gulf ;  the 
eastern  part  terminates  at  the  sea  near  Euboea.  The  inhabit- 
ants of  the  former  are  called  Locri  Hesperii,  or  Locri  Ozolse,  and 
have  engraven  on  their  public  seal  the  star  Hesperus.  The  rest 
are  again  divided  into  two  bodies :  one,  the  Opuntii,  who  have 
their  name  from  the  chief  city,  and  border  upon  the  Phocae- 
ans  and  Boeotians  ;  the  other,  the  Epicnemidii,  who  have  their 
name  from  the  mountain  Cnemis  ;'*  and  adjoin  the  QEtcei, 
and  the  Malienses.  In  the  midst  of  the  Hesperii,  and  the 
other  Locri,  is  Parnassus,  lying  lengthwise  towards  the  north- 
ern part,  and  extending  from  the  neighbourhood  of  Delphi  to 
the  junction  of  the  (Etaean,  and  the  JEtolian  mountains,  and 
to  the  Dorians,  who  are  situated  between  them.  For  as  both 
divisions  of  Locris  extend  along  the  side  of  Phocis,  so  also  the 
region  of  (Eta  with  JEtolia,  and  some  of  the  places  situated  in 
the  Doric  Tetrapolis,  extend  along  the  sides  of  the  two  Locri, 
Parnassus  and  the  Dorians.  Immediately  above  these  are 
situated  the  Thessalians,  the  northern  ^tolians,  the  Acarna- 
nians,  and  some  of  the  Epirotic  and  Macedonian  nations,  as  I 
observed  before,  the  above-mentioned  tracts  of  country  may 
be  considered  as  a  kind  of  parallel  bands  stretching  from  the 
v/est  to  the  east. 

The  whole  of  Parnassus  is  esteemed  sacred,  it  contains 
caves,  and  other  places,  which  are  regarded  with  honour  and 

'  Aspra-Spitia.  ^  Kastri.  ^  Daulia. 

*  It  is  a  continuation  of  the  ridge  of  CEta. 

B.  IX.  c.  III.  $  2.  PHOCIS.  115 

reverence.  Of  these  the  most  celebrated  and  the  most  beau- 
tiful is  Corycium,  a  cave  of  the  nymphs,  having  the  same 
name  as  that  in  Cilicia.  Of  the  sides  of  Parnassus,  the  west- 
ern is  occupied  by  the  Locri  Ozolag,  and  by  some  of  the  Dori- 
ans, and  by  the  ^toli,  situated  near  Corax,  an  ^tolian 
mountain.  The  eastern  side  is  occupied  by  Phocians  and  by 
the  greater  part  of  the  Dorians,  who  hold  the  Tetrapolis,  situ- 
ated as  it  were  round  the  side  of  Parnassus,  but  spreading  out 
in  the  largest  extent  towards  the  east.  The  sides  of  the 
above-mentioned  tracts  and  each  of  the  bands  are  parallel,  one 
side  being  northern,  and  the  other  southern.  The  western 
sides,  however,  are  not  parallel  to  the  eastern,  for  the  sea-coast 
from  the  Crissean  Gulf  to  Actium  ^  is  not  parallel  to  the  coast 
opposite  Euboea,  and  extending  to  Thessalonica.  It  is  on 
these  shores  the  above-mentioned  nations  terminate.  For  the 
figure  of  these  countries  is  to  be  understood  from  the  notion  of 
lines  drawn  parallel  to  the  base  of  a  triangle,  where  the  separ- 
ate parts  lie  parallel  to  one  another,  and  have  their  sides  in 
latitude  parallel,  but  not  their  sides  in  longitude.  This  is  a 
rough  sketch  of  the  country  which  remains  to  be  examined. 
We  shall  examine  each  separate  part  in  order,  beginning  with 

2.  The  two  most  celebrated  cities  of  this  country  are  Del- 
phi and  Elateia.  Delphi  is  renowned  for  the  temple  of  the 
Pythian  Apollo,  and  the  antiquity  of  its  oracle ;  since  Aga- 
memnon is  said  by  the  poet  to  have  consulted  it ;  for  the  min- 
strel is  introduced  singing  of  the 

"  fierce  contest  of  Ulysses,  and  Achilles,  the  son  of  Peleus,  how  once  they 
contended  together,  and  Agamemnon  king  of  men  was  pleased,  for  so 
Phoebus  Apollo  had  foretold  by  the  oracle  in  the  illustrious  Pytho."  ^ 

Delphi  then  was  celebrated  on  this  account.  Elateia  was 
famous  as  being  the  largest  of  the  cities  in  that  quarter,  and 
for  its  very  convenient  position  upon  the  straits  ;  for  he,  who 
is  the  master  of  this  city,  commands  the  entrances  into  Phocis 
and  Boeotia.  First,  there  are  the  QEtaean  mountains,  next  the 
mountains  of  the  Locri,  and  the  Phocians  ;  they  are  not  every 
where  passable  for  invading  armies,  coming  from  Thessaly, 
but  having  narrow  passes  distinct  from  each  other,  which  the 
adjacent  cities  guard.    Those,  who  take  the  cities,  are  masters 

»  La  Punta.  ^  Qd.  -viii.  75. 

116  STRABO.  Casaub.  418. 

of  the  passes  also.  But  since  from  its  celebrity  the  temple  at 
Delphi  possesses  a  pre-eminence,  this,  together  with  the  posi- 
tion of  the  places,  (for  thej  are  the  most  westerly  parts  of 
Phocis,)  suggest  a  natural  commencement  of  our  description, 
and  we  shall  begin  from  thence. 

3.  We  have  remarked,  that  Parnassus  itself  is  situated  on 
the  western  boundaries  of  Phocis.  The  western  side  of  this 
mountain  is  occupied  by  the  Locri  Ozolae ;  on  the  southern  is 
Delphi,  a  rocky  spot,  resembling  in  shape  a  theatre ;  on  its 
summit  is  the  oracle,  and  also  the  city,  which  comprehends  a 
circle  of  16  stadia.  Above  it  lies  Lycoreia;  here  the  Del- 
phians  were  formerly  settled  above  the  temple.  At  present 
they  live  close  to  it  around  the  Castalian  fountain.  In  front 
of  the  city,  on  the  southern  part,  is  Cirphis,  a  precipitous  hill, 
leaving  in  the  intermediate  space  a  wooded  ravine,  through 
which  the  river  Pleistus  flows.  Below  Cirphis  near  the  sea 
is  Cirrha,  an  ancient  city,  from  which  there  is  an  ascent  to 
Delphi  of  about  80  stadia.  It  is  situated  opposite  to  Sicyon. 
Adjoining  to  Cirrha  is  the  fertile  Crisaean  plain.  Again, 
next  in  order  follows  another  city  Crisa,  from  which  the 
Crisaean  Gulf  has  its  name  ;  then  Anticyra,^  of  the  same  name 
as  the  city,  on  the  Maliac  Gulf,  and  near  CEta.  The  best 
hellebore  is  said  to  grow  in  the  Maliac  Anticyra,^  but  l>ere 
it  is  prepared  in  a  better  manner ;  on  this  account  many 
persons  resort  hither  for  the  purpose  of  experiencing  its 
purgative  qualities,  and  of  being  cured  of  their  maladies.  In 
the  Phocian  territory  there  is  found  a  medicinal  plant,  resem- 
bling Sesamum,  (Sesamoides,)  with  which  the  (Etasan  helle- 
bore is  prepared. 

4.  Anticyra  still  remains,  but  Cirrha  and  Crisa ^  are  in 
ruins ;  Cirrha  was  destroyed  by  the  Crisaeans ;  and  Crisa, 
afterwards,  by  Eurylochus  the  Thessalians,  in  the  Crisasan 
war ;  for  the  Crisaei  enriched  themselves  by  duties  levied  on 
merchandise  brought  from  Sicily  and  Italy,  and  laid  grievous 
imposts  on  those  who  resorted  to  the  temple,  contrary  to  the 
decrees  of  the  Amphictyons.  The  same  was  the  case  with  the 
Amphissenses,  who  belong  to  the  Locri  Ozolae.  This  people 
made  an  irruption  into  the  country,  and  took  possession  of 
Crisa,  and  restored  it.  The  plain,  which  had  been  consecrated 

1  Aspra  Spitia.  ^  At  the  mouth  of  the  Spercheius. 

'  The  ruins  are  near  Chryso. 

B.  IX.  c.  III.  §  5, 6.  PHOCIS.  117 

by  the  Ampliictyons,  was  diligently  cultivated,  but  strangers 
were  more  harshly  treated  than  by  the  Crisasans  before  them. 
The  Amphictyons  punished  them  and  restored  the  territory  to 
the  god.  The  temple  at  Delphi  is  now  much  neglected,  although 
formerly  it  was  held  in  the  greatest  veneration.  Proofs  of  the 
respect  which  was  paid  to  it  are,  the  treasuries  constructed  at 
the  expense  of  communities  and  princes,  where  was  deposited 
the  wealth  dedicated  to  sacred  uses,  the  works  of  the  most 
eminent  artists,  the  Pythian  games,  and  a  multitude  of  cele- 
brated oracles. 

5.  The  place  where  the  oracle  is  delivered,  is  said  to  be  a 
deep  hollow  cavern,  the  entrance  to  which  is  not  very  wide. 
From  it  rises  up  an  exhalation  which  inspires  a  divine  frenzy : 
over  the  mouth  is  placed  a  lofty  tripod  on  which  the  Pythian 
priestess  ascends  to  receive  the  exhalation,  after  which  she 
gives  the  prophetic  response  in  verse  or  prose.  The  prose  is 
adapted  to  measure  by  poets  who  are  in  the  service  of  the 
temple.  Phemonoe  is  said  to  have  been  the  first  Pythian  pro- 
phetess, and  both  the  prophetess  and  the  city  obtained  their 
appellation  from  the  word  Pythesthai,  to  inquire,  {irvQiaQai). 
The  first  syllable  was  lengthened,  as  in  the  words  aflavaroc, 

^  [The  establishment  of  cities,  and  the  honour  paid  to  com- 
mon temples,  are  due  to  the  same  feelings  and  causes.  Men  were 
collected  together  into  cities  and  nations,  from  a  natural  dis- 
position to  society,  and  for  the  purpose  of  mutual  assistance. 
Hence  common  temples  were  resorted  to,  festivals  celebrated, 
and  meetings  held  of  the  general  body  of  the  people.  For 
friendship  commences  from  and  is  promoted  by  attending  the 
same  feasts,  uniting  in  the  same  worship,  and  dwelling  under 
the  same  roof.  The  advantages  derived  from  these  meetings 
were  naturally  estimated  from  the  number  of  persons  who  at- 
tended them,  as  also  from  the  number  of  places  from  whence 
they  came.] 

6.  Although  the  highest  honour  was  paid  to  this  temple  on 
account  of  the  oracle,  (for  it  was  the  most  exempt  of  any  from 
deception,)  yet  its  reputation  was  owing  in  part  to  its  situation 
in  the  centre  of  all  Greece,  both  within  and  without  the  isth- 
mus.    It  was  also  supposed  to  be  the  centre  of  the  habitable 

^  Apparently  an  interpolation.     Groskurd, 

118  STRABO.  Casaub.  420. 

earth,  and  was  called  the  Navel  of  the  earth.  A  fable,  re- 
ferred to  by  Pindar,  was  invented,  according  to  which  two 
eagles,  (or,  as  others  say,  two  crows,)  set  free  by  Jupiter,  one 
from  the  east,  the  other  from  the  west,  alighted  together  at 
Delphi.  In  the  temple  is  seen  a  sort  of  navel  wrapped  in 
bands,  and  surmounted  by  figures  representing  the  birds  of 
the  fable. 

7.  As  the  situation  of  Delphi  is  convenient,  persons  easily 
assembled  there,  particularly  those  from  the  neighbourhood,  of 
whom  the  Amphictyonic  body  is  composed.  It  is  the  business 
of  this  body  to  deliberate  on  public  affairs,  and  to  it  is  more 
particularly  intrusted  the  guardianship  of  the  temple  for  the 
common  good  ;  for  large  sums  of  money  were  deposited  there, 
and  votive  offerings,  which  required  great  vigilance  and 
religious  care.  The  early  history  of  this  body  is  unknown, 
but  among  the  names  which  are  recorded,  Acrisius  appears  to" 
have  been  the  first  who  regulated  its  constitution,  to  have 
determined  what  cities  were  to  have  votes  in  the  council,  and 
to  have  assigned  the  number  of  votes  and  mode  of  voting.  To 
some  cities  he  gave  a  single  vote  each,  or  a  vote  to  two  cities, 
or  to  several  cities  conjointly.  He  also  defined  the  class  of 
questions  which  might  arise  between  the  different  cities, 
which  were  to  be  submitted  to  the  decision  of  the  Amphicty- 
onic tribunal ;  and  subsequently  many  other  regulations  were 
made,  but  this  body,  like  that  of  the  Achaeans,  was  finally 

At  first  twelve  cities  are  said  to  have  assembled,  each  of 
which  sent  a  Pylagoras.  The  convention  was  held  twice  a 
year,  in  spring  and  autumn.  But  latterly  a  greater  number 
of  cities  assembled.  They  called  both  the  vernal  and  the 
autumnal  convention  Pylaean,  because  it  was  held  at  Pylae, 
which  has  the  name  also  of  Thermopylae.  The  Pylagorse 
sacrificed  to  Ceres. 

In  the  beginning,  the  persons  in  the  neighbourhood  only  as- 
sembled, or  consulted  the  oracle,  but  afterwards  people  re- 
paired thither  from  a  distance  for  this  purpose,  sent  gifts,  and 
constructed  treasuries,  as  Croesus,  and  his  father  Alyattes, 
some  of  the  Italians  also,  and  the  Siceli  (Sicilians). 

8.  But  the  wealth,  being  an  object  of  cupidity,  was  guarded 
with  difficulty,  although  dedicated  to  sacred  uses.  At  pre- 
^nt,  however,  whatever  it  might  have  been,  the  temple  at 

B.  IX.  c.  III.  §  9.  PHOCIS.  119 

Delphi  is  exceedingly  poor.  Some  of  the  offerings  have 
been  taken  away  for  the  sake  of  the  money,  but  the  greater 
part  remain  there.  It  is  true  that  the  temple  was  once  very 
opulent,  as  Homer  testifies ; 

"  Nor  all  the  wealth,  which  the  marble  threshold  of  Phoebus  Apollo,  the 
Archer,  (Aphetor,)  •  contains  in  the  rocky  Pytho."  * 

The  treasuries  indicate  its  riches,  and  the  plunder  committed 
by  the  Phocians,  which  gave  rise  to  the  Phocic  or  Sacred 
war,  as  it  was  called.  It  is  however  supposed  that  a  spolia- 
tion of  the  temple  must  have  taken  place  at  some  more  re- 
mote period,  when  the  wealth  mentioned  by  Homer  disap- 
peared ;  for  no  vestige  of  it  whatever  was  preserved  to  later 
times,  when  Onomarchus  and  Phayllus  pillaged  the  temple,  as 
the  property  [then]  removed  was  of  a  more  recent  date  than 
that  referred  to  by  the  poet.  For  there  were  once  deposited 
in  the  treasuries,  offerings  from  spoils,  bearing  inscriptions 
with  the  names  of  the  donors,  as  of  Gyges,  of  Croesus,  of  the 
SybaritaB,  of  the  Spinetse  on  the  Adriatic,  and  of  others  also. 
It  would  be  unbecoming  to  suppose  ^  that  modern  and  ancient 
treasures  were  confounded  together :  other  places  pillaged  by 
these  people  confirm  this  view. 

Some  persons,  however,  understanding  the  word  Aphetor 
to  signify  treasure,  and  the  threshold  of  the  aphetor  the  reposi- 
tory of  the  treasure  under-ground,  say,  that  this  wealth  was 
buried  beneath  the  temple,  and  that  Onomarchus  and  his 
companions  attempted  to  dig  it  up  by  night ;  violent  shocks 
of  an  earthquake  caused  them  to  fly  out  of  the  temple,  and 
desist  from  their  excavation ;  thus  others  were  impressed 
with  a  dread  of  making  similar  attempts. 

9.  Of  the  shrines,  the  winged  shrine''  is  to  be  placed  among 
fabulous  stories.  The  second  is  said  to  have  been  the  work- 
manship of  Trophonius  and  Agamedes,  but  the  present 
shrine^  was  buiit  by  the  Amphictyons.  A  tomb  of  Neoptole- 
mus  is  shown  in  the  sacred  enclosure.     It  was  built  accordingr 


*  a(pT}T(i)p.  2  II.  ix.  404.  '  A  conjecture  by  Kramer. 

*  Pausanias,  b.  x.  c.  5,  speaks  of  a  temple  of  Apollo  at  Delphi,  which 
was  supposed  to  have  been  constructed  by  bees,  with  their  combs  and 

*  Of  which  Spintharus  the  Corinthian  was  the  architect.  Pausanias,  b. 
X.  c.  5. 

120  STRABO.  Casaub.  421. 

to  the  injunction  of  an  oracle.  Neoptolemus  was  killed  by 
Machs&reus,  a  Delphian,  when,  as  the  table  goes,  he  was  seek- 
ing redress  from  the  god  for  the  murder  of  his  father,  but, 
probably,  he  was  preparing  to  pillage  the  temple-  Branchus, 
who  presided  over  the  temple  at  Didyma,  is  said  to  have  been 
a  descendant  of  Machasreus. 

10.  There  was  anciently  a  contest  held  at  Delphi,  of  players 
on  the  cithara,  who  executed  a  paean  in  honour  of  the  god.  It 
was  instituted  by  Delphians.  But  after  the  Crisaean  war  the 
Amphictyons,  in  the  time  of  Eurylochus,  established  contests 
for  horses,  and  gymnastic  sports,  in  which  the  victor  was 
crowned.  These  were  called  Pythian  games.  The  players^ 
on  the  cithara  were  accompanied  by  players  on  the  flute,  and 
by  citharists,^  who  performed  without  singing.  They  per^ 
formed  a  strain  (Melos),^  called  the  Pythian  mood  (Nomos).* 
It  consisted  of  five  parts ;  the  anacrusis,  the  ampeira,  catace- 
leusmus,  iambics  and  dactyls,  and  pipes.^  Timosthenes,  the  com- 
mander of  the  fleet  of  the  Second  Ptolemy,  and  who  was  the 
author  of  a  work  in  ten  books  on  Harbours,  composed  a  melos. 
His  object  was  to  celebrate  in  this  melos  the  contest  of  Apollo 
with  the  serpent  Python.  The  anacrusis  was  intended  to  ex- 
press the  prelude  ;  the  ampeira,  the  first  onset  of  the  contest ; 
the  cataceleusmus,  the  contest  itself;  the  iambics  and  dactyls 
.denoted  the  triumphal  strain  on  obtaining  the  victory,  together 
with  musical  measures,  of  which  the  dactyl  is  peculiarly  ap* 
propriated  to  praise,  and  the  use  of  the  iambic  to  insult  and 
reproach;  the  syringes  or  pipes  described  the  death,  the 
players  imitating  the  hissings  of  the  expiring  monster.^ 

11.  Ephorus,  whom  we  generally  follow,  on  account  of  his 
exactness  in  these  matters,  (as  Polybius,  a  writer  of  repute, 
testifies,)  seems  to  proceed  contrary  to  his  proposed  plan,  and 
to  the  promise  which  he  made  at  the  beginning  of  his  work. 
For  after  having  censured  those  writers  who  are  fond  of  in- 
termixing fable  with  history,  and  after  having  spoken  in 
praise  of  truth,  he  introduces,  with  reference  to  this  oracle,  a 
grave   declaration,  that  he  considers  truth  preferable  at  all 

'  Ki6ap(fSoi,  played  on  the  cithara,  accompanying  it  with  words. 
2  Ki6api(7Tai,  played  on  the  cithara  alone. 
'  fXsXog.  *  vSfiog.  ^  avpiy^. 

*  Groskurd  and  Meineke  propose  emendations  of  the  text  of  this 
passage.     The  translation  is  rather  a  paraphrase^ 

B.  IX.  c.  III.  §  12.  PHOCIS.  121 

times,  but  especially  in  treating  subjects  of  this  kind.  For  it 
is  absurd,  he  says,  if,  in  other  things,  we  constantly  follow  this 
practice,  but  that  when  we  come  to  speak  of  the  oracle,  which 
of  all  others  is  the  most  exempt  from  deception,  we  should 
introduce  tales  so  incredible  and  false.  Yet  immediately 
afterwards  he  says,  that  it  is  the  received  opinion  that 
Apollo,  by  the  aid  of  Themis,  established  this  oracle  with 
a  view  to  benefit  the  human  race.  He  then  explains  .these 
benefits,  by  saying,  that  men  were  invited  to  pursue  a  more 
civilized  mode  of  life,  and  were  taught  maxims  of  wisdom  by 
oracles ;  by  injunctions  to  perform  or  to  abstain,  or  by  posi- 
tive refusal  to  attend  to  the  prayers  of  petitioners.  Some, 
he  says,  suppose,  that  the  god  himself  in  a  bodily  form  di- 
rects these  things  ;  others,  that  he  communicates  an  intima- 
tion of  his  will  to  men  [by  words]. 

12.  And  lower  down,  when  speaking  of  the  Delphians  and 
their  origin,  he  says,  that  certain  persons,  called  Parnassii, 
an  indigenous  tribe,  anciently  inhabited  Parnassus,  about 
which  time  Apollo,  traversing  the  country,  reclaimed  men 
from  their  savage  state,  by  inducing  them  to  adopt  a  more 
civilized  mode  of  life  and  subsistence ;  that,  setting  out  from 
Athens  on  his  way  to  Delphi,  he  took  the  same  road  along 
which  the  Athenians  at  present  conduct  the  procession  of  the 
Pythias ;  that  when  he  arrived  at  the  Panopeis,  he  put  to 
death  Tityus,  who  was  master  of  the  district,  a  violent  and 
lawless  man ;  that  the  Parnassii  having  joined  him  informed 
him  of  Python,  another  desperate  man,  surnamed  the  Dragon. 
Whilst  he  was  despatching  this  man  with  his  arrows,  they 
shouted.  Hie  Paian  ;  ^  whence  has  been  transmitted  the  custom 
of  singing  the  Paean  before  the  onset  of  a  battle ;  that  after  the 
death  of  the  Python  the  Delphians  burnt  even  his  tent,  as  they 
still  continue  to  burn  a  tent  in  memorial  of  these  events.  Now 
what  can  be  more  fabulous  than  Apollo  discharging  his  arrows, 
chastising  Tityi  and  Pythons,  his  journey  from  Athens  to 
Delphi,  and  his  travels  over  the  whole  country  ?  If  he  did 
not  consider  these  as  fables,  why  did  he  call  the  fabulous 
Themis  a  woman,  and  the  fabulous  dragon  a  man,  unless  he 
intended  to  confound  the  provinces  of  history  and  fable. 
His  account  of  the  ^tolians  is  similar  to  this.     After  having 

^  Probably,  says  Pabner,  the  expression  is  derived  from  'is  -naii,   O 
strike,  or  Vt  nai,  0  youth. 

122  STRABO.  CASArB.  423. 

asserted  that  their  country  was  never  ravaged  at  any  period, 
he  says,  that  at  one  time  it  was  inhabited  by  ^tolians,  who 
had  expelled  the  Barbarians ;  that  at  another  time,  -^tolus, 
together  with  the  Epeii  from  Elis,  inhabited  it ;  [that  ^tolus 
was  overthrown  by  the  Epeii,]  and  these  again  by  Alcmaeon 
and  Diomedes. 

I  now  return  to  the  Phocians. 

13.  Immediately  on  the  sea-coast,  next  after  Anticyra,^  and 
behind 2  it,  is  the  small  city  Marathus ;  then  a  promontory, 
Pharygiura,  which  has  a  shelter  for  vessels ;  then  the  harbour 
at  the  farthest  end,  called  Mychus,^  from  the  accident  of  its 
situation  between  Helicon^  and  Ascra. 

Nor  is  Abj©,^  the  seat  of  an  oracle,  far  from  these  places, 
nor  Ambrysus,^  nor  Medeon,  of  the  same  name  as  a  city  in 

In  the  inland  parts,  next  after  Delphi,  towards  the  east  is 
Daulis,'^  a  small  town,  where,  it  is  gaid,  Tereus,  the  Thracian, 
was  prince ;  and  there  they  say  is  the  scene  of  the  fable  of 
Philomela  and  Procne ;  Thucydides  lays  it  there ;  but  other 
writers  refer  it  to  Megara.  The  name  of  the  place  is  derived 
from  the  thickets  there,  for  they  call  thickets  Dauli.  Homer 
calls  it  Daulis,  but  subsequent  writers  Daulia,  and  the  words 
"  they  who  occupied  Cyparissus,"  * 

are  understood  in  a  double  sense  ;  some  persons  supposing  it 
to  have  its  name  from  the  tree  of  the  country,  but  others  from 
a  village  situated  below  the  Lycoreian  territory. 

14.  Panopeus,  the  present  Phanoteus,  the  country  of  Epeius, 
is  on  the  confines  of  the  district  of  Lebadeia.  Here  the  fable 
places  the  abode  of  Tityus.  But  Homer  says,  that  the  Phaea- 
cians  conducted  Phadamanthus  to  Euboea, 

"  in  order  to  see  Tityus,  son  of  the  earth ; "  ' 

*  Aspra-Spitia. 

^  oTTicrBev,  "  behind  it,"  but  Marathus  is  on  the  opposite  side  of  the 
bay.     The  ruins  are  indicated  in  modem  maps. 

^  The  bay  of  Metochi  d'Hagia.  *  Zagora. 

*  This  place  is  represented  in  the  Austrian  map  by  ruins  near  Exarcho. 
But  how  does  Strabo  place  "not  far  from"  the  Crisfean  Gulf,  Abje, 
which  was  certainly  near  Hyampolis,  on  the  borders  of  the  Locri  Epicne- 
midii  ?  It  is  on  the  authority  of  this  passage  only  that  geographers  have 
placed  a  second  Abse  behind  Ambrysus,  at  the  foot  of  Parnassus. 

«  Distomo  ?  7  Daulia.  »  II.  ii.  519.  »  Od.  vii.  324. 

B.  IX.  c.  in.  §  15,  16.  PHOCIS.  123 

they  show  also  in  the  island  a  cave  called  Elarium,  from  Elara 
the  mother  of  Titjus,  and  an  Heroum  of  Tityus,  and  some 
kind  of  honours  are  spoken  of;  which  are  paid  to  him. 

Near  Lebadeia  is  Trachin,  having  the  same  name  as  that 
in  CEtaea ;  it  is  a  small  Phocian  town.  The  inhabitants  are 
called  Trachinii. 

1 5.  Anemoreia  ^  has  its  name  from  a  physical  accident,  to 
which  it  is  liable.  It  is  exposed  to  violent  gusts  of  wind  from 
a  place  called  Catopterius,^  a  precipitous  mountain,  extending 
from  Parnassus.  It  was  a  boundary  between  Delphi  and  the 
Phocians,  when  the  Lacedaemonians  made  the  Delphians 
separate  themselves  from  the  common  body  of  the  Phocians,^ 
and  permitted  them  to  form  an  independent  state. 

Some  call  the  place  Anemoleia ;  it  was  afterwards  called  by 
others  Hyampolis,*  (and  also  Hya,)  whither  we  said  the  Hy- 
antes  were  banished  from  Boeotia.  It  is  situated  quite  in  the 
interior,  near  Parapotamii,  and  is  a  different  place  from  Hy- 
ampea  on  Parnassus. 

Elateia^  is  the  largest  of  the  Phocian  cities,  but  Homer  was 
not  acquainted  with  it,  for  it  is  later  than  his  times.  It  is 
conveniently  situated  to  repel  incursions  on  the  side  of  Thes- 
saly.  Demosthenes^  points  out  the  advantage  of  its  posi- 
tion, in  speaking  of  the  confusion  which  suddenly  arose,  when 
a  messenger  arrived  to  inform  the  Prytaneis  of  the  capture  of 

16.  Parapotamii  is  a  settlement  on  the  Cephissus,  in  the 
neighbourhood  of  Phanoteus,  Chseroneia,  and  Elateia.  This 
place,  according  to  Theopompus,  is  distant  from  Chaeroneia 
about  40  stadia,  and  is  the  boundary  between  the  Ambryseis, 
Panopeis,  and  Daulieis.  It  is  situated  at  the  entrance  from 
Bojotia  to  the  Phocians,  upon  an  eminence  of  moderate 
height,  between  Parnassus  and  the  mountain  [Hadylium, 
where  there  is  an  open  space]  of  5  stadia  in  extent,  through 
which  runs  the  Cephissus,  affording  on  each  side  a  narrow 
pass.  This  river  has  its  source  at  Lilasa,  a  Phocian  city,  as 
Homer  testifies ; 

*  dvefiog,  the  wind.  '  The  Look-out.  '  457,  b.  c. 

*  This  place  was  destroyed  in  the  Persian  war ;  no  remains  existed  in 
the  time  of  Pausanias. 

*  The  ruins  are  situated  on  the  east  of  Turkochorio,  made  a  free  state 
by  the  Romans.    Pausanias,  b.  x.  ch.  34. 

*  Demos,  pro  Coronst.    b.  c.  338. 

124  STRABO.  Casatjb.  424. 

"  tliey  who  occupied  Lilaea,  near  the  source  of  the  Cephissus ; "  ^ 
and  empties  itself  into  the  lake  Copais.  But  Hadylium  ex- 
tends 60  stadia,  as  far  as  Hyphanteium,  on  which  Orchomenus 
is  situated.  Hesiod  also  enlarges  on  the  river  and  its  stream, 
how  it  takes  through  the  whole  of  Phocis  an  oblique  and 
serpentine  course ; 

"  which,  like  a  serpent,  winds  along  Panopeus  and  the  strong  Glechon,  and 
through  Orchomenus."  * 

The  narrow  pass  near  Parapotamii,  or  Parapotamia,  (for 
the  name  is  written  both  ways,)  was  disputed  in  [the  Phocian 
war,]  for  this  is  the  only  entrance  [into  Phocis].^ 

There  is  a  Cephissus  in  Phocis,  another  at  Athens,  and 
another  at  Salamis.  There  is  a  fourth  and  a  fifth  at  Sicyon 
and  at  Scyrus ;  [a  sixth  at  Argos,  having  its  source  in  the 
Lyrceium].'^  At  ApoUonia,^  also,  near  Epidamnus,^  there  is 
near  the  Gymnasium  a  spring,  which  is  called  Cephissus. 

17.  Daphnus"^  is  at  present  in  ruins.  It  was  at  one  time  a 
city  of  Phocis,  and  lay  close  to  the  Eubcean  Sea ;  it  divided 
the  Locri  Epicnemidii  into  two  bodies,  namely,  the  Locri  on 
the  side  of  Boeotia,^  and  the  Locri  on  the  side  of  Phocis,  which 
then  extended  from  sea  to  sea.  A  proof  of  this  is  the  Sche- 
dieum,  [in  Daphnus,]  called  the  tomb  of  Schedius.^  [It  has 
been  already  said]  that  Daphnus  [divides]  Locris  into  two 
parts,  [in  such  a  manner  as  to  prevent]  the  Epicnemidii  and 
Opuntii  from  touching  upon  each  other  in  any  part.  In  after- 
times  Daphnus  was  included  within  the  boundaries  of  the 

On  the  subject  of  Phocis,  this  may  suffice. 

*  II.  ii.  523.  ^  The  quotation  is  from  a  lost  poem. 
^  Conjectures  of  Groskurd,  and  approved  by  Kramer. 

*  Meineke  supposes  these  words  to  be  an  interpolation,  because  no 
mention  is  made  by  other  writers,  nor  by  Strabo  himself,  in  his  enumer- 
ation of  the  rivers  in  Argolis,  of  the  existence  of  a  river  called  Cephissus 
at  Argos. 

^  Polina.  ^  Dyrrachium,  now  Durazzo. 

'  The  site  appears  to  have  been  to  the  south-east  of  the  modern  town 

*  From  hence  to  the  close  of  the  paragraph  the  text  is  very  corrupt ; 
the  restorations  are  due  to  the  conjectures  of  Du  Theil,  Groskurd,  and 

'  Schedius,  according  to  Homer,  II.  ii.  517,  and  II.  xvii.  306,  was  one 
of  the  chiefs  of  the  Phocians. 

B.  IX.  c.  IV.  §  1,  2.  LOCRIS.  125 


1 .  LocRis,  which  we  are  now  to  describe,  follows  next  in 

It  is  divided  into  two  parts,  one  of  which  is  occupied  by  the 
Locri  opposite  Euboea,  and,  as  we  have  already  said,  form- 
erly consisted  of  two  bodies,  situated  one  on  each  side  of 
Daphrius.  The  Locri  Opuntii  had  their  surname  from  Opus,^ 
the  capital ;  the  Epicnemidii  from  a  mountain  called  Cnemis.  ^ 
The  rest  are  the  Locri  Hesperii,  who  are  called,  also  Locri 
Ozolae.  These  are  separated  from  the  Locri  Opuntii  and 
Epicnemidii  by  Parnassus,  which  lies  between  them,  and  by 
the  Tetrapolis  of  the  Dorians.  We  shall  first  speak  of  the 

2.  Immediately  after  Halae,  where  the  Boeotian  coast  oppo- 
site Euboea  terminates,  is  the  Opuntian  bay.  Opus  is  the 
capital,  as  the  inscription  intimates,  which  is  engraved  on  the 
first  of  the  five  pillars  at  Thermopylae,  near  the  Polyandrium  :  ^ 

"  Opoeis,  the  capital  of  the  Locri,  hides  in  its  bosom  those  who  died  in 
defence  of  Greece  against  the  Medes." 

It  is  distant  from  the  sea  about  15  stadia,  and  60  from  the 
naval  arsenal.  The  arsenal  is  Cynus,"*  a  promontory,  which 
forms  the  boundary  of  the  Opuntian  bay.  The  latter  is  40 
stadia  in  extent.  Between  Opus  and  Cynus  is  a  fertile  plain, 
opposite  to  JEdepsus  in  Euboea,  where  are  the  warm  baths ^ 
of  Hercules,  and  is  separated  by  a  strait  of  160  stadia. 
Deucalion  is  said  to  have  lived  at  Cynus.  There  also  is 
shown  the  tomb  of  Pyrrha ;  but  that  of  DeucaHon  is  at 
Athens.  Cynus  is  distant  from  Mount  Cnemis  about  50 
stadia.     The  island  Atalanta^  is  opposite  to  Opus,  having  the 

'  The  ruins  of  Opus  are  indicated  as  existing  between  Talanti  and 
the  sea. 

2  A  portion  of  the  ridge  of  CEta,  on  the  north-west  of  Talanti,  now 

^  A  monument,  or  cenotaph,  common  to  many  persons. 

*  The  site  is  marked  by  a  tower  called  Paleopyrgo,  near  the  modern 

*  Mentioned  by  Athenseus,  b.  iii.  Hot  springs  were  generally  sacred 
to  Hercules. 

*  Diodorus  Siculus  asserts  that  it  was  separated  from  the  continent  by 

126  STRABO.  Casaub.  425. 

same  name  as  the  island  in  front  of  Attica.  It  is  said,  that 
some  Opuntii  are  to  be  found  in  the  Eleian  territory,  whom 
it  is  not  worth  while  to  notice,  except  that  they  pretend  to 
trace  some  affinity  subsisting  between  themselves  and  the 
Locri  Opuntii.  Homer  ^  says  that  Patroclus  was  from  Opus, 
and  that  having  committed  murder  undesignedly,  he  fled  to 
Peleus,  but  that  the  father  Menoetius  remained  in  his  native 
country ;  for  it  is  to  Opus  that  Achilles  promised  Menoetius 
that  he  would  bring  back  Patroclus  on  his  return  from  the 
Trojan  expedition.^  Not  that  Menoetius  was  king  of  the 
Opuntii,  but  Ajax  the  Locrian,  who,  according  to  report,  was 
born  at  Narycus.  The  name  of  the  person  killed  by  Patro- 
clus was  ^anes ;  a  grove,  called  after  him  ^aneium,  and  a 
fountain,  ^anis,  are  shown. 

3.  Next  after  Cynus  is  Alope^  and  Daphnus,  which  last, 
we  have  said,  is  in  ruins.  At  Alope  is  a  harbour,  distant 
from  Cynus  about  90  stadia,  and  120  from  Elateia,  in  the 
interior  of  the  country.  But  these  belong  to  the  Maliac, 
which  is  continuous  with  the  Opuntian  Gulf. 

4.  Next  to  Daphnus,  at  the  distance  of  about  20  stadia  by 
sea,  is  Cnemides,  a  strong  place,  opposite  to  which  in  Euboea 
is  Cenaeum,  a  promontory,  looking  towards  the  west  and  the 
Maliac  Gulf,  and  separated  by  a  strait  of  nearly  20  stadia. 

At  Cnemides  we  are  in  the  territory  of  the  Locri  Epicne- 
midii.  Here  are  the  Lichades,  as  they  are  called,  three  islands, 
having  their  name  from  Lichas  ;  they  lie  in  front  of  Cnemides. 
Other  islands  also  are  met  with  in  sailing  along  this  coast, 
which  we  purposely  pass  over. 

At  the  distance  of  20  stadia  from  Cnemides  is  a  harbour, 
above  which  at  the  same  distance,  in  the  interior,  is  situated 
Thronium.'*  Then  the  Boagrius,  which  flows  beside  Thro- 
nium,  empties  itself  into  the  sea.  It  has  another  name  also, 
that  of  Manes.  It  is  a  winter  torrent ;  whence  its  bed  may 
be  crossed  at  times  dry-shod,  and  at  another  it  is  two  plethra 
in  width. 

Then  after  these  is  Scarpheia,  at  a  distance  of  10  stadia 

an  earthquake  ;  but  statements  of  this  kind  were  commonly  and  hastily 
made,  where  the  natural  appearances  were  favourable  to  them. 

»  II.  xxiii.  85.  2  II.  xviii.  326. 

3  The  ruins  have  been  discovered  by  Gell  on  an  insulated  hill,  near  the 

"*  Paleocastro,  in  Marmara,  near  Romani. 

B.  IX.  c.  IV.  §  5-8.  LOCRIS.  127 

from  the  sea,  and  of  30  from  Thronium,  but  at  a  little  [less 
from  its  harbour.]  ^     Next  are  Nicsea  and  Thermopylae. 

5.  It  is  not  worth  while  to  speak  of  any  of  the  other  cities. 
Of  those  mentioned  by  Homer,  Calliarus  is  no  longer  inha- 
bited, it  is  now  a  well-cultivated  plain.  Bessa,  a  sort  of  plain, 
does  not  now  exist.  It  has  its  name  from  an  accidental 
quality,  for  it  abounds  with  woods.  x^^P"^  exovcn  ^t:ap(f>u~ic,  &c. 
It  ought  to  be  written  with  a  double  s,  for  it  has  its  name  from 
Bessa,  a  wooded  valley,  like  Nape,^  in  the  plain  of  Methymna,^ 
which  Hellanicus,  through  ignorance  of  the  local  circum- 
stances, improperly  calls  Lape  ;  but  the  demus  in  Attica,  from 
which  the  burghers  are  called  Besaeenses,  is  written  with  a 
single  s. 

6.  Tarphe  is  situated  upon  a  height,  at  the  distance  of  20 
stadia  from  [Thronium].  It  has  a  territory,  productive  and 
well  wooded  ;  for  this  place  also  has  its  name  from  its  being 
thickly  wooded.  It  is  now  called  Pharygae.  A  temple  of  Juno 
Pharygasa  is  there,  called  so  from  the  Argive  Juno  at  Pharygae; 
and  the  inhabitants  assert  that  they  are  of  Argive  origin. 

7.  Homer  does  not  mention,  at  least  not  in  express  words, 
the  Locri  Hesperii,  but  only  seems  to  distinguish  them  from 
the  people  of  whom  we  have  spoken ; 

"  Locri,  who  dwell  beyond  the  sacred  Euboea ; "  * 

as  if  there  were  other  Locri.  They  occupied  the  cities  Am- 
phissa^  and  Naupactus.^  The  latter  still  subsists  near  Antir- 
rhium.'^  It  has  its  name  from  the  ships  that  were  built  there, 
either  because  the  Heraclidas  constructed  their  fleet  at  this 
place,  or  because  the  Locri,  as  Ephorus  states,  had  built  ves- 
sels there  long  before  that  time.  At  present  it  belongs  to  the 
^tolians,  by  a  decree  of  Philip. 

8.  There  also  is  Chalcis,  mentioned  by  the  poet^  in  the 
-^tolian  Catalogue.  It  is  below  Calydon.  There  also  is  the 
hill  Taphiassus,  on  which  is  the  monument  of  Nessus,  and  of 
the  other  Centaurs.  From  the  putrefaction  of  the  bodies  of 
these  people  there  flows,  it  is  said,  from  beneath  the  foot  of 
that  hill  a  stream  of  water,  which  exhales  a  foetid  odour,  and 

•  A  conjecture  by  Groskurd. 

2  ^ijffffat  and  vdirr],  wooded  hollows.  ^  In  the  island  of  Lesbos. 

*  II.  ii.  535.  '  Salona,  or  Lampeni.  •  Lepanto. 
^  Castel  de  Roumeli.                   s  n  ^^  q^q^ 

128  STRABO.  Casaub.  427.' 

contains  clots  of  blood.  Hence  also  the  nation  had  the  name 
of  Ozolae.^ 

Opposite  Antirrhium  is  Molycreia,^  a  small  ^tolian  city. 

Araphissa  is  situated  at  the  extremity  of  the  Crisgean  plain. 
It  was  razed,  as  we  have  said  before,  by  the  Amphictyons. 
OEanthia  and  Eupalium  belong  to  the  Locri.  The  whole  voy- 
age along  the  coast  of  the  Locri  is  a  little  more  than  200  stadia. 

9.  There  is  an  Alope  ^  both  here  among  the  Locri  Ozolag,  as 
also  among  the  Epicnemidii,  and  in  the  Phthiotis.  These  are 
a  colony  of  the  Epicnemidii,  and  the  Epizephyrii  a  colony  of 
the  Ozolas. 

10.  jiEtolians  are  continuous  with  the  Locri  Hesperii,  and 
the  ^nianes,  who  occupy  CEta  with  the  Epicnemidii,  and  be- 
tween them  Dorians.  These  last  are  the  people  who  inha- 
bited the  Tetrapolis,  which  is  called  the  capital  of  all  the 
Dorians.  They  possessed  the  cities  Erineus,  Boeum,  Pindus, 
Cytinium.  Pindus  is  situated  above  Erineus.  A  river  of  the 
same  name  flows  beside  it,  and  empties  itself  into  the  Cephis- 
sus,  not  far  from  Lilaea.     Some  writers  call  Pindus,  Acyphas. 

jEgimius,  king  of  these  Dorians,  when  an  exile  from  his 
kingdom,  was  restored,  as  they  relate,  by  Hercules.  He  re- 
quited this  favour  after  the  death  of  Hercules  at  (Eta  by 
adopting  Hyllus,  the  eldest  of  the  sons  of  Hercules,  and  both  he 
and  his  descendants  succeeded  him  in  the  kingdom.  It  was 
from  this  place  that  the  Heracleidae  set  out  on  their  return  to 

11.  These  cities  were  for  some  time  of  importance,  although 
they  were  small,  and  their  territory  not  fruitful.  They  were 
afterwards  neglected.  After  what  they  suffered  in  the  Pho- 
cian  war  and  under  the  dominion  of  the  Macedonians,  ^to- 
lians,  and  Athamanes,  it  is  surprising  that  even  a  vestige  of 
them  should  have  remained  to  the  time  of  the  Romans. 

It  was  the  same  with  the  ^nianes,  who  were  exterminated 
by  JEtolians  and  Athamanes.  The  ^tolians  were  a  very 
powerful  people,  and  carried  on  war  together  with  the  Acar- 
nanians.  The  Athamanes  were  the  last  of  the  Epeirotse,  who 
attained  distinction  when  the  rest  were  declining,  and  acquired 
power  by  the  assistance  of  their  king  Amynander.  The 
^nianes,  however,  kept  possession  of  CEta. 

'  From  d^elv,  to  smell.  ^  Maurolimne. 

^  The  site  is  unknown. 

B.  IX.  c.  IV.  §  12—15.  LOCRIS.  129 

12.  This  mountain  extends  from  Thermopylae  and  the  east,  to 
the  Ambracian  Gulf  and  the  west ;  it  may  be  said  to  cut  at  right 
angles  the  mountainous  tract,  extending  from  Parnassus  as  far 
as  Pindus,  and  to  the  Barbarians  who  live  beyond.  The  por- 
tion of  this  mountain  verging  towards  Thermopylae  ^  is  called 
CEta ;  it  is  200  stadia  in  length,  rocky  and  elevated,  but  the 
highest  part  is  at  Thermopylae,  for  there  it  forms  a  peak,  and 
terminates  with  acute  and  abrupt  rocks,  continued  to  the  sea. 
It  leaves  a  narrow  passage  for  those  who  are  going  from 
Thessaly  to  Locris. 

13.  This  passage  is  called  Pylae,  or  gates,  straits,  and  Ther- 
mopyla3,  because  near  the  straits  are  hot  springs,  which  are 
held  in  honour  as  sacred  to  Hercules.  The  mountain  above 
is  called  Callidromus ;  but  some  writers  call  by  the  name  of 
Callidromus  the  remaining  part  of  the  range  extending 
through  JEtolia  and  Acarnania  to  the  Ambracian  Gulf. 

At  Thermopylae  within  the  straits  are  strongholds,  as 
Nicaea,  on  the  sea  of  the  Locri,  Teichius  and  Heracleia  above 
it,  formerly  called  Trachin,  founded  by  the  Lacedaemonians. 
Heracleia  is  distant  from  the  ancient  Trachin  about  6  stadia. 
Next  follows  Rhoduntia,  strong  by  its  position. 

14.  These  places  are  rendered  difficult  of  access  by  a  rocky 
country,  and  by  Bodies  of  water,  forming  ravines  through 
which  they  pass.  For  besides  the  Spercheius,^  which  flows 
past  Anticyra,  there  is  the  Dyras,  which,  it  is  said,  endea- 
voured to  extinguish  the  funeral  pile  of  Hercules,  and  another 
river,  the  Melas,  distant  about  5  stadia  from  Trachin.  He- 
rodotus says,^  that  to  the  south  of  Trachin  there  is  a  deep 
fissure,  through  which  the  Asopus,  (which  has  the  same  name 
as  other  rivers  that  we  have  mentioned,)  empties  itself  into 
the  sea  without  the  Pylas,  having  received  the  river  Phoenix 
which  flows  from  the  south,  and  unites  with  it.  The  latter 
river  bears  the  name  of  the  hero,  whose  tomb  is  shown  near  it. 
From  the  Asopus  (Phoenix?)  to  Thermopylae  are  15  stadia. 

15.  These  places  were  of  the  greatest  celebrity  when  they 
formed  the  keys  of  the  straits.  There  were  frequent  contests 
for  the  ascendency  between  the  inhabitants  without  and  those 
within  the  straits.  Philip  used  to  call  Chalcis  and  Corinth 
the  fetters  of  Greece  with  reference  to  the  opportunity  which 
they  afforded  for  invasions  from  Macedonia  ;    and  persons  in 

'  Near  Dervend-Elapha.       «  The  Hellada.       ^  B.  vii.  c.  198,  and  c.  200. 

130  STRABO.  Casaub.  429. 

later  times  called  both  these  places  and  Demetrias  "  the 
fetters,"  for  Demetrias  commanding  Pelion  and  Ossa,  com- 
manded also  the  passes  at  Tempe.  Afterwards,  however, 
when  the  whole  country  was  subject  to  one  power,  the  passes 
were  freely  open  to  all.^ 

16.  It  was  at  these  straits  that  Leonidas  and  his  com- 
panions, together  with  a  small  body  of  persons  from  the 
neighbourhood,  resisted  the  numerous  forces  of  the  Persians, 
until  the  Barbarians,  making  a  circuit  of  the  mountains  along 
narrow  paths,  surrounded  and  cut  them  to  pieces.  Their  place 
of  burial,  the  Polyandrium,  is  still  to  be  seen  there,  and  the 
celebrated  inscription  sculptured  on  theLacedsemonian  pillar; 
"  Stranger,  go  tell  Lacedaemon  that  we  lie  here  in  obedience 
to  her  laws/' 

17.  There  is  also  a  large  harbour  here  and  a  temple  of 
Ceres,  in  which  the  Amphictyons  at  the  time  of  every  Pylaean 
assembly  offered  sacrifice.  From  the  harbour  to  the  Hera- 
cleian  Trachin  are  40  stadia  by  land,  but  by  sea  to  Cenaeum  ^ 
it  is  70  stadia.  The  Spercheius  empties  itself  immediately 
without  the  Pylae.  To  Pylae  from  the  Euripus  are  530  stadia. 
And  here  Locris  terminates.  The  parts  without  the  Pylse  to- 
wards the  east,  and  the  Maliac  Gulf,  belong  to  the  Thessali- 
ans ;  those  towards  the  west,  to  the  JEtolians  and  Acarna- 
nians.     The  Athamanes  are  extinct. 

18.  The  Thessalians  form  the  largest  and  most  ancient 
community.  One  part  of  them  has  been  mentioned  by  Homer, 
and  the  rest  by  many  other  writers.  Homer  constantly  men- 
tions the  ^tolians  under  one  name ;  he  places  cities,  and  not 
nations  dependent  upon  them,  if  we  except  the  Curetes,  whom 
we  must  place  in  the  division  of  jEtolians. 

We  must  begin  our  account  with  the  Thessalians,  omitting 
very  ancient  and  fabulous  stories,  and  what  is  not  generally 
admitted,  (as  we  have  done  in  other  instances,)  but  propose 
to  mention  what  appears  suited  to  our  purpose. 

'  Translated  according  to  Kramer's  proposed  emendation.  Demetrias, 
according  to  Leake,  occupies  the  southern  or  maritime  face  of  a  height 
called  Goritza,  which  projects  from  the  coast  of  Magnesia  between  2  and 
3  miles  to  the  southward  of  the  middle  of  Volo.  Pausanias,  b.  vii.  c.  7, 
says  that  Philip  called  Chalcis,  Corinth,  and  Magnesia  in  Thessaly,  the 
"  Keys  of  Greece."     Livy,  b.  xxxii.  c.  37. 

2  C.  Lithada. 

B.  IX.  c.  V.  §  1.  THESSALY.  131 


1.  The  sea-coast,  extending  from  Thermopyte  to  tiie 
mouths  of  the  Peneius,^  and  the  extremities  of  Pelion,  looking 
towards  the  east,  and  the  northern  extremities  of  Euboea,  is 
that  of  Thessaly.  The  parts  opposite  Euboea  and  Thermo- 
pylae are  occupied  by  Malienses,  and  by  Achaean  Phthiotae ; 
those  towards  Pelion  by  the  Magnetes.  This  may  be  called 
the  eastern  and  maritime  side  of  Thessaly.  From  either  side 
from  Pelion,  and  the  Peneius,  towards  the  inland  parts  are 
Macedonians,  who  extend  as  far  as  Paeonia,  (Pindus  ?)  and  the 
Epeirotic  nations.  From  Thermopylae,  the  (Etasan  and  -^to- 
lian  mountains,  which  approach  close  to  the  Dorians,  and 
Parnassus,  are  parallel  to  the  Macedonians.  The  side  towards 
the  Macedonians  may  be  called  the  northern  side ;  the  other, 
the  southern.  There  remains  the  western  side,  enclosed  by 
-^tolians  and  Acarnanians,  by  Amphilochians  and  Athamanes, 
who  are  Epirotae ;  by  the  territory  of  the  Molotti,  formerly 
said  to  be  that  of  the  ^thices,  and,  in  short,  by  the  country 
about  Pindus.  Thessaly,^  in  the  interior,  is  a  plain  country 
for  the  most  part,  and  has  no  mountains,  except  Pelion  and 
Ossa.  These  mountains  rise  to  a  considerable  height,  but  do 
not  encompass  a  large  tract  of  country,  but  terminate  in  the 

2.  These  are  the  middle  parts  of  Thessaly,  a  district  of  very 
fertile  country,  except  that  part  of  it  which  is  oveVflowed  by 
rivers.  The  Peneius  flows  through  the  middle  of  the  country, 
and  receiving  many  rivers,  frequently  overflows.  Form_erly, 
according  to  report,  the  plain  was  a  lake ;  it  is  enclosed  on  all 
sides  inland  by  mountains,  and  the  sea-coast  is  more  elevated 
than  the  plains.  When  a  chasm  was  formed,  at  the  place  now 
called  Tempe,  by  shocks  of  an  earthquake,  and  Ossa  was  riven 
from  Olympus,  the  Peneius  flowed  out  through  it  to  the  sea, 
and  drained  this  tract  of  country.  Still  there  remained  the 
large  lake  Nessonis,  and  the  lake  Boebeis ;  which  is  of  less 
extent  than  the  Nessonis,  and  nearer  to  the  sea-coast. 

•  The  Salambria. 

'  This  paragraph  is  translated  as  proposed  by  Meineke,  who  has  fol- 
lowed the  suggestions  of  Du  Theil,  Groskurd,  and  Kramer,  in  correctiiig 
the  text. 

K  2 

132  STRABO.  Casaub.  430. 

3.  Such  then  is  Thessaly,  which  is  divided  into  four  parts, 
Phthiotis,  Hestiaeotis,  Thessaliotis,  and  Pelasgiotis. 

Phthiotis  comprises  the  southern  parts,  extending  along 
(Eta  from  the  Maliac  and  (or)  PylaTc  Gulf  ^  as  far  as  Dolopia 
and  Pindus,  increasing  in  breadth  to  Pharsalia  and  the  Thes- 
salian  plains. 

Hestiaeotis  comprises  the  western  parts  and  those  between 
Pindus  and  Upper  Macedonia ;  the  rest  is  occupied  by  the 
inhabitants  of  the  plains  below  Hestiaeotis,  who  are  called 
Pelasgiotae,  and  approach  close  to  the  Lower  Macedonians  ;  by 
the  [Thessalians]  also,  who  possess  the  country  ne^jit  in 
order,  as  far  as  the  coast  of  Magnesia. 

The  names  of  many  cities  might  here  be  enumerated, 
which  are  celebrated  on  other  accounts,  but  particularly  as 
being  mentioned  by  Homer ;  few  of  them,  however,  but  most 
of  all  Larisa,  preserve  their  ancient  importance. 

4.  The  poet  having  divided  the  whole  of  the  country,  which 
we  call  Thessaly,  into  ten^  parts  and  dynasties,  and  having 
taken  in  addition  some  portion  of  the  CEtaean  and  Locrian  ter- 
ritory, and  of  that  also  which  is  now  assigned  to  the  Macedon- 
ians, shows  (what  commonly  happened  to  every  country)  the 
changes  which,  entirely  or  in  part,  they  undergo  according  to 
the  power  possessed  by  their  respective  governors. 

5.  The  poet  first  enumerates  the  Thessalians  subject  to 
Achilles,  who  occupied  the  southern  side,  and  adjoined  QEta, 
and  the  Locri  Epicnemidii ; 

"  All  who  dwelt  in  Pelasgic  Argos  ;  they  who  occupied  Alus,  Alope,  and 
Trachin;  they  who  possessed  Phthia,  and  Hellas,  abounding  with  beauti- 
ful women,  were  called  Myrmidones,  Hellenes,  and  Achaei."  ^ 

He  joins  together  with  these  the  people  under  the  command  of 
Phoenix,  and  makes  them  compose  one  common  expedition. 
The  poet  nowhere  mentions  the  Dolopian  forces  in  the  battles 
near  Ilium,  neither  does  he  introduce  their  leader  Phoenix,  as 
undertaking,  like  Nestor,  dangerous  enterprises.  But  Phoenix 
is  mentioned  by  others,  as  by  Pindar, 

*  G.  of  Zeitun. 

2  The  ten  states  or  dynasties  mentioned  by  Homer  were  those  of,  ] . 
Achilles.  2.  Protesilaiis.  3.  Eumelus.  4.  Philoctetes.  5.  Podalirius 
and  Machaon.  6.  Eurypyhis.  7.  Polypoetes.  8.  Guneus.  9.  Pro- 
thoiis.  These  are  named  in  the  Catalogue  in  the  2nd  Book  of  the  Iliad ; 
the  10th,  Dolopia,  of  which  Phoenix  was  chief,  in  II.  xvi.  196. 

3  II.  ii.  681. 

B.  IX.  C.V.J  6.  THESSALY.  133 

"  Who  led  a  brave  band  of  Dolopian  slingers, 

Who  were  to  aid  the  javelins  of  the  Danai,  tamers  of  horses." 

The  words  of  the  poet  are  to  be  understood  according  to  the 
figure  of  the  grammarians,  by  which  something  is  suppressed, 
for  it  would  be  ridiculous  for  the  king  to  engage  in  the  expe- 

(*•'  I  live  at  the  extremity  of  Phthia,  chief  of  the  Dolopians," ') 
and  his  subjects  not  to  accompany  him.  For  [thus]  he  would 
not  appear  to  be  a  comrade  of  Achilles  in  the  expedition,  but 
only  as  the  commander  of  a  small  body  of  men,  and  a  speaker, 
and  if  so,  a  counsellor.  The  verses  seem  to  imply  this  mean- 
ing, for  they  are  to  this  effect, 

■  "To  be  an  eloquent  speaker,  and  to  achieve  great  deeds."' 

From  this  it  appears  that  Homer  considered  the  forces 
under  Achilles  and  Phoenix  as  constituting  one  body ;  but  the 
places  mentioned  as  being  under  the  authority  of  Achilles,  are 
subjects  of  controversy. 

Some  have  understood  Pelasgic  Argos  to  be  a  Thessalian 
city,  formerly  situated  near  Larisa,  but  now  no  longer  in  ex- 
istence. Others  do  not  understand  a  city  to  be  meant  by  this 
name,  but  the  Thessalian  plain,  and  to  have  been  so  called  by 
Abas,  who  established  a  colony  there  from  Argos. 

6.  With  respect  to  Phthia,  some  suppose  it  to  be  the  same 
as  Hellas  and  Achaia,  and  that  these  countries  form  the  south- 
ern portion  in  the  division  of  Thessaly  into  two  parts.  But 
others  distinguish  Phthia  and  Hellas.  The  poet  seems  to  dis- 
tinguish them  in  these  verses  ; 

"  they  who  occupied  Phthia  and  Hellas," ' 
as  if  they  were  two  countries.     And,  again, 

"  Then  far  away  through  wide  Greece  I  fled  and  came  to  Phthia,"* 

"There  are  many  Achaean  women  in  Hellas  and  Phthia."* 

The  poet  then  makes  these  places  to  be  two,  but  whether 
cities  or  countries  he  does  not  expressly  say.  Some  of  the , 
later  writers,  who  affirm  that  it  is  a  country,  suppose  it  to 
have  extended  from  Palaepharsalns  to  Thebae  Phthiotides. 
In  this  country  also  is  Thetidium,  near  both  the  ancient  and 
the  modern  Pharsalus;    and  it  is  conjectured  from  Theti- 

»  II.  ix.  480.  2  II.  ix.  443.  3  II  II  683. 

♦  II.  ix.  498.  »  II.  ix.  395. 

134  STRABO.  Casaub.  432. 

dium  that  the  country,  in  which  it  is  situated,  was  a  part  of 
that  under  the  comratind  of  Achilles.  Others,  who  regard  it 
as  a  city,  allege  that  the  Pharsalii  show  at  the  distance  of  60 
stadia  from  their  own  city,  a  city  in  ruins,  which  they  believe 
to  be  Hellas,  and  two  springs  near  it,  Messei's  and  Hypereia. 
But  the  Melitaeenses  say,  that  at  the  distance  of  about  10 
stadia  from  their  city,  was  situated  Hellas  on  the  other  side 
of  the  Enipeus,^  when  their  own  city  had  the  name  of  Pyrrha, 
and  that  the  Hellenes  migrated  from  Hellas,  which  was  built 
in  a  low  situation,  to  theirs.  They  adduce  in  proof  of  this 
the  tomb  of  Hellen,  son  of  Deucalion  and  Pyrrha,  which  is  in 
their  market-place.  For  according  to  historians,  Deucalion 
was  king  of  Phthiotis  and  of  all  Thessaly.  The  Enipeus  flows 
from  Othrys^  beside  Pharsalus,^  and  empties  itself  into  the 
Apidanus,'^  and  the  latter  into  the  Peneius. 

Thus  much,  then,  respecting  the  Hellenes. 

7.  The  people  under  the  command  of  Achilles,  Protesilaus, 
and  Philoctetes,  are  called  Phthii.  The  poet  furnishes  evi- 
dence of  this.  Having  recited  in  the  Catalogue  of  those 
under  the  command  of  Achilles, 

"  the  people  of  Phthia,"^ 

he  represents  them  at  the  battle  at  the  ships,  as  remaining  in 
the  ships  with  Achilles,  and  inactive;  but  those  under  the 
command  of  Philoctetes,  as  fighting  with  Medon  [as  their 
leader],  and  those  under  the  command  of  Protesilaus,  with 
Podarces  [as  their  chief].  Of  these  the  poet  speaks  in 
general  terms ; 

"  there  were  BcEoti  and  laones  wearing  long  robes,  Locri,  Phthii,  and 
illustrious  Epeii."* 

But  here  he  particularizes  them ; 

"at  the  head  of  the  Phthii  fought  Medon  and  Podarces,  firm  in  battle. 
These  armed  with  breastplates  fought  together  with  Boeoti,  at  the  head  of 
the  magnanimous  Phthii,  keeping  away  the  enemy  from  the  ships."  ^ 

Perhaps  the  people  with  Eurypylus  were  called  Phthii,  as 
they  bordered  upon  the  country  of  the  latter.  At  present, 
however,  historians  assign  to  Magnesia  the  country  about 
Ormenium,  which  was  subject  to  Eurypylus,  and  the  whole  of 
that  subject  to  Philoctetes ;    but  they  regard  the  country  un- 

'  The  Vlacho.  '  Part  of  the  range  of  Mount  Gura. 

^  Satalda,     The  plain  of  Pharsalia  is  to  the  north.         •*  The  Gura. 

*  II.  ii.  683.  6  II.  xiii.  685.  ^  II.  xiii.  693,  699, 

B.  IX.  c.v.  §8.  THESSALY.  135 

der  the  command  of  Protesilaus  as  belonging  to  Phtliia,  from 
Dolopia  and  Pindus  to  the  sea  of  Magnesia ;  but  as  far  as  the 
citj  Antron,  (now  written  in  the  plural  number,)  which  was 
subject  to  Protesilaus,  beginning  from  Trachinia  and  OEta,  is 
the  width  of  the  territory  belonging  to  Peleus  and  Achilles. 
But  this  is  nearly  the  whole  length  of  the  Maliac  Gulf. 

8.  They  entertain  doubts  resl)ecting  Halus  and  Alope, 
whether  Homer  means  the  places  which  are  now  comprised 
in  the  Phthiotic  government,  or  those  among  the  Locri,  since 
the  dominion  of  Achilles  extended  hither  as  well  as  to  Tra- 
chin  and  the  CEtaean  territory.  For  Halus  and  Halius,  as 
well  as  Alope,  are  on  the  coast  of  the  Locri.  But  some  sub- 
stitute Halius  for  Alope,  and  write  the  verse  in  this  manner ; 
"  they  who  inhabited  Halus,  and  Halius,  and  Trachin."  ' 

But  the  Phthiotic  Halus  lies  under  the  extremity  of  the  moun- 
tain Othrys,  which  lies  to  the  north  of  Phthiotis,  and  borders 
upon  the  mountain  Typhrestus  and  the  Dolopians,  and 
thence  stretches  along  to  the  country  near  the  Maliac  Gulf. 
Halus,^  either  masculine  or  feminine,  for  it  is  used  in  both 
genders,  is  distant  from  Itonus^  about  60  stadia.  Athamas 
founded  Halus ;  it  was  destroyed,  but  subsequently  [restored  by 
the  Pharsalii].  It  is  situated  above  the  Crocian  plain,  and  the 
river  Amphrysus*  flows  by  its  walls.  Below  the  Crocian  plain 
lies  Thebae  Phthiotides ;  Halus  likewise,  which  is  in  Achaia, 
is  called  Phthiotis  ;  this,  as  well  as  the  foot  of  Mount  Othrys, 
approaches  close  to  the  Malienses.  As  Phylace  loo,  which  was 
under  the  command  of  Protesilaus,  so  Halus  also  belongs  to 
Phthiotis,  which  adjoins  to  the  Malienses.  Halus  is  distant  from 
Thebes  about  100  stadia,  and  lies  in  the  middle  between  Phar- 
salus  and  Thebse  Phthiotides.  Philip,  however,  took  it  from 
the  latter,  and  assigned  it  to  the  Pharsalii.  Thus  it  happens, 
as  we  have  said  before,  that  boundaries  and  the  distribution  of 
nations  and  places  are  in  a  state  of  continual  change.  Thus 
Sophocles  also  called  Phthiotis,  Trachinia,  Artemidorus  places 
Halus  on  the  coast  beyond  the  Maliac  Gulf,  but  as  belonging 
to  Phthiotis.  For  proceeding  thence  in  the  direction  of  the 
Peneius,  he  places  Pteleum  after  Antron,  then  Halus  at  the 
distance  of  110  stadia  from  Pteleum. 

'  II.  ii.  682.  2  5"AXog,  or?/"A\oc.  ^  Armyrus. 

*  Hence  Virgil,  Geor.  3,  calls  Apollo,  Pastor  ab  Amphryso. 

136  STRABO.  Casaub.  433. 

I  have  already  spoken  of  Trachin,  and  described  the  nature 
of  the  place.     The  poet  mentions  it  by  name. 

9.  As  Homer  frequently  mentions  the  Spercheius  as  a  river 
of  the  country,  having  its  source  in  the  Typhrestus,  a  Dryo- 
pian  mountain,  formerly  called  [Tymphrestus],  and  empty- 
ing itself  near  Thermopylae,  between  Trachin  and  Lamia,^  he 
might  imply  that  whatever  parts  of  the  Maliac  Gulf  were 
either  within  or  without  the  Pylas,  were  subject  to  Achilles. 

The  Spercheius  is  distant  about  30  stadia  from  Lamia, 
which  lies  above  a  plain,  extending  to  the  Maliac  Gulf.  That 
the  Spercheius  is  a  river  of  the  country  [subject  to  Achil- 
les], appears  from  the  words  of  Achilles,  who  says,  that  he 
had  devoted  his  hair  to  the  Spercheius ;  and  from  the  cir- 
cumstance, that  Menesthius,  one  of  his  commanders,  was  said 
to  be  the  son  of  Spercheius  and  the  sister  of  Achilles. 

It  is  probable  that  all  the  people  under  the  command  of 
Achilles  and  Patroclus,  and  who  had  accompanied  Peleus  in 
his  banishment  from  JEgina,  had  the  name  of  Myrmidons, 
but  all  the  Phthiotse  were  called  Achaeans. 

10.  They  reckon  in  the  Phthiotic  district,  which  was  sub- 
ject to  Achilles,  beginning  from  the  Malienses,  a  considerable 
number  of  towns,  and  among  them  Thebee  Phthiotides,  Echi- 
nus, Lamia,  near  which  the  war  was  carried  on  between  the 
Macedonians  and  Antipater,  against  the  Athenians.  In  this 
war  Leosthenes,  the  Athenian  general,  was  killed,  [and  Leon- 
natus,]  one  of  the  companions  of  Alexander  the  king.  Be- 
sides the  above-mentioned  towns,  we  must  add  [Narthac]ium, 
Erineus,  Coroneia,  of  the  same  name  as  the  town  in  Boeotia, 
Melitaga,  Thaumaci,  Proerna,  Pharsalus,  Eretria,  of  the  same 
name  as  the  Euboic  town,  Paracheloitae,  of  the  same  name 
as  those  in  JEtolia ;  for  here  also,  near  Lamia,  is  a  river  Ache- 
lous,  on  the  banks  of  which  live  the  Paracheloitae. 

This  district,  lying  to  the  north,  extended  to  the  north- 
western territory  of  the  Asclepiadae,  and  to  the  territory  of 
Eurypylus  and  Protesilaus,  inclining  to  the  east ;  on  the  south 
it  adjoined  the  (Etaean  territory,  which  was  divided  into  four- 
teen demi,  and  contained  Heracleia  and  Dryopis,  which  was 
once  a  community  of  four  cities,  (a  Tetrapolis,)  like  Doris, 
and  accounted  the  capital  of  the  Dryopes  in  Peloponnesus. 
To  the  CEtaean  district  belong  also  the  Acyphas,  Parasopias, 
'  Isdin  or  Zeitun, 


B.  IX.  c.  V.  5  U— 13.  THESSALY.  137 

OEneiadae,  and  Anticyra,  of  the  same  name  as  the  town  among 
the  Locri  Hesperii.  I  do  not  mean  that  these  divisions  al- 
ways continued  the  same,  for  thej  underwent  various  changes. 
The  most  remarkable,  however,  are  worthy  of  notice. 

11.  The  poet  with  sufficient  clearness  .describes  the  situation 
of  the  Dolopes,  as  at  the  extremity  of  Phthia,  and  says  that 
both  they  and  the  Phthiotas  were  under  the  command  of  the 
same  chief,  Peleus ; 

"  I  lived,"  he  says,  "at  the  farthest  part  of  Phthia,  king  of  the  Dolopes."' 
Peleus,  however,  had  conferred  on  him  the  authority. 

This  region  is  close  to  Pindus,  and  the  places  about  it,  most 
of  which  belong  to  the  Thessalians.  For  in  consequence  of 
the  renown  and  ascendency  of  the  Thessalians  and  Mace- 
donians, those  Epeirotag,  who  bordered  nearest  upon  them,  be- 
came, some  voluntarily,  others  by  force,  incorporated  among 
the  Macedonians  and  Thessalians.  In  this  manner  the  Atha- 
manes,  -^thices,  and  Talares  were  joined  to  the  Thessalians, 
and  the  Orestas,  Pelagones,  and  Elimiotae  to  the  Macedonians. 

12.  Pindus  is  a  large  mountain,  having  on  the  north  Mace- 
donia, on  the  west  Perrhaebi,  settlers  from  another  country, 
on  the  south  Dolopes,  [and  on  the  east  Hestiseotis]  which 
belongs  to  Thessaly.  Close  upon  Pindus  dwelt  Talares, 
a  tribe  of  Molotti,  detached  from  the  Molotti  about  Mount 
Tomarus,  and  ^thices,  among  whom  the  poet  says  the  Cen- 
taurs took  refuge  when  expelled  by  Peirithous.^  They 
are  at  present,  it  is  said,  extinct.  But  this  extinction  is  to 
be  understood  in  two  senses  ;  either  the  inhabitants  have 
been  exterminated,  and  the  country  deserted,  or  the  name  of 
the  nation  exists  no  longer,  or  the  community  does  not  pre- 
serve its  ancient  form.  Whenever  the  community,  which 
continues,  is  insignificant,  we  do  not  think  it  worth  while  to 
record  either  its  existence  or  its  change  of  name.  But  when 
it  has  any  just  pretensions  to  notice,  it  is  necessary  to  remark 
the  change  which  it  has  undergone. 

13.  It  remains  for  us  to  describe  the  tract  of  sea-coast  sub- 
ject to  Achilles :  we  begin  from  Thermopylae,  for  we  have 
spoken  of  the  coast  of  Locris,  and  of  the  interior. 

Thermopylas  is  separated  from  the  Cengeum  by  a  strait  70 
stadia  across.     Coasting  beyond  the  Pylae,  it  is  at  a  distance 
from  the  Spercheius  of  about  10,  (60  ?)  and  thence  to  Phalara 
'  II.  ix.  484.  2  II.  u_  744. 

138  STRABO.  Casaub.  435. 

of  20  stadia.  Above  Phalara,  50  stadia  from  the  sea,  lies  the 
city  of  the  [Lamians].  Then  coasting  along  the  shore  100 
stadia,  we  find  above  it,  Echinus.  At  the  distance  of  20  stadia 
from  the  following  tract  of  coast,  in  the  interior,  is  Larisa 
Cremaste,  which  has  the  name  also  of  Larisa  Pelasgia. 

14.  Then  follows  a  small  island,  Mjonnesus ;  next  An- 
tron  ;  which  was  subject  to  Protesilaus.  Thus  much  concern- 
ing the  territory  subject  to  Achilles. 

As  the  poet,  in  naming  the  chiefs,  and  cities  under  their 
rule,  has  divided  the  country  into  numerous  well-known  parts, 
and  has  given  an  accurate  account  of  the  whole  circuit  of 
Thessaly,  we  shall  follow  him,  as  before,  in  completing  the 
description  of  this  region. 

Next  to  the  people  under  the  command  of  Achilles,  he 
enumerates  those  under  the  command  of  Protesilaus.  They 
were  situated,  next,  along  the  sea-coast  which  was  subject  to 
Achilles,  as  far  as  Antron.  The  boundary  of  the  country 
under  the  command  of  Protesilaus,  is  determined  by  its  being 
situated  without  the  Maliac  Gulf,  yet  still  in  Phthiotis,  though 
not  within  Phthiotis  subject  to  Achilles. 

Phylace  ^  is  near  Thebse  Plithiotides,  which  was  subject  to 
Protesilaus,  as  were  also  Halus,  Larisa  Cremaste,  and  Deme- 
trium,  all  of  which  lie  to  the  east  of  Mount  Othrys. 

The  Demetrium  he  speaks  of  ^  as  an  enclosure  sacred  to  Ceres, 
and  calls  it  Pyrasus.  Pyrasus  was  a  city  with  a  good  harbour, 
having  at  the  distance  of  2  stadia  from  it  a  grove,  and  a  temple 
consecrated  to  Ceres.  It  is  distant  from  Thebae  20  stadia. 
The  latter  is  situated  above  Pyrasus.  Above  Thebas  in  the 
inland  parts  is  the  Crocian  plain  at  the  extremity  of  the  moun- 
tain Othrys.  Through  this  plain  flows  the  river  Amphrysus. 
AbdVe  it  is  the  Itonus,  where  is  the  temple  of  the  Itonian 
Minerva,  from  which  that  in  Boeotia  has  its  name,  also  the 
river  Cuarius.  [Of  this  river  and]  of  Arne  we  have  spoken 
in  our  account  of  Boeotia. 

These  places  are  in  Thessaliotis,  one  of  the  four  divisions  of 
all  Thessaly,  in  which  were  the  possessions  of  Eurypylus. 
Phyllus,  where  is  a  temple  of  the  Phyllaean  Apollo,  Ichnae, 
where  the  Ichnsean  Themis  is  worshipped,  Cierus,  and  [all 
the  places  as  far  as]  Athamania,  are  included  in  Thessaliotis. 

At  Antron,  in  the  strait  near  Eubcea,  is  a  sunk  rock,  called 
»  Above  S.  Theodoro.  «  II.  u.  695. 

B.  IX.  c.  V.  §  15.  THESSALY.  139 

"  the  Ass  of  Antron."  Next  are  Pteleum  and  Halus  ;  next 
the  temple  of  Ceres,  and  Pyrasus  in  ruins  ;  above  these,  Thebae ; 
then  Pyrrha,  a  promontory,  and  two  small  islands  near,  one  of 
which  is  called  Pyrrha,  the  other  Deucalion.  Somewhere 
here  ends  the  territory  of  Phthiotis. 

15.  The  poet  next  mentions  the  people  under  Eumelus,  and 
the  continuous  tract  of  coast  which  now  belongs  to  Magnesia, 
and  the  Pelasgiotis. 

Pherae  is  the  termination  of  the  Pelasgic  plains  towards 
Magnesia,  which  plains  extend  as  far  as  Pelion,  a  distance  of 
160  stadia.  Pagasse  is  the  naval  arsenal  of  Pherae,  from  which 
it  is  distant  90  stadia,  and  20  from  lolcus.  lolcus  has  been 
razed  from  ancient  times.  It  was.  from  this  place  that  Pelias 
despatched  Jason  and  the  ship  Argo.  Pagasae  had  its  name,^ 
according  to  mythologists,  from  the  building  of  the  ship  Argo 
at  this  place.  Others,  with  more  probability,  suppose  that  the 
name  of  the  place  was  derived  from  the  springs,  (Tr/^ya/,)  which 
are  very  numerous  and  copious.  Near  it  is  Aphetae,  (so 
named)  as  the  starting-place^  from  which  the  Argonauts  set 
off.  lolcus  is  situated  7  stadia  from  Demetrias,  overlooking 
the  sea.  Demetrias  was  founded  by  Demetrius  Poliorcetes, 
who  called  it  after  his  own  name.  It  is  situated  between 
Nelia  and  Pagasae  on  the  sea.  He  collected  there  the  inhabit- 
ants of  the  neighbouring  small  cities,  Nelia,  Pagasse,  Orme- 
nium,  and  besides  these,  Rhizus,  Sepias,  Olizon,  Boebe,  and 
lolcus,  which  are  at  present  villages  belonging  to  Demetrias. 
For  a  long  time  it  was  a  station  for  vessels,  and  a  royal  seat  of 
the  Macedonian  kings.  It  had  the  command  of  Tempe,  and 
of  both  the  mountains  Pelion  and  Ossa.  At  present  its  ex- 
tent of  power  is  diminished,  yet  it  still  surpasses  all  the  cities 
in  Magnesia. 

The  lake  Boebeis  ^  is  near  Pherae,''  and  approaches  close  to 
the  extremities  of  Pelion  and  Magnesia.  Bcebe  is  a  small 
place  situated  on  the  lake. 

As  civil  dissensions  and  usurpations  reduced  the  flourish- 
ing condition  of  lolcus,  formerly  so  powerful,  so  they  affected 
Pherae  in  the  same  manner,  which  was  raised  to  prosperity, 
and  was  destroyed  by  tyrants. 

Near  Demetrias  flows  the  Anaurus.     The  continuous  line 

'  Trriyvvfii,  to  fasten.  '  a<ptTr]piov,  a  starting-place. 

^  Karlas.  *  Velestina. 

140  STRABO.  Casaub.  436 

of  coast  is  called  also  lolcus.      Here  was  held  the  Pylaic 
(Peliac  ?)  assembly  and  festival. 

Artemidorus  places  the  Gulf  of  Pagasae  farther  from  Deme- 
trias,  near  the  places  subject  to  Philoctetes.  In  the  gulf  he  says 
is  the  island  Cicynethijs/  and  a  small  town  of  the  same  name. 

16..  The  poet  next  enumerates  the  cities  subject  to  Philoc- 

Methone  is  not  the  Thracian  Methone  razed  by  Philip. 
We  have  already  noticed  the  change  of  name  these  places  and 
others  in  the  Peloponnesus  have  undergone.  Other  places 
enumerated  as  subject  to  Philoctetes,  are  Thaumacia,  Olizon, 
and  Meliboea,  all  along  the  shore  next  adjacent. 

In  front  of  the  Magnetos  lie  clusters  of  islands ;  the  most 
celebrated  are  Sciathus,^  Peparethus,^  Icus/  Halonnesus,  and 
Scyrus,^  which  contain  cities  of  the  same  name.  Scyrus  how- 
ever is  the  most  famous  of  any  for  the  friendship  which  sub- 
sisted between  Lycomedes  and  Achilles,  and  for  the  birth  and 
education  of  Neoptolemus,  the  son  of  Achilles.  In  after 
times,  when  Philip  became  powerful,  perceiving  that  the 
Athenians  were  masters  of  the  sea,  and  sovereigns  both  of 
these  and  other  islands,  he  made  those  islands  which  lay  near 
his  own  country  more  celebrated  than  any  of  the  rest.  For 
as  his  object  in  waging  war  was  the  sovereignty  of  Greece, 
he  attacked  those  places  first  which  were  near  him ;  and  as 
he  attached  to  Macedonia  many  parts  of  Magnesia  itself,  of 
Thrace,  and  of  the  rest  of  the  surrounding  country,  so  also  he 
seized  upon  the  islands  in  front  of  Magnesia,  and  made  the 
possession  of  islands  which  were  before  entirely  unknown,  a 
subject  of  warlike  contention,  and  brought  them  into  notice. 

Scyrus  however  is  particularly  celebrated  in  ancient  his- 
tories. It  is  also  highly  reputed  for  the  excellence  of  its 
goats,  and  the  quarries  of  variegated  marble,  such  as  the 
Carystian,  the  Deucallian,  (Docimaean?)  the  Synnadic,  and 
the  Hierapolitic  kinds.  For  there  may  be  seen  at  Rome 
columns,  consisting,  of  a  single  stone,  and  large  slabs  of 
variegated  marble,  (from  Scyrus,)  with  which  the  city  is  em- 
bellished both  at  the  public  charge  and  at  the  expense  of  indi- 
viduals, which  has  caused  works  of  white  marble  to  be  little 

Trikeri.  2  Sciathos.  ^  Scopelo  ? 

*  Selidromi?  *  Scyros. 

B.  IX.  c.  V.  §  17.  THESSALY.  141 

17.  The  poet  having  proceeded  so  far  along  the  Magnesian 
coast,  returns  to  Upper  Thessaly,  for  beginning  from  Dolopia 
and  Pindus  he  goes  through  the  region  extending  along 
Phthiotis  to  Lower  Thessaly. 

"  They  who  occupy  Tricca  and  rocky  Ithome."  ' 
These  places  belong  to  Histiaeotis,  which  was  formerly  called 
Doris.  When  it  was  in  the  possession  of  the  Perrhasbi,  who  de- 
stroyed Histiaeotis  in  Euboea,  and  had  removed  the  inhabitants 
by  force  to  the  continent,  they  gave  the  country  the  name  of 
Histiaeotis,  on  account  of  the  great  numbers  of  Histiaeans  among 
the  settlers.  This  country  and  Dolopia  are  called  Upper  Thes- 
saly, which  is  in  a  straight  line  with  Upper  Macedonia,  as 
Lower  Thessaly  is  in  a  straight  line  with  Lower  Macedonia. 

Tricca,^  where  there  is  a  very  ancient  and  famous  temple  of 
^sculapius,  borders  upon  the  Dblopes,  and  the  parts  about 

Ithome,  which  has  the  same  name  as  the  Messenian  Ithome, 
ought  not,  they  say,  to  be  pronounced  in  this  manner,  but 
should  be  pronounced  without  the  first  syllable,  Thome,  for 
this  was  its  former  name.  At  present,  it  is  changed  to 
[Thumasum].  It  is  a  spot  strong  by  nature,  and  in  reality 
rocky.  It  lies  between  four  strong-holds,  which  form  a  square, 
Tricca,  Metropolis,  Pelinnaeum,  and  Gomphi.^  Ithome  be- 
longs to  the  district  of  the  Metropolitae.  Metropolis  was 
formed  at  first  out  of  three  small  obscure  cities,  and  after- 
wards more  were  included,  and  among  these  Ithome.  Calli- 
machus  says  in  his  Iambics, 

"  among  the  Venuses,  (for  the  goddess  bears  several  titles,)  Vemis  Cast- 
nietis  surpasses  all  others  in  wisdom," 

for  she  alone  accepts  the  sacrifice  of  swine.  Certainly  Gulli- 
machus,  if  any  person  could  be  said  to  possess  information, 
was  well  informed,  and  it  was  his  object,  as  he  himself  says, 
all  his  life  to  relate  these  fables.  Later  writers,  however, 
have  proved  that  there  was  not  one  Venus  only,  but  several, 
who  accepted  that  sacrifice,  from  among  w^hom  the  goddess 
worshipped  at  Metropolis  came,  and  that  this  [foreign]  rite 
was  delivered  down  by  one  of  the  cities  which  contributed  to 
form  that  settlement. 

'  II.  ii.  729.  2  Tricala. 

'  The  ruins  are  pointed  out  to  the  south  of  Stagus  Kalabak. 

142  STRABO.  Casaub.  438. 

Pharcadon  also  is  situated  in  the  Hestiaeotis.  The  Peneius 
and  the  Curalius  flow  through  jt.  The  Curalius,  after  flow- 
ing beside  the  temple  of  the  Itonian  Minerva,  empties  itself 
into  the  Peneius. 

The  Peneius  itself  rises  in  Mount  Pindus,  as  I  have  before 
said.  It  leaves  Tricca,  Pelinnaeum,  and  Pharcadon  on  the 
left  hand,  and  takes  its  course  beside  Atrax  and  Larisa. 
After  having  received  the  rivers  of  the  Thessaliotis  it  flows 
onwards  through  Tempe,  and  it  empties  itself  into  the  sea. 

Historians  speak  of  (Echalia,  the  city  of  Eurytus,  as  exist- 
ing in  these  parts,  in  Euboea  also,  and  in  Arcadia ;  but  some 
give  it  one  name,  others  another,  as  I  have  said  in  the  de- 
scription of  Peloponnesus. 

They  inquire  particularly,  which  of  these  was  the  city 
taken  by  Hercules,  and  which  was  the  city  intended  by  the 
author  of  the  poem,  "  The  Capture  of  CEchalia  ?  " 

The  places,  however,  were  subject  to  the  Asclepiadae. 

18.  The  poet  next  mentions  the  country  which  was  under 
the  dominion  of  Eurypylus  ; 

"  They  who  possessed  Ormeiiium  and  the  spring  Hypereia, 

And  they  who  occupied  Asterium  and  the  white  peaks  of  Titanus."  ' 

Ormenium  is  now  called  Orminium.  It  is  a  village  situ- 
ated below  Pelion,  near  the  Pagasitic  Gulf,  but  was  one  of 
the  cities  which  contributed  to  form  the  settlement  of  Deme- 
trias,  as  I  have  before  said. 

The  lake  Boebeis  must  be  near,  because  both  Boebe  and 
Ormenium  belonged  to  the  cities  lying  around  Demetrias. 

Ormenium  is  distant  by  land  2?  stadia  from  Demetrias. 
The  site  of  lolcus,  which  is  on  the  road,  is  distant  7  stadia 
from  Demetrias,  and  the  remaining  20  from  Ormenium. 

Demetrius  of  Scepsis  says,  that  Phcenix  came  from  Or- 
menium, and  that  he  fled  thence  from  his  father  Amyntor, 
the  son  of  Ormenus,  to  Phthia,  to  king  Peleus.  For  this  place 
was  founded  by  Ormenus,  the  son  of  Cercaphus,  the  son  of 
>(Eolus.  The  sons  of  Ormenus  w^ere  Amyntor  and  Euaemon  ; 
the  son  of  the  former  was  Phoenix,  and  of  the  latter,  Eurypy- 
lus. The  succession  to  his  possessions  was  preserved  secure 
for  Eurypylus,  after  the  departure  of  Phoenix  from  his  home, 
and  we  ought  to  write  the  verse  of  the  poet  in  this  manner : 

>  II.  ii.  734. 

B.  IX.  c.  V.  §  18,  19.  THESSALY.  143 

"as  when  I  first  left  Ormenium,  abounding  with  flocks,"  ^ 
instead  of 

"  left  Hellas,  abounding  with  beautiful  women." 
But  Crates  makes  Phoenix  a  Phocasan,  conjecturing  tliis 
from  the  helmet  of  Meges,  which  Ulysses  wore  on  the  night 
expedition  ;  of  which  helmet  the  poet  says, 

"  Autolycus  brought  it  away  from  Eleon,  out  of  the  house  of  Amyntor, 
the  son  of  Ormenus,  having  broken  through  the  thick  walls. "^ 

Now  Eleon  was  a  small  city  on  Parnassus,  and  by  Amyn- 
tor, the  son  of  Ormenus,  he  could  not  mean  any  other  person 
than  the  father  of  Phoenix,  and  that  Autolycus,  who  lived  on 
Parnassus,  was  in  the  habit  of  digging  through  the  houses  of 
his  neighbours,  which  is  the  common  practice  of  every  house- 
breaker, and  not  of  persons  living  at  a  distance.  But  Deme- 
trius the  Scepsian  says,  that  there  is  no  such  place  on  Par- 
nassus as  Eleon,  but  Neon,  which  was  built  after  the  Trojan 
war,  and  that  digging  through  houses  was  not  confined  to 
robbers  of  the  neighbourhood.  Other  things  might  be  ad- 
vanced, but  I  am  unwilling  to  insist  long  on  this  subject. 
Others  write  the  words 

but  this  is  a  Tanagrian  town ;  and  the  words 

"  Then  far  away  I  fled  through  Hellas  and  came  to  Phthia,"' 
would  make  this  passage  absurd. 

Hypereia  is  a  spring  in  the  middle  of  the  city  of  the  Phe- 
raei  [subject  to  Eumelus].  It  would  therefore  be  absurd  [to 
assign  it  to  Eurypylus]. 

Titanus'*  had  its  name  from  the  accident  of  its  colour,  for 
the  soil  of  the  country  near  Arne  and  [  Aphe]tse  is  white,  and 
Asterium  is  not  far  from  these  places. 

19.  Continuous  with  this  portion  of  Thessaly  are  the  peo- 
ple subject  to  Polypoetes. 

"  They  who  possessed  Argissa ;  those  who  inhabited  Gyrtone,* 
Orthe,  Elone,  and  the  white  city  Oloosson."^ 

This  country  was  formerly  inhabited  by  Perrhaebi,  who 

»  II.  ix.  447.  '  II.  X.  226.  ^  n  ix.  424. 

*  TiTavog,  chalk.  *  Tcheritchiano. 

«  II.  ii.  738. 

144  STRABO.  Casaub.  439. 

possessed  the  part  towards  the  sea  and  the  Peneius,  as  far  as  ^ 
its  mouth  and  the  city  Gyrton,  belonging  to  the  district  Per- 
rhasbis.  Afterwards  the  Lapithae,  Ixion  and  his  son  Peiri- 
thous,  having  reduced  the  PerrhaBbi,^  got  possession  of  these 
places.  Peirithous  took  possession  also  of  Pelion,  having  ex- 
pelled by  force  the  Centaurs,  a  savage  tribe,  who  inhabited 
it.     These 

"  he  drove  from  Pelion  to  the  neighbourhood  of  the  -^thices,  ' ' 

but  he  delivered  up  the  plains  to  the  Lapithae.  The  Perrhsebi 
kept  possession  of  some  of  these  parts,  those,  namely,  towards 
Olympus,  and  in  some  places  they  lived  intermixed  altogether 
with  the  Lapithse. 

Argissa,  the  present  Argura,  is  situated  upon  the  banks  of 
the  Peneius.  Atrax  lies  above  it  at  the  distance  of  40  stadia,, 
close  to  the  river.  The  intermediate  country  along  the  side 
of  the  river  was  occupied  by  Perrhaebi. 

Some  call  Orthe  the  citadel  of  the  Phalannaei.  Phalanna 
is  a  Perrhaebic  city  on  the  Peneius,  near  Tempe. 

The  Perrha2bi,  oppressed  by  the  Lapithae,  retreated  in  great 
numbers  to  the  mountainous  country  about  Pindus,  and  to  the 
Athamanes  and  Dolopes  ;  but  the  Larisaei  became  masters  of 
the  country  and  of  the  Perrhaibi  who  remained  there.  The 
Larissei  lived  near  the  Peneius,  but  in  the  neighbourhood  of 
the  Perrhaebi.  They  occupied  the  most  fertile  portion  of  the 
plains,  except  some  of  the  very  deep  valleys  near  the  lake 
Nessonis,  into  which  the  river,  when  it  overflowed,  usually 
carried  away  a  portion  of  the  arable  ground  belonging  to  the 
Larisaei,  who  afterwards  remedied  this  by  making  embank- 

These  people  were  in  possession  of  Perrhsebia,  and  levied 
imposts  until  Philip  became  master  of  the  country. 

Larisa  is  a  place  situated  on  Ossa,  and  there  is  Larisa 
Cremaste,  by  some  called  Pelasgia.  In  Crete  also  is  a  city 
Larisa,  the  inhabitants  of  which  were  embodied  with  those  of 
Hierapytna ;  and  from  this  place  the  plain  below  is  called  the 
Larisian  plain.    In  Peloponnesus  the  citadel  of  the  Argives  is 

'  Meineke  suggests  the  reading  fiSTa^v,  between,  instead  of  /xsxpi,  as 
far  as. 

^  The  words  after  Perrhaebi,  eig  rrfv  Iv  ry  jxeffoyai^  TroTafiiav,  into  the 
country  in  the  interior  lying  along  the  river,  are  omitted,  as  suggested 
by  Meineke.  ^  II.  ii.  744. 

B.  IX.  c.  V.  J  20.  THESSALY.  145 

called  Larisa,  and  there  is  a  river  Larisus,  which  separates 
Eleia  from  Dyme.  Theopompus  mentions  a  city  Larisa,  situ- 
ated on  the  immediate  confines  of  this  country.  In  Asia  is 
Larisa  Phriconis  near  Cume,  and  another  Larisa  near  Hamax- 
itus,  in  the  Troad.  There  is  also  an  Ephesian  Larisa,  and  a 
Larisa  in  Syria.  At  50  stadia  from  Mitylene  are  the  Lari- 
scean  rocks,  on  the  road  to  Methymne.  There  is  a  Larisa  in 
Attica  ;  and  a  village  of  this  name  at  the  distance  of  30  stadia 
from  Tralleis,  situated  above  the  city,  on  the  road  to  the  plain 
of  the  Cayster,  passing  by  Mesogis  towards  the  temple  of 
Mater  Isodroma.  This  Larisa  has  a  similar  position,  and 
possesses  similar  advantages  to  those  of  Larisa  Cremaste  ;  for 
it  has  abundance  of  water  and  vineyards.  Perhaps  Jupiter 
had  the  appellation  of  Larisseus  from  this  place.  There  is 
also  on  the  left  side  of  the  Pontus  (Euxine)  a  village  called 
Larisa,  near  the  extremities  of  Mount  Haemus,  between  Nau- 
lochus  [and  Odessus].^ 

Oloosson,  called  the  White,  from  its  chalky  soil,  Elone,  and 
Gonnus  are  Perrhasbic  cities.  The  name  of  Elone  was  changed 
to  that  of  Leimone.  It  is  now  in  ruins.  Both  lie  at  the  foot 
of  Olympus,  not  very  far  from  the  river  Eurotas,  which  the 
poet  calls  Titaresius. 

20.  The  poet  speaks  both  of  this  river  and  of  the  Per- 
rhgebi  in  the  subsequent  verses,  when  he  says, 

"  Gimeus  brought  from  Cyphus  two  and  twenty  vessels.  His  followers 
were  Enienes  and  Perasbi,  firm  in  batlle.  They  dwelt  near  the  wintry 
Dodona,  and  tilled  the  fields  abont  the  lovely  Titaresius."  ^ 

He  mentions  therefore  these  places  as  belonging  to  the  Per- 
rhaebi,  which  comprised  a  part  of  the  Hestiaeotis.^  They  were 
in  part  Perrhsebic  towns,  which  were  subject  to  Polypoetes. 
He  assigned  them  however  to  the  Lapithse,  because  these 
people  and  the  Perrhaebi  lived  intermixed  together,  and  the 
Lapithse  occupied  the  plains.  The  country,  which  belonged 
to  the  Perrhasbi,  was,  for  the  most  part,  subject  to  the  La- 
pithse, but  the  Perrhaebi  possessed  the  more  mountainous 
tracts  towards  Olympus  and  Tempe,  such  as  Cyphus,  Dodone, 
and  the  country  about  the  river  Titaresius.     This  river  rises 

^   Groskurd  suggests  the  insertion  here  of  Messembria  or  Odessus. 
Kramer  is  inclined  to  adopt  the  latter. 
*  11.  ii.  748.  3  Or  Pelasgiotis.     Groskurd. 

VOL.    II.  L 

146  STRABO.  Casaub.  441- 

in  the  mountain  Titarius,  which  is  part  of  Olympus.  It  flows 
into  the  plain  near  Tempe  belonging  to  Perrhaebia,  and  some- 
where there  enters  the  Peneius. 

The  water  of  the  Peneius  is  clear,  that  of  the  Titaresius 
is  unctuous ;  a  property  arising  from  some  matter,  which 
prevents  the  streams  mingling  with  each  other, 

"  but  runs  over  the  surface  like  oil."  * 

Because  the  Perrhaebi  and  Lapithae  lived  intermingled  to- 
gether, Simonides  calls  all  those  people  Pelasgiotaj,  who  oc- 
cupy the  eastern  parts  about  Gyrton  and  the  mouths  of  the 
Peneius,  Ossa,  Pelion,  and  the  country  about  Demetrias,  and 
the  places  in  the  plain,  Larisa,  Crannon,  Scotussa,  Mopsium, 
Atrax,  and  the  parts  near  the  lakes  Nessonis  and  Boebeis. 
The  poet  mentions  a  few  only  of  these  places,  either  because 
they  were  not  inhabited  at  all,  or  badly  inhabited  on  account 
of  the  inundations  which  had  happened  at  various  times. 
For  the  poet  does  not  mention  even  the  lake  Nessonis,  but  the 
Boebeis  only,  which  is  much  smaller,  for  its  water  remained 
constant,  and  this  alone  remains,  while  the  former  probably 
was  at  one  time  filled  irregularly  to  excess,  and  at  another 
contained  no  water. 

We  have  mentioned  Scotussa  in  our  accounts  of  Dodona, 
and  of  the  oracle,  in  Thessaly,  when'  we  observed  that  it  was 
near  Scotussa.  Near  Scotussa  is  a  tract  called  Cynoscephalai. 
It  was  here  that  the  Romans  with  their  allies  the  ^tolians,  and 
their  general  Titus  Quintius,  defeated  in  a  great  battle  Philip, 
son  of  Demetrius,  king  of  Macedon. 

21.  Something  of  the  same  kind  has  happened  in  the  terri- 
tory of  Magnetis.  For  Homer  having  enumerated  many 
places  of  this  country,  calls  none  of  them  Magnetes,  but  those 
only  whom  he  indicates  in  terms  obscure,  and  not  easily  un- 
derstood ; 

"  They  who  dwelt  about  Peneius  and  Pelion  with  waving  woods."' 

Now  about  the  Peneius  and  Pelion  dwell  those  (already 
mentioned  by  Homer)  who  occupied  Gyrton,  and  Ormenium, 
and  many  other  nations.  At  a  still  greater  distance  from 
Pelion,  according  to  later  writers,  were  Magnetes,  begin- 
ning from  the  people,  that  were  subject  to  Eumelus.     These 

»  II.  ii.  754  «  II.  ii.  756. 

B.  IX.  c.  V.  §  22.  THESSALY.  147 

writers,  on  account  of  the  continual  removals  from  one  settle- 
ment to  another,  alterations  in  the  forms  of  government,  and 
intermixture  of  races,  seem  to  confound  both  names  and  na- 
tions, which  sometimes  perplexes  persons  in  these  times,  as  is 
first  to  be  observed  in  the  instances  of  Crannon  and  Gyrton. 

Formerly  thej  called  the  Gyrtonians  Phlegyae,  from 
Phlegyas,  the  brother  of  Ixion  ;  and  the  Crannonii,  Ephyri,  so 
that  there  is  a  doubt,  when  the  poet  says, 

"  These  two  from  Thrace  appeared  with  breastplates  armed  against 
Ephyri,  or  haughty  Phlegyae,"^ 

what  people  he  meant. 

22.  The  same  is  the  case  with  the  Perrhasbi  and  ^nianes, 
for  Homer  joins  them  together,  as  if  they  dwelt  near  each 
other ;  and  it  is  said  by  later  writers,  that,  for  a  long  period, 
the  settlement  of  the  JEnianes  was  in  the  Dotian  plain.  Now 
this  plain  is  near  Perrhsebia,  which  we  have  just  mentioned, 
Ossa,  and  the  lake  Boebeis :  it  is  situated  about  the  middle  of 
Thessaly,but  enclosed  by  itself  within  hills.  Hesiod  speaks  of 
it  in  this  manner  ; 

"  Or,  as  a  pure  virgin,  who  dwells  on  the  sacred  heights  of  the  Twin  hills, 
conaes  to  the  Dotian  plain,  in  front  of  Amyrus,  abounding  with  vines,  to 
bathe  her  feet  in  the  lake  Boebias." 

The  greater  part  of  the  jEnianes  were  expelled  by  the  Lapithae, 
and  took  refuge  in  QCta,  where  they  established  their  power, 
having  deprived  the  Dorians  and  the  Malienses  of  some  por- 
tions of  country,  extending  as  far  as  Heracleia  and  Echinus. 
Some  of  them  however  remained  about  Cyphus,  a  Perrhasbic 
mountain,  where  is  a  settlement  of  the  same  name.  As  to  the 
Perrhasbi,  some  of  them  collected  about  the  western  parts  of 
Olympus  and  settled  there,  on  the  borders  of  the  Macedonians. 
But  a  large  body  took  shelter  among  the  mountains  near 
Athamania,  and  Pindus.  But  at  present  few,  if  any,  traces 
of  them  are  to  be  found. 

The  Magnetes,  who  are  mentioned  last  in  the  Thessalian 
catalogue  of  the  poet,  must  be  understood  to  be  those  situated 
within  Tempe,  extending  from  the  Peneius  and  Ossa  to  Pe- 
lion,  and  bordering  upon  the  Pieriotae  in  Macedonia,  who  oc- 
cupy the  country  on  the  other  side  the  Peneius  as  far  as 
the  sea. 

Homolium,  or  Homole,  (for  both  words  are  in  use,)  must 

»  II.  xiii.  301. 
L  2 

148  STRABO.  Casaub.  443 

be  assigned  to  the  Magnetes.  I  have  said  in  the  description 
of  Macedonia,  that  Homolium  is  near  Ossa  at  the  beginning 
of  the  course  which  the  Peneius  takes  through  Tempe. 

If  we  are  to  extend  their  possessions  as  far  as  the  sea-coast, 
which  is  very  near  Homolium,  there  is  reason  for  assigning  to 
them  Rhizus,  and  Erymnae,  which  lies  on  the  sea-coast  in  the 
tract  subject  to  Philoctetes  and  Eumelus.  Let  this  however 
remain  unsettled.  For  the  order  in  which  the  places  as  lar  as 
the  Peneius  follow  one  another,  is  not  clearly  expressed,  and 
as  the  places  are  not  of  any  note,  we  need  not  consider  that 
uncertainty  as  very  important.  The  coast  of  Sepias,  however, 
is  mentioned  by  tragic  writers,  and  was  chaunted  in  songs  on 
account  of  the  destruction  of  the  Persian  fleet.  It  consists  of 
a  chain  of  rocks. 

Between  Sepias  and  Casthanaea,  a  village  situated  below 
Pelion,  is  the  sea-shore,  where  the  fleet  of  Xerxes  was  lying, 
when  an  east  wind  began  to  blow  violently ;  some  of  the  ves- 
sels were  forced  on  shore,  and  immediately  went  to  pieces ; 
others  were  driven  on  Hipnus,  a  rocky  spot  near  Pelion, 
others  were  lost  at  Meliboea,  others  at  Casthanaea. 

The  whole  of  the  coasting  voyage  along  Pelion,  to  the  ex- 
tent of  about  80  stadia,  is  among  rocks.  That  along  Ossa  is 
of  the  same  kind  and  to  the  same  extent. 

Between  them  is  a  bay  of  more  than  200  stadia  in  extent, 
upon  which  is  situated  Meliboea. 

The  whole  voyage  from  Demetrias,  including  the  winding 
of  the  bays,  to  the  Peneius  is  more  than  1000  stadia,  from  the 
Spercheius  800  stadia  more,  and  from  the  Euripus  2350 

Hieronymus  assigns  a  circuit  of  3000  stadia  to  the  plain 
country  in  Thessaly  and  Magnesia,  and  says,  that  it  was  in- 
habited by  Pelasgi,  but  that  these  people  were  driven  into 
Italy  by  Lapithse,  and  that  the  present  Pelasgic  plain  is  that 
in  which  are  situated  Larisa,  Gyrton,  Pherse,  Mopsium,  Boe- 
beis,  Ossa,  Homole,  Pelion,  and  Magnetis.  Mopsium  has  not 
its  name  from  Mopsus,  the  son  of  Manto  the  daughter  of 
Teiresias,  but  from  Mopsus,  one  of  the  Lapithas,  who  sailed 
with  the  Argonauts.  Mopsopus,  from  whom  Attica  is  called 
Mopsopia,  is  a  different  person. 

23.  This  then  is  the  account  of  the  several  parts  of  Thes- 

B.  IX.  c.  V.  §  23.  THESSALY.  149 

In  general  we  say,  that  it  was  formerly  called  Pyrrhaea, 
from  Pyrrha,  the  wife  of  Deucalion  ;  Hasmonia,  from  Haemon  ; 
and  Thettalia,  from  Thettalus,  the  son  of  Haemon.  But  some 
writers,  after  dividing  it  into  two  portions,  say,  that  Deucalion 
obtained  by  lot  the  southern  part,  and  called  it  Pandora,  from 
his  mother ;  that  the  other  fell  to  the  share  of  Haemon,  from 
whom  it  was  called  Haemonia ;  that  the  name  of  one  part  was 
changed  to  Hellas,  from  Hellen,  the  son  of  Deucalion,  and  of 
the  other  to  Thettalia,  from  Thettalus,  the  son  of  Haemon. 
But,  according  to  some  writers,  it  was  the  descendants  of  An- 
tiphus  and  Pheidippus,  sons  of  Thettalus,  descended  from 
Hercules,  who  invaded  the  country  from  Ephyra  in  Thes- 
protia,  and  called  it  after  the  name  of  Thettalus  their  pro- 
genitor. It  has  been  already  said  that  once  it  had  the  name 
of  Nessonis,  as  well  as  the  lake,  from  Nesson,  the  son  of 



The  Tenth  Book  contains  JEtolia  and  the  neighhouring  islands  ;  also  the 
whole  of  Crete,  on  which  the  author  dwells  some  time  in  narrating  the 
institutions  of  the  islanders  and  of  the  Curetes.  He  describes  at  length 
the  origin  of  the  Tdaean  Dactyli  in  Crete,  their  customs  and  religious 
rites.  Strabo  mentions  the  connexion  of  his  own  family  with  Crete,  The 
Book  contains  an  account  of  the  numerous  islands  about  Crete,  including 
the  Sporades  and  some  of  the  Cyclades. 


1.  Since  Euboea^  stretches  along  the  whole  of  this  coast 
from  Sunium  to  Thessalj,  except  the  extremity  on  each  side,^ 
it  may  be  convenient  to  connect  the  description  of  this  island 
with  that  of  Thessaly.  We  shall  then  pass  on  to  ^tolia  and 
Acarnania,  parts  of  Europe  of  which  it  remains  to  give  an 

2.  The  island  is  oblong,  and  extends  nearly  1200  stadia 
from  Cenaeum^  to  Geraestus.'*  Its  greatest  breadth  is  about 
150  stadia,  but  it  is  irregular.^ 

*  In  the  middle  ages  Euboea  was  called  Egripo,  a  corruption  of  Euri- 
pus,  the  name  of  the  town  built  upon  the  ruins  of  Chalcis.  The  Veneti- 
ans, who  obtained  possession  of  the  island  upon  the  dismemberment  of  the 
Byzantine  empire  by  the  Latins,  called  it  Negropont,  probably  a  corrup- 
tion of  Egripo  and  Ponte,  a  bridge.     Smith. 

2  This  expression  is  obscure ;  probably  it  may  mean  that  Euboea  is 
not  equal  in  length  to  the  coast  comprehended  between  Sunium  and  the 
southern  limits  of  Thessaly. 

^  C.  Lithada.  The  mountain  Lithada  above  the  cape,  rises  to  the 
height  of  2837  feet  above  the  sea. 

*  C.Mantelo. 

*  The  real  length  of  the  island  from  N.  to  S.  is  about  90  miles,  its  ex- 
treme breadth  is  30  miles,  but  in  one  part  it  is  not  more  than  4  miles 
across.     See  Smith  art.  Euboea. 

B.  X.  c.  I.  §  3.  NEGROPONT.  151 

Cenagum  is  opposite  to  Thermopjlae,  and  in  a  small  degree 
to  the  parts  beyond  Thermopylas :  Geraestus  ^  and  Petalia  ^  are 
opposite  to  Sunium. 

Euboea  then  fronts  ^  Attica,  Boeotia,  Locris,  and  the  Mali- 
enses.  From  its  narrowness,  and  its  length,  which  we  have 
mentioned,  it  was  called  by  the  ancients  Macris.'* 

It  approaches  nearest  to  the  continent  at  Chalcis.  It  pro- 
jects with  a  convex  bend  towards  the  places  in  Boeotia  near 
Aulis,  and  forms  the  Euripus,^  of  which  we  have  before 
spoken  at  length.  We  have  also  mentioned  nearly  all  the 
places  on  either  side  of  the  Euripus,  opposite  to  each  other 
across  the  strait,  both  on  the  continent  and  on  the  island.  If 
anything  is  omitted  we  shall  now  give  a  further  explanation. 

And  first,  the  parts  lying  between  Aulis  (Chalcis  ?)  and 
the  places  about  Geraestus  are  called  the  Hollows  of  Euboea, 
for  the  sea-coast  swells  into  bays,  and,  as  it  approaches  Chal- 
cis, juts  out  again  towards  the  continent. 

3.  The  island  had  the  name  not  of  Macris  only,  but  of 
Abantis  also.  The  poet  in  speaking  of  Euboea  never  calls  the 
inhabitants  from  the  name  of  the  island,  Euboeans,  but  always 
Abantes ; 

"they who  possessed  Euboea,  the  resolute  Abantes;"® 
"  in  his  train  Abantes  were  following." 

Aristotle  says  that  Thracians,  taking  their  departure  from 
Aba,  the  Phocian  city,  settled  with  the  other  inhabitants  in 
the  island,  and  gave  the  name  of  Abantes  to  those  who  al- 
ready occupied  it ;  other  writers  say  that  they  had  their  name 
from  a  hero,*^  as  that  of  Euboea  was  derived  from  a  heroine.^ 
But  perhaps  as  a  certain  cave  on  the  sea-coast  fronting  the 

'  Cape  Mantelo. 

^  Strabo  is  the  only  ancient  author  who  describes  a  place  of  this  name 
as  existing  in  Euboea.  Kiepert  and  the  Austrian  map  agree  in  giving  the 
name  Petaliae,  which  may  here  be  meant,  to  the  Spill  islands. 

^  avTiTTopOnog. 

*  Euboea  has  various  names.  Formerly  (says  Pliny,  h.  iv.  c.  12)  it 
was  called  Chalcedontis  or  Macris,  according  to  Dionysius  and  Ephorus ; 
Macra,  according  to  Aristides  ;  Chalcis,  from  brass  being  there  first  dis- 
covered, according  to  Callidemus;  Abantias,  according  to  Menaechmus  ; 
and  Asopis  by  the  poets  in  general. 

'  The  narrow  channel  between  the  island  and  the  mainland. 

«  II.  ii.  536, 542. 

^  From  Abas,  great  grandson  of  Erectheus. 

*  From  Euboea,  daughter  of  the  river  Asopus  and  mistress  of  Neptune  . 

152  STRABO.  Casaub.  445. 

^gean  Sea  is  called  Boos-Aule,  (or  the  Cow's  Stall,)  where 
lo  is  said  to  have  brought  forth  Epaphus,  so  the  island  may 
have  had  the  name  Euboja^  on  this  account. 

It  was  also  called  Oche,  which  is  the  name  of  one  of  the 
largest  mountains^  there. 

It  had  the  name  of  Ellopia,  from  Ellops,  the  son  of  Ion ; 
according  to  others,  he  was  the  brother  of  -^clus,  and  Co- 
thus,  who  is  said  to  have  founded  Ellopia,^  a  small  place 
situated  in  the  district  called  Oria  of  the  Histi^eotis,  near  the 
mountain  Telethrius.^  He  also  possessed  Histiaea,  Perias, 
Cerinthus,  ^depsus,^  and  Orobioe,  where  was  an  oracle  very 
free  from  deception.  There  also  was  an  oracle  of  Apollo 

The  Ellopians,  after  the  battle  of  Leuctra,  were  compelled 
by  the  tyrant  Philistides  to  remove  to  the  city  Histiasa,  and 
augmented  the  number  of  its  inhabitants.  Demosthenes^ 
says  that  Philistides  was  appointed  by  Philip  tyrant  of  the 
Oreitae  also,  for  afterwards  tlie  Histiasans  had  that  name,  and 
the  city,  instead  of  Histisea,  was  called  Oreus.  According  to 
some  writers,  Histiaea  was  colonized  by  Athenians  from  the 
demus  of  the  Histiaeeis,  as  Eretria  was  from  the  demus  of  the 
Eretrieis.  But  Theopompus  says,  that  when  Pericles  had  re- 
duced Euboea,  the  Histiaeans  agreed  to  remove  into  Mace- 
donia, and  that  two  thousand  Athenians,  who  formerly  com- 
posed the  demus  of  the  Histiaeans,  came,  and  founded  Oreus.^ 

4.  It  is  situated  below  Mount  Telethrius,  at  a  place  called 
Drymus,  near  the  river  Callas,  on  a  lofty  rock;^  whence 
perhaps  because  the  Ellopians,  the  former  inhabitants,  were  a 
mountain  tribe,^  the  city  had  the  name  of  Oreus.  Orion,  who 
was  brought  up  there,  seems  to  have  had  his  name  from  the 
place.     But  according  to  some  writers,  the  Oreitae,  who  had  a 

'  From  ev,  well,  and  (3ovq,  a  cow.  The  ancient  coins  of  the  island 
bear  the  head  of  an  ox. 

^  Mount  St.  EUas,  4748  feet  above  the  level  of  the  sea.  Bochart  de- 
rives the  name  from  an  eastern  word  signifying  "  narrow." 

^  At  the  base  of  Ploko  Vuno. 

*  Mount  Galzades,  celebrated  for  producing  medicinal  plants.  Theo- 
phrastus,  Hist.  Plant,  b.  ix.  c.  15  and  20. 

*  Dipso,  according  to  Kiepert. 
^  Philipp.  iii. 

^  Not  the  town  named  Histiaea-Oreus,  which  was  on  the  sea-coast. 

*  Livy,  b.  xxxi.  c.  46.  *  did  to  opeiovg  elvai. 

B.  X.  c.  I.  ^  5—7.  NEGROPONT.  1^^3 

city  of  their  own,  being  attacked  by  the  Ellopians,  migrated, 
and  settled  with  the  Histiaeans,  and  although  it  was  a  single 
city  it  had  both  appellations,  as  Lacedaemon  and  Sparta  were 
the  same  city.  We  have  said,  that  the  Histiaeotis  in  Thes- 
saly  had  its  name  from  the  people  who  were  carried  away 
from  this  country  by  the  Perrhaebi. 

5.  As  EUopia  induced  us  to  commence  our  description 
with  Histiaea  and  Oreus,  we  shall  proceed  with  the  places  con- 
tinuous with  these. 

The  promontory  Cenaeum  is  near  Oreus,  and  on  the  pro- 
montory is  situated  Dium,^  and  Athenae  Diades,  a  town 
founded  by  Athenians,  and  overlooks  the  passage  across  the 
strait  to  Cynus.  Canag  in  -.^olia  received  colonists  from 
Dium.  These  places  are  situated  near  Histiaea,  and  besides 
these  Cerinthus,  a  small  city,  close  to  the  sea.  Near  it  is  a 
river  Budorus,  of  the  same  name  as  the  mountain  in  Salamis 
on  the  side  of  Attica, 

6.  Carystus^  lies  at  the  foot  of  the  mountain  Oche,  and 
near  it  are  Styra  ^  and  Marmarium,'*  where  is  a  quarry,  from 
which  are  obtained  the  Carystian  columns.  It  has  a  temple 
of  Apollo  Marmarinus,  where  there  is  a  passage  across  to 
Halae-Araphenides.  At  Carystus  there  is  found  in  the  earth 
a  stone,^  which  is  combed  like  wool,  and  woven,  so  that  nap- 
kins are  made  of  this  substance,  which,  when  soiled,  are 
thrown  into  the  fire,  and  cleaned,  as  in  the  washing  of  linen.^ 
These  places  are  said  to  be  inhabited  by  colonists  from  the 
Tetrapolis  of  Marathon,  and  by  Steirieis.  Styra  was  de- 
stroyed in  the  Mahac  (Lamiac  ?)  war  by  Phaedrus,  the  general 
of  the  Athenians.  But  the  Eretrians  are  in  possession  of  the 
territory.  There  is  also  a  Carystus  in  Laconia,  a  place  be- 
longing to  -^gys,  towards  Arcadia  ;  from  whence  comes  the 
Carystian  wine,  spoken  of  by  Alcman. 

7.  Geraestus'^  is  not  mentioned  by  Homer  in  the  Catalogue 
of  the  Ships  ;  it  is  however  mentioned  by  him  elsewhere  ; 

'  Kiepert  accordingly  places  Dium  near  the  modern  Jaitra,  but  the 
Austrian  map  places  it  to  the  N,  E.  of  Ploko  Vuno. 

^  Castel  Rosso.  The  landing-place  of  the  Persian  expedition  under 
Datis  and  Artaphernes,  b.  c.  490.     Herod,  b.  vi.  c.  99. 

3  Sturae. 

*  The  ruins  are  indicated  as  existing  opposite  the  Spili  islands. 

^  XiQoQ  cpvtTai.  ''  ry  tud/  Xivwv  TrXvati.  ^  C.  Mantelo. 

154  STRABO.  Casaub.  447. 

"  The  vessels  came  to  Gersestus  by  night ;  "  ^ 
which  shows,  that  the  place  being  near  Sunium  lies  conveni- 
ently for  persons  who  cross  from  Asia  to  Attica.      It  has  a 
temple   of  Neptune   the   most  remarkable    of  any    in   that 
quarter,  and  a  considerable  number  of  inhabitants. 

8.  Next  to  Geraestus  is  Eretria,  which,  after  Chalcis,  is  the 
largest  city  in  Euboea.  Next  follows  Chalcis,  the  capital  as 
it  were  of  the  island,  situated  immediately  on  the  Euripus. 
Both  these  cities  are  said  to  have  been  founded  by  Athenians 
before  the  Trojan  war ;  [but  it  is  also  said  that]  after  the 
Trojan  war,  -^clus  and  Cothus  took  their  departure  from 
Athens ;  the  former  to  found  Eretria,  and  Cothus,  Chalcis. 
A  body  of  Cohans  who  belonged  to  the  expedition  of  Pen- 
thilus  remained  in  the  island.  Anciently,  even  Arabians  ^ 
settled  there,  who  came  over  with  Cadmus. 

These  cities,  Eretria  and  Chalcis,  when  their  population 
was  greatly  augmented,  sent  out  considerable  colonies  to  Ma- 
cedonia, for  Eretria  founded  cities  about  Pallene  and  Mount 
Athos ;  Chalcis  founded  some  near  Olynthus,  which  Philip 
destroyed.  There  are  also  many  settlements  in  Italy  and 
Sicily,  founded  by  Chalcidians.  These  colonies  were  sent 
out,  according  to  Aristotle,^  when  the  government  of  the 
Hippobatae,  (or  Knights,)  as  it  is  called,  was  established ;  it 
was  an  aristocratical  government,  the  heads  of  which  held 
their  office  by  virtue  of  the  amount  of  their  property.  At 
the  time  that  Alexander  passed  over  into  Asia,  they  enlarged . 
the  compass  of  the  walls  of  their  city,  including  within  them 
Canethus,'*  and  the  Euripus,  and  erected  towers  upon  the 
bridge,  a  wall,  and  gates. 

9.  Above  the  city  of  the  Chalcidians  is  the  plain  called 
Lelantum,  in  which  are  hot  springs,  adapted  to  the  cure  of 
diseases,  and  which  were  used  by  Cornelius  Sylla,  the  Roman 
general.  There  was  also  an  extraordinary  mine  which  pro- 
duced both  copper  and  iron ;  such,  writers  say,  is  not  to  be 
found  elsewhere.     At  present,  however,  both  are  exhausted. 

1  Od.  iii.  177. 

^  As  this  statement  is  unsupported  by  any  other  authority,  Meineke 
suggests  that  the  word  Arabians  ("ApaJSeg  oi)  is  an  error  for  Aradii 

^  Repub.  b.  iv.  c.  3. 

*  According  to  the  Scholiast  in  Apollon.  Rhod.  Argon,  b.  i.  v.  77, 
Canethus  was  a  mountain  on  the  Boeotian  side  of  the  Euripus. 

B.  X.  c.  I.  §  10.  NEGROPONT.  155 

The  whole  of  Euboea  is  subject  to  earthquakes,  especially 
the  part  near  the  strait.  It  is  also  exposed  to  violent  subter- 
raneous blasts,  like  Boeotia,  and  other  places  of  which  I  have 
before  spoken  at  length.^  The  city  of  the  same  name  as  the 
island  is  said  to  have  been  swallowed  up  by  an  earthquake.^ 
It  is  mentioned  by  -^schylus  in  his  tragedy  of  Glaucus 
Pontius ; 

"  Eubois  near  the  bending  shore  of  Jupiter  Ceneeus,  close  to  the  tomb  of 
the  wretched  Lichas." 

There  is  also  in  ^tolia  a  town  of  the  name  of  Chalcis, 

"  Chalcis  on  the  sea-coast,  and  the  rocky  Calydon," ' 

and  another  in  the  present  Eleian  territory ; 

"  they  passed  along  Cruni,  and  the  rocky  Chalcis,"  * 

speaking  of  Telemachus  and  his  companions,  when  they  left 
Nestor  to  return  to  their  own  country. 

10.  Some  say,  that  the  Eretrians  were  a  colony  from  Ma- 
cistus  in  Triphylia,  under  the  conduct  of  Eretrieus  ;  others, 
that  they  came  from  Eretria,  in  Attica,  where  now  a  market 
is  held.  There  is  an  Eretria  also  near  Pharsalus.  In 
the  Eretrian  district  there  was  a  city,  Tamynae,  sacred  to 
Apollo.  The  temple  (which  was  near  the  strait)  is  said  to 
have  been  built  by  Admetus,  whom  the  god,  according  to 
report,  served  a  year^  for  hire. 

Eretria,^  formerly,  had  the  names  of  Melaneis  and  Arotria. 
The  village  Amarynthus,  at  the  distance  of  7  stadia  from  the 
walls,  belongs  to  it. 

The  Persians  razed  the  ancient  city,  having  enclosed  with 
multitudes  the  inhabitants,  according  to  the  expression  of 
Herodotus,*^  in  a  net,  by  spreading  the  Barbarians  around  the 
walls.  The  foundations  are  still  shown,  and  the  place  is 
called  ancient  Eretria.     The  present  city  is  built  near  it. 

The  power  which  the  Eretrians  once  possessed,  is  evinced 
by  a  pillar  which  was  placed  in  the  temple  of  Diana  Ama- 
rynthia.  There  is  an  inscription  on  it  to  this  elFect,  that  their 
processions  upon  their  public  festivals  consisted  of  three 
thousand  heavy-armed  soldiers,  six  hundred  horsemen,  and 

»  B.  i.  c.  iii.  §  16.  «  B.  ix.  c.  ii.  §  13.  ^  jj  [[  540. 

*  Od,  XV.  295.  *  iviavTov  for  avrov.     Meineke. 

«  Near  Palseo-castro.  "*  Herod,  b.  iii.  c.  149,  and  b.  vi.  c.  101. 

156  STRABO.  Casaub.  448. 

sixty  chariots.  They  were  masters,  besides  other  islands,  of 
Andros,  Tenos,  and  Ceos.  They  received  colonists  from 
Elis,  whence  their  frequent  use  of  the  letter  R,  (p,)*  not  only 
at  the  end,  but  in  the  middle  of  words,  which  exposed  them 
to  the  raillery  of  comic  writers. 

OEchalia,^  a  village,  the  remains  of  a  city  destroyed  by 
Hercules,  belongs  to  the  district  of  Eretria.  It  has  the  same 
name  as  that  in  Trachinia,  as  that  near  Tricca,^  as  that  in 
Arcadia,  (which  later  writers  call  Andania,)  and  as  that  in 
-^tolia  near  the  Eurytanes. 

11.  At  present  Chalcis'*  is  allowed,  without  dispute,  to  hold 
the  first  rankj  and  is  called  the  capital  of  the  Euboeans. 
Eretria  holds  the  second  place.  Even  in  former  times  these 
cities  had  great  influence  both  in  war  and  peace,  so  that 
they  afforded  to  philosophers  an  agreeable  and  tranquil  re- 
treat. A  proof  of  this  is  the  establishment  at  Eretria  of  the 
school  of  Eretrian  philosophers,  disciples  of  Menedemus  ;  and 
at  an  earlier  period  the  residence  of  Aristotle^  at  Chalcis, 
where  he  also  died. 

12.  These  cities  generally  lived  in  harmony  with  each 
other,  and  when  a  dispute  arose  between  them  respecting 
Lelantum,  they  did  not  even  then  suspend  all  intercourse  so  as 
to  act  in  war  entirely  without  regard  to  each  other,  but  they 
agreed  upon  certain  conditions,  on  which  the  war  was  to  be 
conducted.  This  appears  by  a  column  standing  in  the  Ama- 
rynthium,  which  interdicts  the  use  of  missiles.  [For  with 
respect  to  warlike  usages  and  armour,  there  neither  is  nor 
was  any  common  usage;  for  some  nations  employ  soldiers 
who  use  missile  weapons,  such  as  bows,  slings,  and  javelins ; 
others  employ  men  who  engage  in  close  fight,  and  use  a 
sword,  or  charge  with  a  spear.^  For  there  are  two  methods 
of  using  the  spear ;  one  is  to  retain  it  in  the  hand  ;  the  other, 
to  hurl  it  like  a  dart;  the  pike'  answers  both  purposes,  for  it 
is  used  in  close  encounter  and  is  hurled  to  a  distance.  The 
sarissa  and  the  hyssus  are  similarly  made  use  of.]  ^ 

*  A  common  practice  of  the  Dorians. 

*■'  B.  viii.  c.  iii.  §  6.  'In  Thessaly. 

*  Negropont.  It  was  one  of  the  three  cities  which  Philip  of  Macedon 
called  the  chains  of  Greece.  Brass  {xaXKog)  was  said  to  have  been  first 
found  there. 

*  He  retired  there  b.  c.  322.  ^  dopv.  '  Kovrbg. 

*  ri  (rdpiaoa  Kai  6  vaabg.     Probably  an  interpolation.     Groskurd. 

B.  X.  c.  I.  §  13-15.  NEGROPONT.  157 

13.  The  Euboeans  excelled  in  standing^  figlit,  which  was 
also  called  close  fight,^  and  fight  hand  to  hand.^  They  used 
spears  extended  at  length  according  to  the  words  of  the  poet ; 

"warriors  eager  to  break  through  breastplates  with  extended  ashen 
spears."  * 

The  missile  weapons  were  perhaps  of  different  kinds,  as,  pro- 
bably, was  the  ashen  spear  of  Pelion,  which,  as  the  poet  says, 

*'  Achilles  alone  knew  how  to  hurl."' 
When  the  poet  says, 
"  I  strike  farther  with  a  spear  than  any  other  person  with  an  arrow,"  * 

he  means  with  a  missile  spear.  They,  too,  who  engage  in 
single  combat,  are  first  introduced  as  using  missile  spears,  and 
then  having  recourse  to  swords.  But  they  who  engage  in 
single  combat  do  not  use  the  sword  only,  but  a  spear  also  held 
in  the  hand,  as  the  poet  describes  it, 

"  he  wounded  him  with  a  polished  spear,  pointed  with  brass,  and  un- 
braced his  limbs."  ^ 

He  represents  the  Euboeans  as  fighting  in  this  manner ;  but 
he  describes  the  Locrian  mode  as  contrary  to  this  ; 

"  It  was  not  their  practice  to  engage  in  close  fight,  but  they  followed  him 
to  Ilium  with  their  bows,  clothed  in  the  pliant  fleece  of  the  sheep."* 

An  answer  of  an  oracle  is  commonly  repeated,  which  was  re- 
turned to  the  ^gienses  ; 

*•  a  Thessalian  horse,  a  Lacedaemonian  woman,  and  the  men  who  drink 
the  water  of  the  sacred  Arethusa," 

meaning  the  Chalcideans  as  superior  to  all  other  people,  for 
Arethusa  belongs  to  them. 

14.  At  present  the  rivers  of  Euboea  are  the  Cereus  and 
Neleus.  The  cattle  which  drink  of  the  water  of  the  former 
become  white,  and  those  that  drink  of  the  water  of  the  latter 
become  black.  We  have  said  that  a  similar  effect  is  produced 
by  the  water  of  the  Crathis.^ 

15.  As  some  of  the  Euboeans,  on  their  return  from  Troy, 
were  driven  out  of  their  course  among  the  Illyrians ;  pursued 
their  journey  homewards  through  Macedonia,  and  stopped  in 
the  neighbourhood  of  Edessa ;  having  assisted  the  people  in  a 
war,  who  had  received  them  hospitably  ;  they  founded  a  city, 

•  fiax,T]v  TTjv  &TaSiav.  '  (rvoTaSrjv.  '  tK  ^etpoc;. 

*  II.  ii.  543.  5  II.  xix.  389.  ^  Qd.  viii.  229. 

'  11.  IV.  469.  8  II.  xiii.  713,  716.  »  B.  vi.  c  i.  §  13. 

158  STRABO.  Casaub.  450. 

Euboea.  There  was  a  Euboea  in  Sicily,  founded  by  the 
Chalcideans,  who  were  settled  there.  It  was  destroyed  by 
Gelon,  and  became  a  strong-hold  of  the  Syracusans.  In  Cor- 
cyra  also,  and  at  Lemnus,  there  was  a  place  called  Euboea,  and 
a  hill  of  this  name  in  the  Argive  territory. 

16.  We  have  said,  that  ^tolians,  Acarnanians,  and  Atha- 
manes  are  situated  to  the  west  of  the  Thessalians  and  CEtag- 
ans,  if  indeed  we  must  call  the  Athamanes,^  Greeks.  It  re- 
mains, in  order  that  we  may  complete  the  description  of 
Greece,  to  give  some  account  of  these  people,  of  the  islands 
which  lie  nearest  to  Greece,  arid  are  inhabited  by  Greeks, 
which  we  have  not  yet  mentioned. 


1.  -^TOLiANS  and  Acarnanians  border  on  one  another, 
having  between  them  the  river  Achelous,^  which  flows  from 
the  north,  and  from  Pindus  towards  the  south,  through  the 
country  of  the  Agraei,  an  JEtolian  tribe,  and  of  the  Amphi- 

Acarnanians  occupy  the  western  side  of  the  river  as  far  as 
the  Ambracian  Gulf,^  opposite  to  the  Amphilochians,  and  the 
temple  of  Apollo  Actius.  ^tolians  occupy  the  part  towards 
the  east  as  far  as  the  Locri  Ozolae,  Parnassus,  and  the  CEtseans. 

Amphilochians  are  situated  above  the  Acarnanians  in  the 
interior  towards  the  north;  above  the  Amphilochians  are 
situated  Dolopes,  and  Mount  Pindus ;  above  the  ^tolians 
are  Perrhasbi,  Athamanes,  and  a  body  of  the  ^nianes  who 
occupy  (Eta. 

The  southern  side,  as  well  the  Acarnanian  as  the  ^tolian, 
is  washed  by  the  sea,  forming  the  Corinthian  Gulf,  into  which 
the  Achelous  empties  itself.  This  river  (at  its  mouth)  is  the 
boundary  of  the  -.^tolian  and  the  Acarnanian  coast.  The 
Achelous  was  formerly  called  Thoas.  There  is  a  river  of 
this  name  near  Dyme,^  as  we  have  said,  and  another  near 
Lamia.^     We  have  also  said,^  that  the  mouth  qf  this  river  is 

'  B.  viii.  c.  vii.  §  1.  *  The  Aspropotamo.  ^  G.  of  Arta. 

*  B.  viii.  c.  iii.  §  11.  ^  B.  ix.  c.  v.  §  10.  «  B.  viii.  c.  ii.  §  3. 

B.  X.  c.  II.  §  2,  3.  ^TOLIA.    ACARNANIA.  159 

considered  by  some  writers  as  the  commencement  of  the  Cor- 
inthian Gulf. 

2.  The  cities  of  the  Acarnanians  are,  Anactorium,  situated 
upon  a  peninsula^  near  Actium,  and  a  mart  of  Nicopolis, 
which  has  been  built  in  our  time ;  Stratus,^  to  which  vessels 
sail  up  the  Achelous,  a  distance  of  more  than  200  stadia  ;  and 
CEniadas^  is  also  on  the  banks  of  the  river.  The  ancient 
city  is  not  inhabited,  and  lies  at  an  equal  distance  from  the 
sea  and  from  Stratus.  The  present  city  is  at  the  distance  of 
70  stadia  above  the  mouth  of  the  river. 

There  are  also  other  cities,  Palaerus,*  Alyzia,^  Leucas,^  the 
Amphilochian  Argos,*^  and  Ambracia:^  most  of  these,  if  not 
all,  are  dependent  upon  Nicopolis. 

Stratus  lies  half-way  between  Alyzia  and  Anactorium.^ 

3.  To  the  ^tolians  belong  both  Calydon  ^^  and  Pleuron, 
which  at  present  are  in  a  reduced  condition,  but,  anciently, 
these  settlements  were  an  ornament  to  Greece. 

^tolia  was  divided  into  two  portions,  one  called  the 
Old,  the  other  the  Epictetus  (the  Acquired).  The  Old  com- 
prised the  sea-coast  from  the  Achelous  as  far  as  Calydon,  ex- 
tending far  into  the  inland  parts,  which  are  fertile,  and  consist 
of  plains.  Here  are  situated  Stratus  and  Trichonium,  which 
has  an  excellent  soil.  The  Epictetus,  that  reaches  close  to 
the  Locri  in  the  direction  of  Naupactus*^  and  Eupaliura,^^ 

^  The  promontory  bears  the  name  C.  Madonna,  and  the  ruins  of  Anac- 
torium are  pointed  out  as  existing  at  the  bottom  of  the  small  bay  of  Pre- 
vesa.  The  modern  town,  Azio,  which  is  not  the  ancient  Actium,  is  near 
these  ruins. 

^  Near  Lepenu. 

'  Correction  by  Groskurd.  Trigardon  is  given  in  the  Austrian  map  as 
the  ancient  site  of  CEniadaB,  but  this  position  does  not  agree  with  the  text. 

*  Porto-fico  according  to  D'Anville. 

^  Kandili,  opposite  the  island  Kalamo. 

6  Santa  Maura.  ^  Neochori. 

*  Arta,  but  the  Austrian  map  gives  Rogus  as  the  site. 

^  This  is  an  error  either  of  the  author  or  in  the  text.  Groskurd  pro- 
poses to  read  Antirrhium  (Castel  Rumeli)  in  place  of  Anactorium. 
Kramer  proposes  to  follow  Tzschucke,  and  to  exchange  the  positions  of 
the  words  Stratus  and  Alyzia  in  the  text. 

"*  There  has  been  some  dispute  respecting  the  site  of  Calydon.  Leake 
supposes  the  ruins  which  he  discovered  at  Kurtaga,  or  Kortaga,  to  the 
west  of  the  Evenus,  (Fidari,)  to  be  those  of  Calydon. 

"  Lepanto. 

"  Leake  supposes  it  to  have  stood  in  the  plain  of  Marathia,  opposite  the 
island  Trissonia. 

160  STRABO.  Casatjb.  451. 

is  a  rugged  and  sterile  tract,  extending  as  far  as  QEtasa,  to 
the  territory  of  the  Athamanes,  and  tlie  mountains  and  na- 
tions following  next  in  order,  and  which  lie  around  towards 
the  north. 

4.  There  is  in  ^tolia  a  very  large  mountain,  the  Corax,* 
which  is  contiguous  to  CEta..  Among  the  other  mountains, 
more  in  the  middle  of  the  country,  is  the  Aracynthus,^  near 
which  the  founders  built  the  modern  Pleuron,  having  aban- 
doned the  ancient  city  situated  near  Calydon,  which  was  in 
a  fertile  plain  country,  when  Demetrius,  surnamed  ^tolicus, 
laid  waste  the  district. 

Above  Molycreia^  are  Taphiassus^  and  Chalcis,^  moun- 
tains of  considerable  height,  on  which  are  situated  the  small 
cities,  Macynia  and  Chalcis,  (having  the  same  name  as  the 
mountain,)  or,  as  it  is  also  called,  Hypochalcis.  Mount  Curium 
is  near  the  ancient  Pleuron,  from  which  some  supposed  the 
Pleuronii  had  the  appellation  of  Curetes. 

5.  The  river  Evenus  rises  in  the  country  of  the  Bomianses, 
a  nation  situated  among  the  Ophienses,  and  an  jEtolian  tribe 
like  the  Eurytanes,  Agraei,  Curetes,  and  others.  It  does  not 
flow,  at  its  commencement,  through  the  territory  of  the  Cu- 
retes, which  is  the  same  as  Pleuronia,  but  through  the  coun- 
try more  towards  the  east  along  Chalcis  and  Calydon  ;  it  then 
makes  a  bend  backwards  to  the  plains  of  the  ancient  Pleuron, 
and  having  changed  its  course  to  the  west,  turns  again  to  the 
south,  where  it  empties  itself.  It  was  formerly  called  Ly- 
cormas.  There  Nessus,  who  had  the  post  of  ferryman,  is  said 
to  have  been  killed  by  Hercules  for  having  attempted  to  force 
Deianeira  while  he  was  conveying  her  across  the  river. 

6.  The  poet  calls  Olenus  and  Pylene  ^tolian  cities,  the 
former  of  which,  of  the  same  name  as  the  Achaean  city,  was 
razed  by  the  ^olians.  It  is  near  the  new  city  Pleuron. 
The  Acarnanians  disputed  the  possession  of  the  territory. 
They  transferred  Pylene  to  a  higher  situation,  and  changed 
its  name  to  Proschium.  Hellanicus  was  not  at  all  acquainted 
with  the  history  of  these  cities,  but  speaks  of  them  as  still  ex- 
isting in  their  ancient  condition,  but  Macynia  and  Molycria, 
which  were  built  subsequent  to  the  return  of  the  Heracleidae, 

'  M.  Coraca.  ^  M.  Zigos.  '  Xerolimne. 

*  Kaki-scala.  *  Varassova. 

B.  X.  c.  II.  §  7, 8.  LEUCAS.  161 

he  enumerates  among  ancient  cities,  and  shows  the  greatest 
carelessness  in  almost  every  part  of  his  work. 

7.  This,  then,  is  the  general  account  of  the  country  of  the 
Acarnanians  and  ^tolians.  We  must  annex  to  this  some 
description  of  the  sea-coast  and  of  the  islands  lying  in  front 
of  it. 

If  we  begin  from  the  entrance  of  the  Ambracian  Gulf,  the 
first  place  we  meet  with  in  Acarnania  is  Actium.  The  temple 
of  Apollo  Actius  has  the  same  name  as  the  promontory,  which 
forms  the  entrance  of  the  Gulf,  and  has  a  harbour  on  the 

At  the  distance  of  40  stadia  from  the  temple  is  Anacto- 
rium,  situated  on  the  Gulf;  and  at  the  distance  of  240  stadia 
is  Leucas.^ 

8.  This  was,  anciently,  a  peninsula  belonging  to  the  terri- 
tory of  the  Acarnanians.  The  poet  calls  it  the  coast  of 
Epirus,  meaning  by  Epirus  the  country  on  the  other  side  of 
Ithaca,^  and  Cephallenia,^  which  country  is  Acarnania ;  so 
that  by  the  words  of  the  poet, 

"  the  coast  of  Epirus," 
we  must  understand  the  coast  of  Acarnania. 

To  Leucas  also  belonged  Neritus,  which  Laertes  said  he 
took — 

"  as  when  I  was  chief  of  the  Cephallenians,  and  took  Nericus,  a  well- 
built  city,  on  the  coast  of  Epirus,"* 

and  the  cities  which  he  mentions  in  the  Catalogue, 

"  and  they  who  inhabited  Crocyleia,  and  the  rugged  jEgilips."* 

But  the  Corinthians  who  were  despatched  by  Cypselus  and 
Gorgus,  obtained  possession  of  this  coast,  and  advanced  as  far 
as  the  Ambracian  Gulf.  Ambracia  and  Anactorium  were 
both  founded.  They  cut  through  the  isthmus  of  the  peninsula, 
converted  Leucas  into  an  island,  transferred  Neritus  to  the 
spot,  which  was  once  an  isthmus,  but  is  now  a  channel  con- 
nected with  the  land  by  a  bridge,  and  changed  the  name  to 
Leucas  from  Leucatas,  as  I  suppose,  which  is  a  white  rock, 
projecting  from  Leucas  into  the  sea  towards  Cephallenia,  so 
that  it  might  take  its  name  from  this  circumstance. 

*  Santa  Maura.  '  Theaki.  ^  Cephalonia. 

*  Od.  xxiv.  376.  »  II.  ii.  633. 

VOL.  II.  M 

162  STKABO.  Casaub.  452. 

9.  It  has  upon  it  the  temple  of  Apollo  Leucatas,  and  the 
Leap,  which,  it  was  thought,  was  a  termination  of  love. 

"Here  Sappho  first  'tis  said,"  (according  to  Menander,)  "in  pursuit  of 
the  haughty  Phaon,  and  urged  on  by  maddening  desire,  threw  herself^ 
from  the  aerial  rock,  imploring  Thee,  Lord,  and  King." 

Menander  then  says  that  Sappho  was  the  first  who  took  the 
leap,  but  persons  better  acquainted  with  ancient  accounts  as- 
sert that  it  was  Cephalus,  who  was  in  love  with  Pterelas,  the 
son  of  Deioneus.2  It  was  also  a  custom  of  the  country  among 
the  Leucadians  at  the  annual  sacrifice  performed  in  honour  of 
Apollo,  to  precipitate  from  the  rock  one  of  the  condemned 
criminals,  with  a  view  to  avert  evil.  Various  kinds  of  wings 
were  attached  to  him,  and  even  birds  were  suspended  from  his 
body,  to  lighten  by  their  fluttering  the  fall  of  the  leap.  Be- 
low many  persons  were  stationed  around  in  small  fishing  boats 
to  receive,  and  to  preserve  his  life,  if  possible,  and  to  carry 
him  beyond  the  boundaries  of  the  country.  The  author  of 
the  Alcmaeonis  says  that  Icarius,  the  father  of  Penelope,  had 
two  sons,  Alyzeus,  and  Leucadius,  who  reigned  after  their 
father  in  Acarnania,  whence  Ephorus  thinks  that  the  cities 
were  called  after  their  names. 

10.  At  present  those  are  called  Cephallenians  who  inhabit 
Cephallenia.  But  Homer  calls  all  those  under  the  command 
of  Ulysses  by  this  name,  among  whom  are  the  Acarnanians ; 
for  when  he  says, 

"  Ulysses  led  the  Cephallenians,  those  who  possessed  Ithaca,  and  Neri- 

tum,  waving  with  woods,"* 

(the  remarkable  mountain  in  this  island ;  so  also, 

"they  who  came  from  Dulichium,  and  the  sacred  Echinades,"* 
for  Dulichium  itself  was  one  of  the  Echinades ;  and  again, 

"  Buprasium  and  Elis,"  ^ 
when  Buprasium  is  situated  in  Elis  ;  and  so, 

"  they  who  inhabited  Euboea,  Chalcis,  and  Eretria,"^ 
when  the  latter  places  are  in  Euboea ;  so  again, 
"  Trojans,  Lycians,  and  Dardanians,"  ' 

'  I  follow  the  proposed  reading,  llXiJa  for  aXXd. 

^  Du  Theil  says,  Strabo  should  have  said  "  a  daughter  of  Pterelas  who 
was  in  love  with  Cephalus."     See  below,  §  14. 

-'  II.  ii.  631.  *  II.  ii.  625.  '  II.  ii.  615. 

6  II.  ii.  536.  '  II.  viii.  173. 

B.  X.  c.  II.  §  10.  CEPHALLENIA.  163 

and  these  also  were  Trojans):  but  after  mentioning  Neritum, 

he  says, 

"  and  they  who  inhabited  Crocyleia  and  rocky  ^gilips,  Zacynthus,  Sa- 
mos,  Epirus,  and  the  country  opposite  to  these  islands  ;"  * 

he  means  by  Epirus  the  country  opposite  to  the  islands,  in- 
tending to  include  together  with  Leucas  the  rest  of  Acarnania, 
of  which  he  says, 

"  twelve  herds,  and  as  many  flocks  of  sheep  in  Epirus,"  ^ 

because  the  district  of  Epirus  (the  Epirotis)  extended  an- 
ciently perhaps  as  far  as  this  place,  and  was  designated  by  the 
common  name  Epirus. 

The  present  Cephallenia  he  calls  Samos,  as  when  he  says, 

"  in  the  strait  between  Ithaca  and  the  hilly  Samos," ' 
he  makes  a  distinction  between  places  of  the  same  name  by  an 
epithet,  assigning  the  name  not  to  the  city,  but  to  the  island. 
For  the  island  contains  four  cities,  one  of  which,  called  Samos, 
or  Same,  for  it  had  either  appellation,  bore  the  same  name  as 
the  island.     But  when  the  poet  says, 

"  all  the  chiefs  of  the  islands,  Dulichium,  Same,  and  the  woody  Zacyn- 

he  is  evidently  enumerating  the  islands,  and  cdls  that  Same 
which  he  had  before  called  Samos. 

But  Apollodorus  at  one  time  says  that  the  ambiguity  is  re- 
moved by  the  epithet,  which  the  poet  uses,  when  he  says, 

"  and  hilly  Samos," 
meaning  the  island ;  and  at  another  time  he  pretends  that  we 
ought  to  write 

"  Dulichium,  and  Samos,"  -' 

and  not 

"  Same," 

and  evidently  supposes  that  the  city  is  called  by  either  name, 
Samos  or  Same,  but  the  island  by  that  of  Samos  only.     That 
the  city  is  called  Same  is  evident  from  the  enumeration  of 
the  suitors  from  each  city,  where  the  poet  says, 
"  there  are  four  and  twenty  from  Same,"  * 
and  from  what  is  said  about  Ctimene, 

»  11.  ii.  633.  2  od.  xiv.  100.  '  Od.  iv.  671. 

*  Od.  i.  24G.  »  Od.  xrl  249. 

M  2 

164  STRABO.  Casaub.  454. 

"  they  afterwards  gave  her  in  marriage  at  Same."  ^ 
There  is  reason  in  this.     For  the  poet  does  not  express 
himself  distinctly  either  about  Cephallenia,  or  Ithaca,  or  the 
other  neighbouring  places,  so  that  both  historians  and  com- 
mentators differ  from  one  another. 

11.  For  instance,  with  respect  to  Ithaca,  when  the  poet 
*'  and  they  who  possessed  Ithaca,  and  Neritum  with  its  waving  woods,"^ 

he  denotes  by  the  epithet,  that  he  means  Neritum  the  moun- 
tain.    In  other  passages  he  expressly  mentions  the  mountain ; 

"  I  dwell  at  Ithaca,  turned  to  the  western  sun ;  where  is  a  mountain, 
Neritum,  seen  from  afar  with  its  waving  woods  ;  "  ^ 

but  whether  he  means  the  city,  or  the  island,  is  not  clear,  at 
least  from  this  verse  ; 

"  they  who  possessed  Ithaca,  and  Neritum." 
Any  one  would  understand  these  words  in  their  proper  sense 
to  mean  the  city,  as  we  speak  of  Athens,  Lycabettus,  Rhodes, 
Atabyris,  Lacedaemon,  and  Taygetus,  but  in  a  poetical  sense 
the  contrary  is  implied. 

In  the  verses, 
"  I  dwell  at  Ithaca,  turned  to  the  western  sun,  in  which  is  a  mountain 

the  meaning  is  plain,  because  the  mountain  is  on  the  island 
and  not  in  the  city  ;  and  when  he  says, 

"  we  came  from  Ithaca  situated  under  Neium,"* 
it  is  uncertain  whether  he  means  that  Neium  was  the  same  as 
Neritum,  or  whether  it  is  another,  either  mountain  or  place. 
[He,  who  writes  Nericum  for  Neritum,  or  the  reverse,  is 
quite  mistaken.  For  the  poet  describes  the  former  as  "  waving 
with  woods  ;"  the  other  as  a  "  well-built  city ;"  one  in  Ithaca, 
the  other  on  the  sea-beach  of  Epirus.]^ 

12.  But  this  line  seems  to  imply  some  contradiction  ; 
"  it  lies  in  the  sea  both  low,  and  very  high,"^ 
for  x^ajjiaXri  is  low,  and  depressed,  but  Tvawireprarr)  expresses 
great  height,  as  he  describes  it  in  other  passages,  calling  it 
Cranae,   (or   rugged,)  and  the  road  leading  from   the  har- 
bour, as, 

»  Od.  XV.  366.         2  II,  ii.  632.         '  Od.  ix.  21.  "  Od.  iii.  81. 

*  Probably  interpolated.    Kramer.  «  Od.  ix.  25. 

B.  X.  c.  II.  §  12.  ITHACA.  165 

"  a  rocky  way  through  a  woody  spot,"  * 
and  again, 

"  for  there  is  not  any  island  in  the  sea  exposed  to  the  western  sun,'  and 
with  good  pastures,  least  of  all  Ithaca."  ' 

The  expression  does  imply  contradictions,  which  admit  how- 
ever of  some  explanation.  They  do  not  understand  ^Qa/iaX^ 
to  signify  in  that  place  "  low,"  but  its  contiguity  to  the  con- 
tinent, to  which  it  approaches  very  close ;  nor  by  TravvrrepTarri 
great  elevation,  but  the  farthest  advance  towards  darkness, 
{irpog  i^ofov,)  that  is,  placed  towards  the  north  more  than  all 
the  other  islands,  for  this  is  what  the  poet  means  by  "  towards 
darkness,"  the  contrary  to  which  is  towards  the  south,  {rrpog 

"  the  rest  far  off  (dvevOe)  towards  the  morning,  and  the  sun."* 
For  the  word  avevOe  denotes  "  at  a  distance,"  and  "  apart,"  as 
if  the  other  islands  lay  to  the  south,  and  more  distant  from  the 
continent,  but  Ithaca  near  the  continent  and  towards  the  north. 
That  the  poet  designates  the  southern  part  (of  the  heavens)  in 
this  manner  appears  from  these  words, 

*'  whether  they  go  to  the  right  hand,  towards  the  morning  and  the  sun,  or 
to  the  left,  towards  cloudy  darkness;" * 

and  still  more  evidently  in  these  lines, 

"  my  friends,  we  know  not  where  darkness  nor  where  morning  lie,  nor 
where  sets  nor  where  rises  the  sun  which  brings  light  to  man."  ^ 

We  may  here  understand  the  four  climates,*^  and  suppose  the 
morning  to  denote  the  southern  part  (of  the  heavens),  and 
this  has  some  probability ;  but  it  is  better  to  consider  what 
is  near  to  the  path  of  the  sun  to  be  opposite  to  the  northern 
part  (of  the  heavens).  For  the  speech  in  Homer  is  intended 
to  indicate  some  great  change  in  the  celestial  appearances,  not 
a  mere  obscuration  of  the  climates.     For  this  must  happen 

»  Od.  xiv.  I. 

2  tvdeieXog  is  the  reading  of  the  text,  but  the  reading  in  Homer  is 
i7r7rj7\aroc,  adapted  for  horses,  and  thus  translated  by  Horace,  Epist.  lib. 
I.  yii.  41,  Non  est  aptus  equis  Ithacae  locus. 

'  Od.  iv.  607.         *  Od.  ix.  26.  *  II.  xii.  239.  «  Od.  x.  190. 

■^  For  the  explanation  of  climate,  see  book  ii.  ch.  i.  §  20,  but  in  this 
passage  the  word  has  a  diflferent  sense,  and  implies  the  division  of  the 
heavens  into  north,  south,  east,  and  west.  The  idea  of  Strabo  seems 
to  be  that  of  a  straight  line  drawn  from  east  to  west,  dividing  the  celes- 
tial horizon  into  two  parts,  the  one  northern,  (or  arctic,)  the  other 
southern.  The  sun  in  its  course  from  east  to  west  continues  always  as 
regards  us  in  the  southern  portion.     Gossellin. 

166  STRABO.  Casaub.  455. 

during  every  cloudy  season  either  by  day  or  by  night.  Now 
the  celestial  appearances  alter  very  much  as  we  advance  more 
or  less  towards  the  south,  or  the  contrary  ;  but  this  alteration 
does  not  prevent  our  observing  the  setting  and  rising  of  the 
sun,  for  in  fine  weather  these  phenomena  are  always  visible 
whether  in  the  south  or  the  north.  For  the  pole  is  the  most 
northerly  point :  when  this  moves,  and  is  sometimes  over  our 
heads  and  sometimes  below  the  earth,  the  arctic  circles  change 
their  position  with  it.  Sometimes  they  disappear  during 
these  movements,  so  that  you  cannot  discern  the  position  of 
the  northern  climate,  nor  where  it  commences ;  ^  and  if  this 
is  so,  neither  can  you  distinguish  the  contrary  climate. 

The  circuit  of  Ithaca  is  about  80  '-^  stadia.  So  much  then 
concerning  Ithaca. 

13.  The  poet  does  not  mention  Cephallenia,  which  contains 
four  cities,  by  its  present  name,  nor  any  of  the  cities  except 
one,  either  Same  or  Samos,  which  no  longer  exists,  but  traces 
o'f  it  are  shown  in  the  middle  of  the  Strait  near  Ithaca.  The 
inhabitants  have  the  name  of  Samge.  The  rest  still  exist  at 
present,  they  are  small  cities,  Paleis,  Pronesus,  and  Cranii. 
In  our  time  Caius  Antonius,  the  uncle  of  Marcus  Antonius, 
founded  an  additional  city,  when  (being  an  exile  after  his  con- 
sulship in  which  he  was  the  colleague  of  Cicero  the  orator)  he 
lived  at  Cephallenia,  and  was  master  of  the  whole  island,  as 
if  it  had  been  his  own  property.  He  returned  from  exile  be- 
fore he  completed  the  foundation  of  the  settlement,  and  died 
when  engaged  in  more  important  affairs. 

14.  Some  writers  do  not  hesitate  to  affirm,  that  Cephallenia 
and  Dulichium  are  the  same ;  others  identify  it  with  Taphos, 
and  the  Cephallenians  with  Taphians,  and  these  again  with 
Teleboee.  They  assert  that  Amphitryon,  with  the  aid  of  Ce- 
phalus,  the  son  of  DeToneus,  an  exile  from  Athens,  undertook 
an  expedition  against  the  island,  and  having  got  possession  of 
it,  delivered  it  up  to  Cephalus ;  hence  this  city  bore  his  name, 
and  the  rest  those  of  his  children.  But  this  is  not  in  accord- 
ance with  Homer,  for  the  Cephallenians  were  subject  to 
Ulysses  and  Laertes,  and  Taphos  to  Mentes ; 

"  I  boast  that  I  am  Mentes,  son  of  the  valiant  Anchialus, 
And  king  of  the  Taphians,  skilful  rowers."  ^ 

'  oi)^'  oTTov  dpxr].        ^  So  in  the  text,  but  there  is  manifestly  an  error. 
3  Od.  i.  181. 

B.  X.  c.  II.  §  15,  16.  CEPHALLENIA.  167 

Taphos  is  now  called  Taphius.^  Nor  does  Hellanicus  follow 
Homer  when  he  calls  Cephallenia,  Dulichium,  for  Dulichium, 
and  the  other  Echinades,  are  said  to  be  under  the  command 
of  Meges,  and  the  inhabitants,  Epeii,  who  came  from  Elis; 
wherefore  he  calls  Otus  the  Cyllenian, 

"  companion  of  Phyleides,  chief  of  the  magnanimous  Epeii ;  "  ^ 
"but  Ulysses  led  the  magnanimous  Cephallenes."  ^ 

Neither,  as  Andro  asserts,  is  Cephallenia,  according  to  Homer, 
Dulichium,  nor  does  Dulichium  belong  to  Cephallenia,  for 
Epeii  possessed  Dulichium,  and  Cephallenians  the  whole  of 
Cephallenia,'  the  former  of  whom  were  under  the  command 
of  Ulysses,  the  latter  of  Meges.  Paleis  is  not  called  Du- 
lichium by  Homer,  as  Pherecydes  says.  But  he  who  asserts 
that  Cephallenia  and  Dulichium  are  the  same  contradicts 
most  strongly  -the  account  of  Homer ;  for  as  fifty-two  of  the 
suitors  came  from  Dulichium,  and  twenty-four  from  Same, 
would  he  not  say,  that  from  the  whole  island  came  such  a 
number  of  suitors,  and  from  a  single  city  of  the  four  came 
half  the  number  within  two  ?  If  any  one  should  admit  this, 
we  shall  inquire  what  the  Same  could  be,  which  is  mentioned 
in  this  line, 

"  Dulichium  and  Same,  and  the  woody  Zacynthus."  * 

15.  Cephallenia  is  situated  opposite  to  Acarnania,  at  the  dis- 
tance from  Leucatas  of  about  50,  or  according  to  others,  of  40 
stadia,  and  from  Chelonatas^  of  about  80  stadia.  It  is  about  300 
stadia  (1300  ?)  in  circumference.  It  extends  in  length  towards 
the  south-east  (Eurus).  It  is  mountainous  ;  the  largest  moun- 
tain in  it  is  the  JEnus,^  on  which  is  the  temple  of  Jupiter 
-3i]nesius.  Here  is  the  narrowest  part  of  the  island,  which  forms 
a  low  isthmus,  that  is  frequently  overflowed  from  sea  to  sea.^ 
Cranii  ^  and  Paleis  ^  are  situated  near  the  straits  in  the  Gulf. 

16.  Between  Ithaca  and  Cephallenia  is  the  small  island 

1  I.  Meganisi.  2  II.  xv.  519.  3  II.  ii.  631. 

"  Od.  i.  246.  *  C.  Tornese.  «  Monte  Nero. 

'  We  may  hence  conjecture  that  Cephallenia  in  the  time  of  Homer 
was  divided  into  two  parts,  Dulichium  and  Sam6.  It  may  explain  at 
least  the  uncertainty  of  the  ancients  respecting  the  position  of  Dulichium. 
Pausanias,  b.  vi,  c.  15,  speaking  of  the  Paleis  says,  that  formerly  they 
were  called  Dulichii;  and  Hesychius,  that  Dulichium  is  a  city  of  Ce- 

*  Situated  near  the  modem  capital  Argostoli. 

^  Probably  the  site  X)f  the  ruins  in  the  harbour  of  Viscardo. 

168  STRABO.  Casaub.  457. 

Asteria,^  or  Asteris,  as  it  is  called  by  the  poet,  which,  accord- 
ing to  Demetrius,  the  Scepsian,  does  not  remain  in  the  state 
described  by  the  poet, 

"  there  are  harbours  in  it,  open  on  both  sides,  for  the  reception  of  vessels."" 
But  ApoUodorus  says  that  it  exists  even  at  present,  and  men- 
tions a  small  city  in  it,  Alalcomenae,  situated  quite  upon  the 

17.  The  poet  also  gives  the  name  of  Samos  to  Thracia, 
which  we  now  call  Samothrace.  He  was  probably  acquainted 
with  the  Ionian  island,  for  he  seems  to  have  been  acquainted 
with  the  Ionian  migration.  He  would  not,  otherwise,  have 
made  a  distinction  between  islands  of  the  same  names,  for  in 
speaking  of  Samothrace,  he  makes  the  distinction  sometimes 
by  the  epithet, 

"  on  high,  upon  the  loftiest  summit  of  the  woody  Samos,  the  Thracian,"' 
sometimes  by  uniting  it  with  the  neighbouring  islands, 

"  to  Samos,  and  Imbros,  and  inaccessible  Lemnos  ;'"* 
and  again, 

"  between  Samos  and  rocky  Imbros."  ^ 
He  was  therefore  acquainted  with  the  Ionian  island,  although 
he  has  not  mentioned  its  name.  Nor  had  it  formerly  always 
the  same  name,  but  was  called  Melamphylus,  then  Anthemis, 
then  Parthenia,  from  the  river  Parthenius,  the  name  of  which 
was  changed  to  Imbrasus.  Since  then  both  Cephallenia  and 
Samothrace  were  called  Samos  ^  at  the  time  of  the  Trojan 
war,  (for  if  it  had  not  been  so  Hecuba  would  not  have  been 
introduced  saying,  that  Achilles  would  sell  any  of  her  chil- 
dren that  he  could  seize  at  Samos  and  Imbros,*^)  Ionian  Samos 
was  not  yet  colonized  (by  lonians),  which  is  evident  from  its 
having  the  same  name  from  one  of  the  islands  earlier  (called 
Samos),  that  had  it  before;  whence  this  also  is  clear,  that 
those  persons  contradict  ancient  history,  who  assert,  that 
colonists  came  from  Samos  after  the  Ionian  migration,  and 
the  arrival  of  Tembrion,  and  gave  the  name  of  Samos  to 
Samothrace.  The  Samians  invented  this  story  out  of  vanity. 
Those  are  more  entitled  to  credit,  who  say,  that  heights  arc 

»  I.  Dascaglio.  *  od.  iv.  846.  ^  II.  xiii.  12. 

<  II.  xxiv.  753.  5  II.  xxiv.  78. 

«  In  the  Valle  d'  Alessandro,  in  Cephalonia,  there  is  still  a  place  called 
Same.  '  II.  xxiv.  752. 

B.  X.  c.  II.  §  18,  19.     ZACYNTHUS.    ECHINADES. 


called  Sami,^  and  that  the  island  obtained  its  name  from  this 
circumstance,  for  from  thence 

"  was  seen  all  Ida,  the  city  of  Priam,  and  the  ships  of  the  Greeks."' 
But  according  to  some  writers,  Samos  had  its  name  from  the 
Saii,  a  Thracian  tribe,  who  formerly  inhabited  it,  and  who  oc- 
cupied also  the  adjoining  continent,  whether  they  were  the 
same  people  as  the  Sapae,  or  the  Sinti,  whom  the  poet  calls 
Sinties,  or  a  different  nation.  Archilochus  mentions  the 

"  one  of  the  Saii  is  exulting  in  the  possession  of  an  honourable  shield, 
which  I  left  against  my  will  near  a  thicket." 

18.  Of  the  islands  subject  to  Ulysses  there  remains  to  be 
described  Zacynthus.^  It  verges  a  little  more  than  Cephal- 
lenia  to  the  west  of  Peloponnesus,  but  approaches  closer  to  it. 
It  is  160  stadia  in  circumference,  and  distant  from  Cephallenia 
about  60  stadia.  It  is  woody,  but  fertile,  and  has  a  consider- 
able city  of  the  same  name.  Thence  to  the  Hesperides  be- 
longing to  Africa  are  3300'*  stadia. 

19.  To  the  east  of  this  island,  and  of  Cephallenia,  are  situ- 
ated the  Echinades^  islands;  among  which  is  Dulichium,  at 
present  called  Dolicha,  and  the  islands  called  Oxeiae,  to  which 
the  poet  gives  the  name  of  Thoae.^ 

Dolicha  is  situated  opposite  to  the  CEniadas,  and  the  mouth 
of  the  Achelous :  it  is  distant  from  Araxus,'  the  promontory 
of  Elis,  100  stadia.  The  rest  of  the  Echinades  are  numerous, 
they  are  all  barren  and  rocky,  and  lie  in  front  of  the  mouth 
of  the  Achelous,  the  most  remote  of  them  at  the  distance  of 
15,  the  nearest  at  the  distance  of  5  stadia;  they  formerly 
were  farther  out  at  sea,  but  the  accumulation  of  earth,  which 
is  brought  down  in  great  quantity  by  the  Achelous,  has  al- 
ready joined  some,  and  will  join  others,  to  the  continent.  This 
accumulation  of  soil  anciently  formed  the  tract  Paracheloitis, 
which  the  river  overflows,  a  subject  of  contention,  as  it  was 
continually  confounding  boundaries,  which  had  been  de- 
termined by  the  Acarnanians  and  the  ^tolians.  For  want  of 
arbitrators  they  decided  their  dispute  by  arms.     The  most 

»  "Ednoi.  2  II.  xiii.  13,  »  Zante. 

*  3600  stadia  ?  see  b.  xvii.  c.  iii.  §  20. 

*  Curzolari,  Oxia,  Petala,  &c.  «  O^.  xv.  298.  ^  C.  Papa. 

170  STRABO.  CA8AUB.  458. 

powerful  gained  the  victory.  This  gave  occasion  to  a  fable, 
how  Hercules  overcame  the  Achelous  in  figlit,  and  received  in 
marriage  as  the  prize  of  his  victory,  Dei'aneira,  daughter  of 
OEneus.     Sophocles  introduces  her,  saying, 

"  My  suitor  was  a  river,  I  mean  the  Achelous,  who  demanded  me  of  ray 
father  under  three  forms  ;  one  while  coming  as  a  bull  of  perfect  form, 
another  time  as  a  spotted  writhing  serpent,  at  another  with  the  body  of  a 
man  and  the  forehead  of  a  bull." ' 

Some  writers  add,  that  this  was  the  horn  of  Amaltheia,  which 
Hercules  broke  off  from  the  Achelous,  and  presented  to 
Q^neus  as  a  bridal  gift.  Others,  conjecturing  the  truth  in- 
cluded in  this  story,  say,  that  Achelous  is  reported  to  have 
resembled  a  bull,  like  other  rivers,  in  the  roar  of  their  waters, 
and  the  bendings  of  their  streams,  which  they  term  horns  ; 
and  a  serpent  from  its  length  and  oblique  course ;  and  bull- 
fronted  because  it  was  compared  to  a  bull's  head ;  and  that 
Hercules,  who,  on  other  occasions,  was  disposed  to  perform 
acts  of  kindness  for  the  public  benefit,  so  particularly,  when  he 
was  desirous  of  contracting  an  alliance  with  Qiineus,  performed 
for  him  these  services ;  he  prevented  the  river  from  overflow- 
ing its  banks,  by  constructing  mounds  and  by  diverting  its 
streams  by  canals,  and  by  draining  a  large  tract  of  the  Para- 
cheloitis,  which  had  been  injured  by  the  river  ;  and  this  is  the 
horn  of  Amaltheia. 

Homer  says,  that  in  the  time  of  the  Trojan  war  the  Echi- 
nades,  and  the  Oxeiae  were  subject  to  Meges, 

"  son  of  the  hero  Phyleus,  beloved  of  Jupiter,  who  formerly  repaired  to 
Dulichium  on  account  of  a  quarrel  with  his  father."^ 

The  father  of  Phyleus  was  Augeas,  king  of  Elis,  and  of  the 
Epeii.  The  Epeii  then,  who  possessed  these  islands,  were 
those  who  had  migrated  to  Dulichium  with  Phyleus. 

20.  The  islands  of  the  Taphii,  and  formerly  of  the  Tele- 
boas,  among  which  was  Taphus,  now  called  Taphius,  were 
distinct  from  the  Echinades,  not  separated  by  distance,  (for 
they  lie  near  one  another,)  but  because  they  were  ranged  un- 
der different  chiefs,  Taphii  and  Telebose.  In  earlier  times 
Amphitryon,  in  conjunction  with  Cephalus,  the  son  of  Deio- 
neus,  an  exile  from  Athens,  attacked,  and  then  delivered  them 
up  to  the  government  of  Cephalus.     But  the  poet  says  that 

'  Sophocles,  Trachinicfi,  v.  9.  ^  n  ^i   628. 

B.  X.  c.  II.  §  21.         ISLANDS  OF  THE  TAPHII.  171 

Mentes  was  their  chief,  and  calls  them  robbers,  which  was 
the  character  of  all  the  Teleboae. 

So  much  then  concerning  the  islands  off  Acarnania. 

21.  Between  Leucas  and  the  Ambracian  gulf  is  a  sea-lake, 
called  Myrtuntium.^  Next  to  Leucas  followed  Paleerus,  and 
Alyzia,  cities  of  Acarnania,  of  which  Alyzia  is  distant  from 
the  sea  1 5  stadia.  Opposite  to  it  is  a  harbour  sacred  to  Her- 
cules, and  a  grove  from  whence  a  Roman  governor  trans- 
ported to  Rome  "  the  labours  of  Hercules,"  the  workmanship 
of  Lysippus,  which  was  lying  in  an  unsuitable  place,  being  a 
deserted  spot.^ 

Next  are  Crithote,^  a  promontory,  and  the  Echinades,  and 
Astacus,  used  in  the  singular  number,  a  city  of  the  same  name 
as  that  near  Nicomedia,  and  the  Gulf  of  Astacus,  Crithote,  a 
city  of  the  same  name  as  that  in  the  Thracian  Chersonesus. 
All  the  coast  between  these  places  has  good  harbours.  Then 
follows  QEniad^e,  and  the  Achelous ;  then  a  lake  belonging  to 
the  Q^niadee,  called  Melite,  30  stadia  in  length,  and  in  breadth 
20 ;  then  another  Cynia,  of  double  the  breadth  and  length  of 
Melite ;  a  third  Uria,^  much  less  than  either  of  the  former. 
Cynia  even  empties  itself  into  the  sea ;  the  others  are  situated 
above  it  at  the  distance  of  about  half  a  stadium. 

Next  is  the  river  Evenus,  which  is  distant  from  Actium 
670  stadia. 

Then  follows  the  mountain  Chalcis,  which  Artemidorus 
calls  Chalcia ;  [next  Pleuron,  then  Licyrna,  a  village,  above 
which  in  the  interior  is  situated  Calydon  at  the  distance  of  30 
stadia.  Near  Calydon  is  the  temple  of  Apollo  Laphrius;]^ 
then  the  mountain  Taphiassus  ;  then  Macynia,  a  city  ;  then 
Molycria,  and  near  it  Antirrhium,  the  boundary  of  iEtolia 
and  of  Locris.  To  Antirrhium  from  the  Evenus  are  about 
120  stadia. 

Artemidorus  does  not  place  the  mountain,  whether  Chalcis 
or  Chalcia,  between  the  Achelous  and  Pleuron,  but  Apollo- 

*  Not  identified. 

^  Gossellin  remarks  the  double  error  coinmitted  by  Winkelman,  who, 
on  the  authority  of  this  passage,  states  that  the  Hercules  (not  the  Labours 
of  Hercules)  of  Lysippus  was  transferred  to  Rome  in  the  time  of  Nero, 
long  after  this  Book  was  written. 

^  Dragomestre.  ■*  The  lake  Xerolimne. 

*  Kramer  proposes  the  transposition  of  the  sentence  within  brackets 
to  the  beginning  of  the  paragraph. 

172  STRABO.  Casaub.  460. 

dorus,  as  I  have  said  before,  places  Chalcis  and  Taphiassus 
above  Molycria ;  and  Calydon  between  Pleuron  and  Chalcis. 
Are  we  then  to  place  one  mountain  of  the  name  of  Chalcia 
near  Pleuron,  and  another  of  the  name  of  Chalcis  near 
Molycria  ? 

Near  Calydon  is  a  large  lake,  abounding  with  fish.  It  be- 
longs to  the  Romans  of  Patrae. 

22.  Apollodorus  says,  that  there  is  in  the  inland  parts  of 
Acarnania,  a  tribe  of  Erysichaei,  mentioned  by  Alcman, 

"  not  an  Erysichaean,  nor  a  shepherd  ;  but  I  came  from  the  extremities 
of  Sardis." 

Olenus  belonged  to  JEtolia ;  Homer  mentions  it  in  the  ^to- 
lian  Catalogue,^  but  traces  alone  remain  of  it  near  Pleuron 
below  Aracynthus.^ 

Lysimachia  also  was  near  Olenus.  This  place  has  disap- 
peared. It  was  situated  upon  the  lake,  the  present  Lysima- 
chia, formerly  Hydra,  between  Pleuron  and  the  city  Arsinoe,^ 
formerly  a  village  of  the  name  of  Conopa.  It  was  founded  by 
Arsinoe,  wife  and  also  sister  of  the  second  Ptolemy.  It  is 
conveniently  situated  above  the  passage  across  the  Achelous. 

Pylene  has  experienced  nearly  the  same  fate  as  Olenus. 

When  the  poet  describes  Calydon  '*  as  lofty,  and  rocky,  we 
must  understand  these  epithets  as  relating  to  the  character  of 
the  country.  For  we  have  said  before,  that  when  they  di- 
vided the  country  into  two  parts,  they  assigned  the  moun- 
tainous portion  and  the  Epictetus  ^  to  Calydon,  and  the  tract  of 
plains  to  Pleuron. 

23.  The  Acarnanians,  and  the  -^tolians,  like  many  other 
nations,  are  at  present  worn  out,  and  exhausted  by  continual 
wars.  The  ^tolians  however,  in  conjunction  with  the  Acar- 
nanians, during  a  long  period  withstood  the  Macedonians  and 
the  other  Greeks,  and  lastly  the  Romans,  in  their  contest  for 

But  since  Homer,  and  others,  both  poets  and  historians, 
frequently  mention  them,  sometimes  in  clear  and  undisputed 
terms,  and  sometimes  less  explicitly,  as  appears  from  what  we 
have  already  said  of  these  people,  we  must  avail  ourselves  of 
some  of  the  more  ancient  accounts,  which  will  supply  us  with 

'  Il.ii.  639.  2  M.  Zigos.  ^  Angelo  Castron. 

*  Near  Mauro  Mati.  ^  See  c.  ii.  §  3,  Epictetus. 

B.  X.  c.  II.  §  24.  ACARNANIA.    ^TOLIA.  173 

a  beginning,  or  with  an  occasion  of  inquiring  into  what  is 

24.  First  then  with  respect  to  Acarnania.  We  have  al- 
ready said,  that  it  was  occupied  by  Laertes  and  the  Cephalle- 
nians  ;  but  as  many  writers  have  advanced  statements  respect- 
ing the  first  occupants  in  terms  sufficiently  clear,  indeed,  but 
contradictory,  the  inquiry  and  discussion  are  left  open  to  us. 

They  say,  that  the  Taphii  and  Teleboae,  as  they  are  called, 
were  the  first  inhabitants  of  Acarnania,  and  that  their  chief, 
Cephalus,  who  was  appointed  by  Amphitryon  sovereign  of  the 
islands  about  Taphus,  was  master  also  of  this  country.  Hence 
is  related  of  him  the  fable,  that  he  was  the  first  person  who 
took  the  reputed  leap  from  Leucatas.  But  the  poet  does  not 
say,  that  the  Taphii  inhabited  Acarnania  before  the  arrival  of 
the  Cephallenians  and  Laertes,  but  that  they  were  friends  cf 
the  Ithacenses ;  consequently,  in  his  time,  either  they  had 
not  the  entire  command  of  these  places,  or  had  voluntarily  re- 
tired, or  had  even  become  joint  settlers. 

A  colony  of  certain  from  Lacedaemon  seems  to  have  settled 
in  Acarnania,  who  were  followers  of  Icarius,  father  of  Pene- 
lope, for  the  poet  in  the  Odyssey  represents  him  and  the 
brothers  of  Penelope  as  then  living  ; 

"  who  did  not  dare  to  go  to  the  palace  of  Icarius  with  a  view  of  his  dis- 
posing of  his  daughter  in  marriage."  ^ 

And  with  respect  to  the  brothers  ; 

"  for  now  a  long  time  both  her  father  and  her  brothers  were  urging  her 

to  marry  Eurymachus."  ' 

Nor  is  it  probable  that  they  were  living  at  Lacedaemon,  for 
Telemachus  would  not,  in  that  case,  have  been  the  guest  of 
Menelaus  upon  his  arrival,  nor  is  there  a  tradition,  that  they 
had  any  other  habitation.  But  they  say  that  Tyndareus  and 
his  brother  Icarius,  after  being  banished  from  their  own 
country  by  Hippocoon,  repaired  to  Thestius,  the  king  of  the 
Pleuronii,  and  assisted  in  obtaining  possession  of  a  large 
tract  of  country  on  the  other  side  of  the  Achelous  on  condi- 
tion of  receiving  a  portion  of  it;  that  Tyndareus,  having 
espoused  Leda  the  daughter  of  Thestius,  returned  home ;  that 
Icarius  continued  there  in  possession  of  a  portion  of  Acar- 
nania, and  had  Penelope  and  her  brothers  by  his  wife  Poly- 
casta^  daughter  of  Lygasus. 

»  Od.  ii.  52.  '  Od.  XV.  16. 

174  STRABO.  Casaub.  461. 

We  have  shown  by  the  Catalogue  of  the  Ships  in  Homer, 
that  the  Acarnanians  were  enumerated  among  the  people  who 
took  part  in  the  war  of  Troy ;  and  among  these  are  reckoned 
the  inhabitants  of  the  Acte,  and  besides  these, 

"  they  who  occupied  Epirus,  and  cultivated  the  land  opposite." 
But  Epirus  was  never  called  Acarnania,  nor  Acte,  Leucas. 

25.  Ephorus  does  not  say  that  they  took  part  in  the  expe- 
dition against  Troy ;  but  he  says  that  Alcma^on,  the  son  of 
Amphiaraus,  who  was  the  companion  of  Diomede,  and  the 
other  Epigoni  in  their  expedition,  having  brought  the  war 
against  the  Thebans  to  a  successful  issue,  went  with  Diomede 
to  assist  in  punishing  the  enemies  of  CEneus,  and  having  de- 
livered up  JEtolia  to  Diomede,  he  himself  passed  over  into 
Acarnania,  which  country  also  he  subdued.  In  the  mean 
time  Agamemnon  attacked  the  Argives,  and  easily  overcame 
them,  the  greatest  part  having  attached  themselves  to  the  fol- 
lowers of  Diomede.  But  a  short  time  afterwards,  when  the 
expedition  took  place  against  Troy,  he  was  afraid,  lest,  in  his 
absence  with  the  army,  Diomede  and  his  troops  should  return 
home,  (for  there  was  a  rumour  that  he  had  collected  a  large 
force,)  and  should  regain  possession  of  a  territory  to  which 
they  had  the  best  right,  one  being  the  heir  of  Adrastus,  the 
other  of  his  father.  Reflecting  then  on  these  circumstances, 
he  invited  them  to  unite  in  the  recovery  of  Argos,  and  to 
take  part  in  the  war.  Diomede  consented  to  take  part  in  the 
expedition,  but  Alcmseon  was  indignant  and  refused  ;  whence 
the  Acarnanians  were  the  only  people  who  did  not  partici- 
pate in  the  expedition  with  the  Greeks.  The  Acarnanians, 
probably  by  following  this  account,  are  said  to  have  imposed 
upon  the  Romans,  and  to  have  obtained  from  them  the  privi- 
lege of  an  independent  state,  because  they  alone  had  not 
taken  part  in  the  expedition  against  the  ancestors  of  the  Ro- 
mans, for  their  names  are  neither  in  the  ^tolian  Catalogue, 
nor  are  they  mentioned  by  themselves,  nor  is  their  name 
mentioned  anywhere  in  the  poem. 

26.  Ephorus  then  having  represented  Acarnania  as  subject 
to  Alcmason  before  the  Trojan  war,  ascribes  to  him  the  found- 
ation of  Amphilochian  Argos,  and  says  that  Acarnania  had 
its  name  from  his  son  Acarnan,  and  the  Amphilochians  from 
his  brother  Amphilochus  ;  thus  he  turns  aside  to  reports  con- 
trary to  the  history  in  Homer.     But  Thucydides  and  other 

B.  X.  c.  III.  §  1.  CURETES.  175 

writers  saj,  that  Amphllochus,  on  his  return  from  the  Trojan 
expedition,  being  displeased  with  the  state  of  affairs  at  Argos, 
dwelt  in  this  country  ;  according  to  some  writers,  he  obtained 
it  bj  succeeding  to  the  dominions  of  his  brother ;  others  re- 
present" it  differently.  So  much  then  respecting  the  Acarna- 
nians  considered  by  themselves.  We  shall  now  speak  of  their 
affairs  where  they  are  intermixed  in  common  with  those  of 
the  JEtolians,  and  we  shall  then  relate  as  much  of  the  history 
of  the  ^tolians  as  we  proposed  to  add  to  our  former  account 
of  this  people. 


1.  Some  writers  reckon  the  Curetes  among  the  Acarnani- 
ans,  others  among  the  -3iltolians ;  some  allege  that  they  came 
from  Crete,  others  that  they  came  from  Euboea.  Since, 
however,  they  are  mentioned  by  Homer,  we  must  first  ex- 
amine his  account  of  them.  It  is  thought  that  he  does  not 
mean  the  Acarnanians,  but  the  ^tolians,  in  the  following 
verses,  for  the  sons  of  Porthaon  were, 

"  Agrius,  Melas,  and  the  hero  CEneus, 
These  dwelt  at  Pleuron,  and  the  lofty  Calydon,"  * 

both  of  which  are  ^tolian  cities,  and  are  mentioned  in  the 
JEtolian  Catalogue ;  wherefore  since  those  who  inhabited 
Pleuron  appear  to  be,  according  to  Homer,  Curetes,  they 
might  be  -<Etolians.  The  opponents  of  this  conclusion  are 
misled  by  the  mode  of  expression  in  these  verses, 
"  Curetes  and  iEtolians,  firm  in  battle,  were  fighting  for  the  city  Calydon,"* 
for  neither  would  he  have  used  appropriate  terms  if  he  had 

"  Boeotians  and  Thebans  were  contending  against  each  other," 

"  Argives  and  Peloponnesians.'* 

But  we  have  shown  in  a  former  part  of  this  work,  that  this 
mode  of  expression  is  usual  with  Homer,  and  even  trite  among 
other  poets.  This  objection  then  is  easily  answered.  But 
let  the  objectors  explain,  how,  if  these  people  were  not  jEto- 

»  II.  xiv.  116.  2  ii_  ix.  525. 

176  STRABO.  Casaub.  463. 

lians,  the  poet  came  to  reckon  the  Pleuronii  among  the  -^to- 

2.  Ephorus,  after  having  asserted  that  the  nation  of  the 
^tolians  were  never  in  subjection  to  any  other  people,  but, 
from  all  times  of  which  any  memorial  remains,  their  country 
continued  exempt  from  the  ravages  of  war,  both  on  account  of 
its  local  obstacles  and  their  own  experience  in  warfare,  says, 
that  from  the  beginning  Curetes  were  in  possession  of  the 
whole  country,  but  on  the  arrival  of  ^tolus,  the  son  of  Endy- 
mion,  from  Elis,  who  defeated  them  in  various  battles,  the 
Curetes  retreated  to  the  present  Acarnania,  and  the  JEtolians 
returned  with  a  body  of  Epeii,  and  founded  ten  of  the  most 
ancient  cities  in  JEtolia ;  and  in  the  tenth  generation  after- 
wards Elis  was  founded,  in  conjunction  with  that  people,  by 
Oxylus,  the  son  of  Haemon,  who  had  passed  over  from  ^tolia. 
They  produce,  as  proofs  of  these  facts,  inscriptions,  one 
sculptured  on  the  base  of  the  statue  of  ^tolus  at  Therma  in 
^Etolia,  where,  according  to  the  custom  of  the  country,  they 
assemble  to  elect  their  magistrates ; 

"  this  statue  of  ^tolus,  son  of  Endymion,  brought  up  near  the  streams  of 
the  Alpheius,  and  in  the  neighbourhood  of  the  stadia  of  Olympia,  -lEtolians 
dedicated  as  a  public  monument  of  his  merits." 

And  the  other  inscription  on  the  statue  of  Oxylus  is  in  the 
market-place  of  Elis ; 

"  uiEtolus,  having  formerly  abandoned  the  original  inhabitants  of  this 
country,  won  by  the  toils  of  war  the  land  of  the  Curetes.  But  Oxylus, 
the  son  of  Haemon,  the  tenth  scion  of  tliat  race,  founded  this  ancient 

3.  He  rightly  alleges,  as  a  proof  of  the  affinity  subsisting 
reciprocally  between  the  Eleii  and  the  -^tolians,  these  in- 
scriptions, both  of  which  recognise  not  the  affinity  alone,  but 
also  that  their  founders  had  established  settlers  in  each  other's 
country.  Whence  he  clearly  convicts  those  of  falsehood  who 
assert,  that  the  Eleii  were  a  colony  of  JEtolians,  and  that  the 
-^tolians  were  not  a  colony  of  Eleii.  But  he  seems  to  ex- 
hibit the  same  inconsistency  in  his  positions  here,  that  we 
proved  ^  with  regard  to  the  oracle  at  Delphi.  For  after  as- 
serting that  ^tolia  had  never  been  ravaged  by  war  from  all 
time  of  which  there  was  any  memorial,  and  saying,  that  from 
the  first  the  Curetes  were  in  possession  of  this  country,  he 

'  B.  ix.  c.  iii.  §  11. 

B.  X.  c.  III.  §  4,  5.  THE  CURETES.  177 

ought  to  have  inferred  from  such  premises,  that  the  Curetes 
continued  to  occupy  the  country  of  -.Etolia  to  his  days.  For 
in  this  manner  it  might  be  understood  never  to  have  been 
devastated,  nor  in  subjection  to  any  other  nation.  But  for- 
getting his  position,  he  does  not  infer  this,  but  the  contrary, 
that  ^tolus  came  from  Elis,  and  having  defeated  the  Curetes 
in  various  battles,  these  people  retreated  into  Acarnania. 
What  else  then  is  there  peculiar  to  the  devastation  of  a  country 
than  the  defeat  of  the  inhabitants  in  war  and  their  abandon- 
ment of  their  land,  which  is  evinced  by  the  inscription  among 
the  Eleii ;  for  speaking  of  ^tolus  the  words  are, 
"  he  obtained  possession  of  the  country  of  the  Curetes  by  the  continued 
toils  of  war.'' 

4.  But  perhaps  some  person  may  say,  that  he  means  jiEtolia 
was  not  laid  waste,  reckoning  from  the  time  that  it  had  this 
name  after  the  arrival  of  ^tolus  ;  but  he  takes  away  the 
ground  of  this  supposition,  by  saying  afterwards,  that  the 
greatest  part  of  the  people,  that  remained  among  the  ^tolians, 
were  those  called  Epeii,  with  whom  JEtolians  were  after- 
wards intermingled,  who  had  been  expelled  from  Thessaly 
together  with  Boeotians,  and  possessed  the  country  in  common 
with  these  people.  But  is  it  probable  that,  without  any  hos- 
tilities, they  invaded  the  country  of  another  nation  and 
divided  it  among  themselves  and  the  original  possessors, 
who  did  not  require  such  a  partition  of  their  land  ?  If  this  is 
not  probable,  is  it  to  be  believed  that  the  victors  agreed  to  an 
equal  division  of  the  territory  ?  What  else  then  is  devastation 
of  a  country,  but  the  conquest  of  it  by  arms  ?  Besides,  Apol- 
lodorus  says  that,  according  to  history,  the  Hyantes  aban- 
doned Boeotia  and  came  and  settled  among  the  -^tolians,  and 
concludes  as  confident  that  his  opinion  is  right  by  saying  it  is 
our  custom  to  relate  these  and  similar  facts  exactly,  when- 
ever any  of  them  is  altogether  dubious,  or  concerning  which 
erroneous  opinions  are  entertained. 

5.  Notwithstanding  these  faults  in  Ephorus,  still  he  is 
superior  to  other  writers.  Poly  bins  himself,  who  has  stu- 
diously given  him  so  much  praise,  has  said  that  Eudoxus  has 
written  well  on  Grecian  aifairs,  but  that  Ephorus  has  given 
the  best  account  of  the  foundation  of  cities,  of  the  relationship 
subsisting  between  nations,  of  changes  of  settlements,  and  of 
leaders  of  colonies,  in  these  words,  "  but  I  shall  explain  the 

178  STRABO.  Casaub.  465. 

present  state  of  places,  both  as  to  position  and  distances ;  for 
this  is  the  peculiar  province  of  chorography."  ^ 

But  you,  Polybius,  who  introduce  popular  hearsay,  and 
rumours  on  the  subject  of  distances,  not  only  of  places  beyond 
Greece,  but  in  Greece  itself,  have  you  not  been  called  to 
answer  the  charges  sometimes  of  Posidonius,  sometimes  of 
Artemidorus,  and  of  many  other  writers  ?  ought  you  not  there- 
fore to  excuse  us,  and  not  to  be  offended,  if  in  transferring 
into  our  own  work  a  large  part  of  the  historical  poets  from 
such  writers  we  commit  some  errors,  and  to  commend  us  when 
we  are  generally  more  exact  in  what  we  say  than  others,  or 
supply  what  they  omitted  through  want  of  information. 

6.  With  respect  to  the  Curetes,  some  facts  are  related 
which  belong  more  immediately,  some  more  remotely,  to  the 
history  of  the  -^tolians  and  Acarnanians.  The  facts  more 
immediately  relating  to  them,  are  those  which  have  been 
mentioned  before,  as  that  the  Curetes  were  living  in  the 
country  which  is  now  called  ^tolia,  and  that  a  body  of 
^tolians  under  the  command  of  ^tolus  came  there,  and  drove 
them  into  Acarnania ;  and  these  facts  besides,  that  ^olians 
invaded  Pleuronia,  which  was  inhabited  by  Curetes,  and 
called  Curetis,  took  away  their  territory,  and  expelled  the 

But  Archemachus^  of  Euboea  says  that  the  Curetes  had 
their  settlement  at  Chalcis,  but  being  continually  at  war  about 
the  plain  Lelantum,  and  finding  that  the  enemy  used  to  seize 
and  drag  them  by  the  hair  of  the  forehead,  they  wore  their 
hair  long  behind,  and  cut  the  hair  short  in  front,  whence  they 
had  the  name  of  Curetes,  (or  the  shorn,)  from  cura,  (Kovpa,) 
or  the  tonsure  which  they  had  undergone  ;  that  they  removed 
to  jEtolia,  and  occupied  the  places  about  Pleuron ;  that 
others,  who  lived  on  the  other  side  of  the  Achelous,  because 
they  kept  their  heads  unshorn,  were  called  Acarnanians.  ^ 

But  according  to  some  writers  each  tribe  derived  its  name 
from   some   hero ;  ^   according  to  others,  that  they  had  the 

'  As  distinguished  from  geography.     See  b.  i.  c.  i.  §  16,  note  ^ 

*  The  author  of  a  work  in  several  books  on  Euboea.  Athenseus,  b.  vi. 
c.  J  8. 

^  The  unshorn. 

*  From  Acarnan,  son  of  Alcmaeon.  Thucyd.  b.  ii.  c.  102.  But  the  hero 
firom  whom  the  Curetes  obtained  their  name  is  not  mentioned. 

B.  X.  c.  III.  §  7.  THE  CURETES.  179 

name  of  Curetes  from  the  mountain  Curium,^  whicli  is  situated 
above  Pleuron,  and  that  this  is  an  ^tolian  tribe,  like  the 
Ophieis,  Agraei,  Eurytanes,  and  many  others. 

But,  as  we  have  before  said,  when  ^Etolia  was  divided  into 
two  parts,  the  country  about  Calydon  was  said  to  be  in  the 
possession  of  Qi^neus  ;  and  a  portion  of  Pleuronia  in  that  of 
the  Porthaonidae  of  the  branch  of  Agrius,  ^  for 

"they  dwelt  at  Pleuron,  and  the  lofty  Calydon."^ 

Thestius  however,  father-in-law  of  Q^neus,  and  father  of 
Althaea,  chief  of  the  Curetes,  was  master  of  Pleuronia.  But 
when  war  broke  out  between  the  Thestiadae,  QEneus,  and 
Meleager  about  a  boar's  head  and  skin,  according  to  the  poet,* 
following  the  fable  concerning  the  boar  of  Calydon,  but,  as  is 
probable,  the  dispute  related  to  a  portion  of  the  territory  ;  the 
words  are  these, 

"  Curetes  and  ^tolians,  firm  in  battle,  fought  against  one  another."* 

These  then  are  the  facts  more  immediately  connected  (with 

7.  There  ^  are  others  more  remote  from  the  subject  of  this 

'  The  position  of  this  mountain  is  not  determined. 

^  GEneus  and  his  children  were  themselves  Porthaonidae.  (Eneus  had 
possession  only  of  Calydon,  his  brother  Agrius  and  his  children  had  a 
part  of  Pleuronia.  Thestius,  cousin-german  of  CEneus  and  of  Agrius,  re- 
ceived as  his  portion  the  remainder  of  Pleuronia  and  transmitted  it  to  his 
children,  (the  Thestiadse,)  who  probably  succeeded  in  gaining  possession 
of  the  whole  country.  The  Porthaonidae  of  the  branch  of  Agrius,  were 
Thersites,  Onchestus,  Prothous,  Celeulor,  Lycopeiis,  and  Melanippus. 
Apollodorus,  b.  i.  c.  7,  8. 

3  II.  xiv.  117.  *  II.  ix.  544.  «  II.  ix.  525. 

*  "  Cette  digression  est  curieuse,  sans  doute  *  *  *  *  Plusieurs  cri- 
tiques ont  fait  de  ce  morceau  I'objet  de  leur  etude  ;  neanmoins  il  demeure 
heriss^  de  difficultes,  et  dernierement  M.  Heyne  (quel  juge  ! )  a  pro- 
nonce  que  tout  y  restait  a  ^claircir.     Du  Theil. 

The  myths  relating  to  the  Curetes  abound  with  different  statements 
and 'confusion.  The  following  are  the  only  points  to  be  borne  in  mind. 
The  Curetes  belong  to  the  most  ancient  times  of  Greece,  and  probably 
are  to  be  counted  among  the  first  inhabitants  of  Phrygia.  They  were  the 
authors  and  expositors  of  certain  religious  rites,  which  they  celebrated 
with  dances.  According  to  mythology  they  played  a  part  at  the  birth  of 
Jupiter.  They  were  sometimes  called  Idaean  Dactyli.  Hence  their 
name  was  given  to  the  ministers  of  the  worship  of  the  Great  Mother 
among  the  Phrygians,  which  was  celebrated  with  a  kind  of  religious 
frenzy.  The  Curetes  were  also  called  Corybantes.  Hence  also  arose  the 
confusion  between  the  religious  rites  observed  in  Crete,  Phrygia,  and 

N  2 

180  STRABO.  C  AS  ALB.  466. 

work,  which  have  been  erroneously  placed  by  historians 
under  one  head  on  account  of  the  sameness  of  name  :  for  in- 
stance, accounts  relating  to  "  Curetic  affairs  "  and  "  concerning 
the  Curetes  "  have  been  considered  as  identical  with  accounts 
"concerning  the  people  (of  the  same  name)  who  inhabited 
^Etolia  and  Acarnania."  But  the  former  differ  from  the 
latter,  and  resemble  rather  the  accounts  which  we  have  of 
Satyri  and  Silenes,  Bacchse  and  Tityri ;  for  the  Curetes  are 
represented  as  certain  daemons,  or  ministers  of  the  gods,  by 
those  who  have  handed  down  the  traditions  respecting  Cretan 
and  Phrygian  affairs,  and  which  involve  certain  religious 
rites,  some  mystical,  others  the  contrary,  relative  to  the  nur- 
ture of  Jupiter  in  Crete ;  the  celebration  of  orgies  in  honour 
of  the  mother  of  the  gods,  in  Phrygia,  and  in  the  neighbour- 
hood of  the  Trojan  Ida.  There  is  however  a  very  great 
variety^  in  these  accounts.  According  to  some,  the  Cory- 
bantes,  Cabeiri,  Idaean  Dactyli,  and  Telchines  are  repre- 
sented as  the  same  persons  as  the  Curetes ;  according  to 
others,  they  are  related  to,  yet  distinguished  from,  each  other 
by  some  slight  differences ;  but  to  describe  them  in  general 
terms  and  more  at  length,  they  are  inspired  with  an  enthusi- 
astic and  Bacchic  frenzy,  which  is  exhibited  by  them  as  minis- 
ters at  the  celebration  of  the  sacred  rites,  by  inspiring  terror 
with  armed  dances,  accompanied  with  the  tumult  and  noise 
of  cymbals,  drums,  and  armour,  and  with  the  sound  of  pipes 
and  shouting ;  so  that  these  sacred  ceremonies  are  nearly  the 
same  as  those  that  are  performed  among  the  Samothracians 
in  Lemnus,  and  in  many  other  places ;  since  the  ministers  of 
the  god  are  said  to  be  the  same.^     The  whole  of  this  kind  of 

Samothrace.  Again,  on  the  other  hand,  the  Curetes  have  been  mistaken 
for  an  iEtolian  people,  bearing  the  same  name.  Heyne,  Not.  ad  Virgil. 
JEn.  iii.  130.  Religion,  et  Sacror.  cum  furore  peract.  Orig.  Comra.  Soc. 
R.  Scient.  Gotting.  vol.  viii.  Dupuis,  origin  de  tons  les  cultes,  torn.  2. 
Sainte  Croix  Mem.  pour  servir  a  la  religion  Secrete,  &c..  Job.  Guberleth. 
Diss,  philol.  de  Myster.  deorum  Cabir.  1703.  Froret.  Recher.  pour  servir 
a  I'histoire  des  Cyclopes,  &c.  Acad,  des  Inscript.  &c.,  vol.  xxiii.  His. 
pag.  27.  1749. 

'  rotravTT]  TroiKiXia,  will  bear  alsQ  to  be  translated,  id  tantum  varietatis, 
"  this  difference  only,"  as  Groskurd  observes. 

2  M.  de  Saint  Croix  (Recherches  sur  les  Mystdres,  &c.  sect.  2,  page 
25)  is  mistaken  in  asserting  that  "  Strabo  clearly  refutes  the  statements 
of  those  who  believed  that  the  Cabeiri,  Dactyli,  Curetes,  Corybantes,  and 
Telchines,  were  not  only  the  same  kind  of  persons,  but  even  separate 

B.  X.  c.  III.  §  8.  THE  CURETES.  181 

discussion  is  of  a  theological  nature,  and  is  not  alien  to  the 
contemplation  of  the  philosopher. 

8.  But  since  even  the  historians,  through  the  similarity  of 
the  name  Curetes,  have  collected  into  one  body  a  mass  of  dis- 
similar facts,  I  myself  do  not  hesitate  to  speak  of  them  at 
length  by  way  of  digression,  adding  the  physical  considera- 
tions which  belong  to  the  history.  ^  Some  writers  however  en- 
deavour to  reconcile  one  account  with  the  other,  and  perhaps 
they  have  some  degree  of  probability  in  their  favour.  They 
say,  for  instance,  that  the  people  about  ^Etolia  have  the  name 
of  Curetes  from  wearing  long  dresses  like  girls,  (/cdpai,)  and 
that  there  was,  among  the  Greeks,  a  fondness  for  some  such 
fashion.  The  lonians  also  were  called  "  tunic-trailers,"  ^  and 
the  soldiers  of  Leonidas,^  who  went  out  to  battle  with  their 
hair  dressed,  were  despised  by  the  Persians,  but  subjects  of 
their  admiration  in  the  contest.  In  short,  the  application 
of  art  to  the  hair  consists  in  attending  to  its  growth,  and  the 
manner  of  cutting  it,  ^  and  both  these  are  the  peculiar  care  of 
girls  and  youths  ;^  whence  in  several  ways  it  is  easy  to  find  a 
derivation  of  the  name  Curetes.  It  is  also  probable,  that  the 
practice  of  armed  dances,  first  introduced  by  persons  who 
paid  so  much  attention  to  their  hair  and  their  dress,  and  who 
were  called  Curetes,  afforded  a  pretence  for  men  more  warlike 
than  others,  and  who  passed  their  lives  in  arms,  to  be  them- 
selves called  by  the  same  name  of  Curetes,  I  mean  those  in 
Euboea,  ^tolia,  and  Acarnania.  Homer  also  gives  this  name 
to  the  young  soldiers ; 

"  selecting  Curetes,  the  bravest  of  the  Achaeans,  to  carry  from  the  swift 
ship,  presents,  which,  yesterday,  we  promised  to  Achilles."  * 

members  of  the  same  family."     It  appears  to  me,  on  the  contrary,  that 
this  was  the  opinion  adopted  by  our  author.     Du  Theil. 

•  TTpoaQiiQ  TOP  oiKelov  ry  iGTopia  (pvaiKov  Xoyov.  rationem  naturalem, 
utpote  congruentum  hue,  historiae  adjiciens.  Xy lander.  Or  paraphrased, 
"  The  history  of  this  people  will  receive  additional  and  a  fitting  illustra- 
tion by  a  reference  to  physical  facts,"  such  as  the  manner  of  wearing 
their  hair,  tonsure,  &c. 

■''  iXKSxi-Tujvag.  The  words  Kai  Kpu)j3v\ov  Kai  rsrriya  g/iTrXfx^jjvat 
appear,  according  to  Berkel.  ad  Steph.  p.  74,  to  be  here  wanting,  "  and  to 
bind  the  hair  in  the  form  of  the  Crobulus  and  ornamented  with  a  grass- 
hopper." The  hair  over  the  forehead  of  the  Apollo  Belvidere  is  an  ex- 
ample of  the  crobulus. 

'  Herod,  vii.  208.  *  Kovpav  rpixog.  *  Kopaig  Kai  Kopoig. 

*  Strabo  therefore  considered  the  193,  194,  195  verses'  of  II.  xix.  as 

182  STRABO.  Casaub.  467. 

And  again ; 

"  Curetes  Achaei  carried  the  presents."  ^ 
So  much  then  on  the  subject  of  the  etymology  of  the  name 
Curetes.  [The  dance  in  armour  is  a  military  dance  ;  this  is 
shown  by  the  Pyrrhic  dance  and  by  Pyrrichus,  who,  it  is  said, 
invented  this  kind  of  exercise  for  youths,  to  prepare  them  for 
military  service.]^ 

9.  We  are  now  to  consider  how  the  names  of  these  people 
agree  together,  and  the  theology,  which  is  contained  in  their 

Now  this  is  common  both  to  the  Greeks  and  the  Barba- 
rians, to  perform  their  religious  ceremonies  with  the  observ- 
ance of  a  festival,  and  a  relaxation  from  labour ;  some  are 
performed  with  enthusiasm,  others  without  any  emotion; 
some  accompanied  with  music,  others  without  music ;  some  in 
mysterious  privacy,  others  publicly ;  and  these  are  the  dictates 
of  nature.^  For  relaxation  from  labour  withdraws  the  thoughts 
from  human  occupations,  and  directs  the  reflecting  mind  to  the 
divinity  ;  enthusiasm  seems  to  be  attended  with  a  certain  di- 
vine inspiration,  and  to  approach  the  prophetic  character; 
the  mystical  concealment  of  the  sacred  rites  excites  veneration 
for  the  divinity,  and  imitates  his  nature,  which  shuns  human 
senses  and  perception ;  music  also,  accompanied  with  the 
dance,  rhythm,  and  song,  for  the  same  reason  brings  us  near 
the  deity  by  the  pleasure  which  it  excites,  and  by  the  charms 
of  art.  For  it  has  been  justly  said,  that  men  resemble  the 
gods  chiefly  in  doing  good,  but  it  may  be  said  more  properly, 
when  they  are  happy ;  and  this  happiness  consists  in  rejoic- 
ing, in  festivals,  in  philosophy,  and  in  music.  ^  For  let  not 
the  art  be  blamed,  if  it  should  sometimes  be  abused  by  the 
musician  employing  it  to  excite  voluptuousness  in  convivial 

authentic.  Heyne  was  inclined  to  consider  them  as  an  interpolation,  in 
which  he  is  supported  by  other  critics. 

'  II.  xix.  248.  The  text  is  probably  mutilated,  and  Strabo  may  have 
quoted  the  verses  in  Homer  in  which  Merion  is  represented  as  dancing 
in  armour.     II.  xvi.  617. 

'  Kramer  suspects  this  passage  to  be  an  interpolation. 

'  The  reading  in  the  text  is  rbv  d'  ovTojg  vovv.  The  translation  adopts 
Meineke's  reading,  voovvra. 

*  Quam  prseclare  philosophatus  sit  Strabo,  me  non  monente,  unusquis- 
que  assequitur ;  preeclarius,  utique,  quam  illi,  qui  ex  nostro  ritu  religiose 
omnem  hilaritatem  exulare  voluere.    Heyne,  Virg.  iii.  130. 

B.  X.  c.  III.  §  10,  11.  THE  CURETES.  183 

meetings  at  banquets,  on  the  stage,  or  under  other  circum- 
stances, but  let  the  nature  of  the  institutions  which  are 
founded  on  it  be  examined. • 

10.  Hence  Plato,  and,  before  his  time,  the  Pythagoreans, 
called  music  philosophy.  They  maintained  that  the  world 
subsisted  by  harmony,  and  considered  every  kind  of  music  to 
be  the  work  of  the  gods.  It  is  thus  that  the  muses  are  re- 
garded as  deities,  and  Apollo  has  the  name  of  President  of 
the  Muses,  and  all  poetry  divine,  as  being  conversant  about 
the  praises  of  the  gods.  Thus  also  they  ascribe  to  music  the 
formation  of  manners,  as  everything  which  refines  the  mind 
approximates  to  the  power  of  the  gods. 

The  greater  part  of  the  Greeks  attribute  to  Bacchus, 
Apollo,  Hecate,  the  Muses,  and  Ceres,  everything  connected 
with  orgies  and  Bacchanalian  rites,  dances,  and  the  mysteries 
attended  upon  initiation.  They  call  also  Bacchus,  Dionysus, 
and  the  chief  Daemon  of  the  mysteries  of  Ceres.  ^  The  carry- 
ing about  of  branches  of  trees,  dances,  and  initiations  are 
common  to  the  worship  of  these  gods.  But  with  respect  to 
Apollo  and  the  Muses,  the  latter  preside  over  choirs  of  singers 
and  dancers  ;  the  former  presides  both  over  these  and  divina- 
tion. All  persons  instructed  in  science,  and  particularly 
those  who  have  cultivated  music,  are  ministers  of  the  Muses ; 
these  and  also  all  who  are  engaged  in  divination  are  ministers 
of  Apollo.  Those  of  Ceres,  are  the  Mystae,  torch-bearers 
and  Hierophants ;  of  Dionysus,  Seileni,  Satyri,  Tityri,  Bacchae, 
Lenae,  Thyiae,  Mimallones,  Naides,  and  Nymphag,  as  they  are 

11.  But  in  Crete  both  these,  and  the  sacred  rites  of  Jupiter 
in  particular,  were  celebrated  with  the  performance  of  orgies, 
and  by  ministers,  like  the  Satyri,  who  are  employed  in  the  wor- 
ship of  Dionysus.  These  were  called  Curetes,  certain  youths 
who  executed  military  movements  in  armour,  accompanied 
with  dancing,  exhibiting  the  fable  of  the  birth  of  Jupiter,  in 
which  Saturn  was  introduced,  whose  custom  it  was  to  devour 
his  children  immediately  after  their  birth ;  Rhea  attempts  to 
conceal  the  pains  of  childbirth,  and  to  remove  the  new-born 
infant  out  of  sight,  using  her  utmost  endeavours  to  preserve  it. 

'  The   original,  as  Du   Theil  observes,  is  singularly  obscure,  dW  t] 
^pvaic,  rj  Twv  iraiStv^aToJv,  i^eTu^saOoj,  Trjv  apxv^  tvOsvSe  txovaa. 
*  Following  the  reading  suggested  by  Groskurd. 

184  STRABO.  Casaub.  468. 

In  this  she  has  the  assistance  of  the  Curetes  who  surround 
the  goddess,  and  by  the  noise  of  drums  and  other  similar 
sounds,  by  dancing  in  armour  and  by  tumult,  endeavour  to 
strike  terror  into  Saturn,  and  escape  notice  whilst  removing 
his  child.  The  child  is  then  delivered  into  their  hands  to 
be  brought  up  with  the  same  care  by  which  he  was  rescued. 
The  Curetes  therefore  obtained  this  appellation,  either  be- 
cause they  were  boys  (/cojoot),  or  because  they  educated  Jupiter 
in  his  youth  {Kovporpofeiy),  for  there  are  two  explanations, 
inasmuch  as  they  acted  the  same  part  with  respect  to  Jupiter 
as  the  Satyri  (with  respect  to  Dionysus).  Such  then  is  the 
worship  of  the  Greeks,  as  far  as  relates  to  the  celebration  of 

12.  But  the  Berecyntes,  a  tribe  of  Phrygians,  the  Phrygi- 
ans in  general,  and  the  Trojans,  who  live  about  Mount  Ida, 
themselves  also  worship  Rhea,  and  perform  orgies  in  her 
honour ;  they  call  her  mother  of  gods,  Agdistis,  and  Phrygia,  ^ 
the  Great  Goddess ;  from  the  places  also  where  she  is  wor- 
shipped, Idaea,  and  Dindymene,^  Sipylene,^  Pessinuntis,*  and 
Cybele.^  The  Greeks  call  her  ministers  by  the  same  name 
Curetes,  not  that  they  follow  the  same  mythology,  but  they 
mean  a  different  kind  of  persons,  a  sort  of  agents  analogous  to 
the  Satyri.  These  same  ministers  are  also  called  by  them 

13.  We  have  the  testimony  of  the  poets  in  favour  of  these 
opinions.  Pindar,  in  the  Dithyrambus,  which  begins  in  this 
manner ; 

**  formerly  the  dithyrambus  used  to  creep  upon  the  ground,  long  and 

After  mentioning  the  hymns,  both  ancient  and  modern,  in 
honour  of  Bacchus,  he  makes  a  digression,  and  says, 

"  for  thee,  O  Mother,  resound  the  large  circles  of  the  cymbals,  and  the 
ringing  crotala ;  for  thee,  blaze  the  torches  of  the  yellow  pine  ;" 

where  he  combines  with  one  another  the  rites  celebrated 
among  the  Greeks  in  honour  of  Dionysus  with  those  per- 
formed among  the  Phrygians  in  honour  of  the  mother  of  the 

'  This  word  appears  here  misplaced. 

^  The  chain  of  mountains  extending  from  the  sources  of  the  Sagaris 
(the  Zagari)  to  the  Propontis  was  called  Dindymene. 
'  Sipuli  Dagh.  *  Possene. 

*  This  name  is  not  derived  from  any  place. 

B.  X.  c.  Til.  §  13.  THE  CURETES.  185 

gods.  Euripides,  in  the  Bacchae,  does  the  same  thing,  con- 
joining, from  the  proximity  of  the  countries,^  Lydian  and 
Phrygian  customs. 

"  Then  forsaking  Tmolus,  the  rampart  of  Lydia,  my  maidens,  my  pride, 
[whom  I  took  from  among  barbarians  and  made  the  partners  and  com- 
panions of  my  way,  raise  on  high  the  tambourine  of  Phrygia,  the  tam- 
bourine of  the  great  mother  Rhea,]  my  invention. 

"  Blest  and  happy  he  who,  initiated  into  the  sacred  rites  of  the  gods, 
leads  a  pure  life  ;  who  celebrating  the  orgies  of  the  Great  Mother  Cy- 
bele,  who  brandishing  on  high  the  thyrsus  and  with  ivy  crowned,  becomes 
Dionysus'  worshipper.  Haste,  Bacchanalians,  haste,  and  bring  Bromius 
Dionysus  down  from  the  Phrygian  mountains  to  the  wide  plains  of 

And  again,  in  what  follows,  he  combines  with  these  the  Cre- 
tan rites. 

"  Hail,  sacred  haunt  of  the  Curetes,  and  divine  inhabitants  of  Crete, 
progenitors  of  Jove,  where  for  me  the  triple-crested  Corybantes  in  their 
caves  invented  this  skin-stretched  circle  [of  the  tambourine],  who 
mingled  with  Bacchic  strains  the  sweet  breath  of  harmony  from  Phrygian 
pipes,  and  placed  in  Rhea's  hands  this  instrument  which  re-echoes  to  the 
joyous  shouts  of  Bacchanalians:  from  the  Mother  Rhea  the  frantic 
Satyri  succeeded  in  obtaining  it,  and  introduced  it  into  the  dances  of  the 
Trieterides,  among  whom  Dionysus   delights  to  dwell."' 

•  Std  Tb  ofiopov,  for  dia  re  "O/ij/pov.     Meineke. 

'  The  literal  translation  has  been  preserved  in  the  text  for  the  sake  of 
the  argument.  The  following  is  Potter's  translation,  in  which,  hoAvever, 
great  liberty  is  taken  with  the  original. 

"To  whom  the  mysteries  of  the  gods  are  known. 
By  these  his  life  he  sanctifies, 
And,  deep  imbibed  their  chaste  and  cleaning  lore, 
Hallows  his  soul  for  converse  with  the  skies. 
Enraptur'd  ranging  the  wild  mountains  o'er, 
The  mighty  mother's  orgies  leading, 
He  his  head  with  ivy  shading, 
His  light  spear  wreath'd  with  ivy  twine, 
To  Bacchus  holds  the  rites  divine. 
Haste  then,  ye  Bacchae,  haste, 
Attend  your  god,  the  son  of  heaven's  high  king. 
From  Phrygia's  mountains  wild  and  waste 
To  beauteous-structur'd  Greece  your  Bacchus  bring 

O  ye  Curetes,  friendly  band. 

You,  the  blest  natives  of  Crete's  sacred  land, 
Who  tread  those  groves,  which,  dark'ning  round, 

O'er  infant  Jove  their  shelt'ring  branches  spread. 
The  Corybantes  in  their  caves  profound. 

The  triple  crest  high  waving  on  their  head, 

186  STRABO.  Casaub.  470. 

And  the  chorus  in  Palamedes  says, 

"  Not  revelling  with  Dionysus,  who  together  with  his  mother  was  cheered 

with  the  resounding  drums  along  the  tops  of  Ida." 

14.  Conjoining  then  Seilenus,  Marsjas,  and  Olympus,  and 
ascribing  to  them  the  invention  of  the  flute,  they  thus  again 
combine  Dionysiac  and  Phrygian  rites,  frequently  confound- 
ing Ida  and  Olympus,^  and  making  them  re-echo  with  their 
noise,  as  if  they  were  the  same  mountain.  There  are  four 
peaks  of  Ida  called  Olympi,  opposite  Antandros.^  There  is 
also  a  Mysian  Olympus,  bordering  upon  Ida,  but  not  the  same 
mountain.  Sophocles  represents  Menelaus  in  the  Polyxena 
as  setting  sail  in  haste  from  Troy,  and  Agamemnon  as  wish- 
ing to  remain  behind  a  short  time,  with  a  view  to  propitiate 
Minerva.     He  introduces  Menelaus  as  saying, 

"But  do  thou  remain  there  on  the  Idsean  land, 
Collect  the  flocks  on  Olympus,  and  offer  sacrifice."  ^ 

15.  Tbey  invented  terms  appropriate  to  the  sounds  of  the 
pipe,  of  the  crotala,  cymbals,  and  drums ;  to  the  noise  also  of 
shouts  ;  to  the  cries  of  Evoe  ;  and  to  the  beating  of  the  ground 
with  the  feet.  They  invented  certain  well-known  names  also 
to  designate  the  ministers,  dancers,  and  servants  employed 
about  the  sacred  rites,  as  Cabeiri,  Corybantes,  Pans,  Satyri, 
Tityri,  the  god  Bacchus;  Rhea,  Cybele,  Cybebe,  and  Din- 
dymene,  from  the  places  where  she  was  worshipped.  [The 
god]  Sabazius  belongs  to  the  Phrygian  rites,  and  may  be 
considered  the  child  as  it  were  of  the  [Great]  Mother.  The 
traditional  ceremonies  observed  in  his  worship  are  those  of 

16.  The  rites  called  Cotytia,  and  Bendideia,^  celebrated 

This  timbrel  framed,  whilst  clear  and  high 

Swelled  the  Bacchic  symphony. 

The  Phrygian  pipe  attemp'ring  sweet, 

Their  voices  to  respondence  meet. 

And  placed  in  Rhea's  hands. 
The  frantic  satyrs  to  the  rites  advance, 

The  Bacchae  join  the  festive  bands, 
And  raptur'd  lead  the  Trieteric  dance." 

'  There  were  several  mountains  bearing  the  name  of  Olympus.    1.  In 
Thessaly.     2.  In  Peloponnesus.     3.  Of  Ida.    4.  In  Mysia.     5.  In  Crete. 
2  San  Dimitri.  ^  od.  iii.  144. 

*  Adopting  Kramer's  suggestion  of  rrapaSovQ  to.  for  irapaSovra. 

*  Bendis,  Diana  of  the  Thracians;  among  the  Athenians  there  was  a 
festival  called  Bendideia. 

B.  X.  c.  III.  §  17.  THE  CURETES.  187 

among  the  Thracians,  resemble  these.  The  Orphic  ceremonies 
had  tlieir  origin  among  these  people.  -32schylus  mentions  the 
goddess  Cotys,  and  the  instruments  used  in  her  worship 
among  the  Edoni.^     For  after  saying, 

"  O  divine  Cotys,  goddess  of  the  Edoni, 
With  the  instruments  of  the  mountain  worship ;" 

immediately  introduces  the  followers  of  Dionysus, 

"  one  holding  the  bombyces,  the  admirable  work  of  the  turner,  with  the 
fingers  makes  the  loud  notes  resound,  exciting  frenzy ;  another  makes 
the  brass-bound  cotylae  to  re-echo." 

And  in  another  passage ; 

"  The  song  of  victory  is  poured  forth ;  invisible  mimes  low  and  bellow 
from  time  to  time  like  bulls,  inspiring  fear,  and  the  echo  of  the  drum  rolls 
along  like  the  noise  of  subterranean  thunder ; "  ^ 

for  these  are  like  the  Phrygian  ceremonies,  nor  is  it  at  all 
improbable  that,  as  the  Phrygians  themselves  are  a  colony  of 
Thracians,  so  they  brought  from  Thrace  their  sacred  ceremo- 
nies, and  by  joining  together  Dionysus  and  the  Edonian 
Lycurgus  they  intimate  a  similarity  in  the  mode  of  the  wor- 
ship of  both. 

17.  From  the  song,  the  rhythm,  and  the  instruments,  all 
Thracian  music  is  supposed  to  be  Asiatic.  This  is  evident 
also  from  the  places  where  the  Muses  are  held  in  honour. 
For  Pieria,  Olympus,  Pimpla,  and  Leibethrum  were  anciently 
places,  and  mountains,  belonging  to  the  Thracians,  but  at 
present  they  are  in  the  possession  of  the  Macedonians.  The 
Thracians,  who  were  settled  in  Boeotia,  dedicated  Helicon  to 
the  Muses,  and  consecrated  the  cave  of  the  Nymphs,  Leibe- 
thriades.  The  cultivators  of  ancient  music  are  said  to  have 
been  Thracians,  as  Orpheus,  Musaeus,  Thamyris;  hence  also 
Eumolpus  had  his  name.  Those  who  regard  the  whole 
of  Asia  as  far  as  India  as  consecrated  to  Bacchus,  refer  to 
that  country  as  the  origin  of  a  great  portion  of  the  present 
music.  One  author  speaks  of  "  striking  forcibly  the  Asiatic 
cithara:"   another  calls   the  pipes  Berecynthian  and  Phry- 

*  Athenseus,  b.  xi.  c.  8.  iEschylus  in  the  Edoni  (a  fragment)  calls 
cymbals  cotylae. 

2  Probably  from  a  passage  in  the  Erectheus,  a  lost  play  of  Euripides. 

188  STRABO.  Casaub.  471, 

gian.  Some  of  the  instruments  also  have  barbarous  names, 
as  Nablas,  Sambyce,^  Barbitus,^  Magadis,^  and  many  others. 

18.  As  in  other  things  the  Athenians  always  showed 
their  admiration  of  foreign  customs,  so  they  displayed  it  in 
what  respected  the  gods.  They  adopted  many  foreign  sacred 
ceremonies,  particularly  those  of  Thrace  and  Phrygia  ;  for 
which  they  were  ridiculed  in  comedies.  Plato  mentions  the 
Bendidean,  and  Demosthenes  the  Phrygian  rites,  where  he 
is  exposing  ^schines  and  his  mother  to  the  scorn  of  the 
people ;  the  former  for  having  been  present  when  his  mother 
was  sacrificing,  and  for  frequently  joining  the  band  of  Baccha- 
nalians in  celebrating  their  festivals,  and  shouting,  Evoi*, 
Saboi,  Hyes  Attes,  and  Attes  Hyes,  for  these  cries  belong  to 
the  rites  of  Sabazius  and  the  Great  Mother. 

19.  But  there  may  be  discovered  respecting  these  daemons, 
and  the  variety  of  their  names,  that  they  were  not  called  minis- 
ters only  of  the  gods,  but  themselves  were  called  gods.  For 
Hesiod  says  that  Hecaterus  and  the  daughter  of  Phoroneus 
had  five  daughters, 

"  From  whom  sprung  the  goddesses,  the  mountain  nymphs, 
And  the  worthless  and  idle  race  of  satyrs, 
And  the  gods  Curetes,  lovers  of  sport  and  dance." 

The  author  of  the  Phoronis  calls  the  Curetes,  players  upon 
the  pipe,  and  Phrygians ;  others  call  them  "  earth-born,  and 
wearing  brazen  shields."  Another  author  terms  the  Cory- 
bantes,  and  not  the  Curetes,  Phrygians,  and  the  Curetes,  Cret- 
ans. Brazen  shields  were  first  worn  in  Euboea,  whence  the 
people  had  the  name  of  Chalcidenses.'^  Others  say,  that  the 
Corybantes  who  came  from  Bactriana,  or,  according  to  some 
writers,  from  the  Colchi,  were  given  to  Rhea,  as  a  band  of  armed 
ministers,  by  Titan.  But  in  the  Cretan  history  the  Curetes 
are  called  nurses  and  guardians  of  Jove,  and  are  described  as 
having  been  sent  for  from  Phrygia  to  Crete  by  Rhea.  Ac- 
cording to  other  writers,  there  were  nine  Telchines  in 
Rhodes,  who  accompanied  Rhea  to  Crete,  and  from  nursing^ 
Jupiter  had  the  name  of  Curetes;^  that  Corybus,  one  of 
their  party,  was  the  founder  of  Hierapytna,  and  furnished  the 

'  Nablas  and  Sambyce  are  Syriac  words.     AthenaBUS,  b.  iv.  c.  24. 
'  The  invention  of  Anacreon,  according  to  Neanthus  Cyzicenus. 
3  Athenaeus,  b.  xiv.  c.  8,  9.  *  See  above,  ch.  iii.  §  1,  6,  8. 

*  KovpoTpo<p7]<TavTtQ.  '  KovprJTeQ. 

B.  X.  c.  III.  §  20, 21.  THE  CURETES.  189 

Prasians  ^  in  Rhodes  with  the  pretext  for  saying  that  Cory- 
bantes  were  certain  daemons,  children  of  Minerva  and  the  sun. 
By  others,  the  Corybantes  are  represented  to  be  the  children 
of  Saturn ;  by  others,  of  Jupiter  and  Calliope,  or  to  be  the 
same  persons  as  the  Cabeiri ;  that  they  went  away^  to  Samo- 
thrace,^  which  was  formerly  called  Melite ;  but  their  lives 
and  actions  are  mysterious. 

20.  The  Scepsian  (Demetrius)  who  has  collected  fabulous 
stories  of  this  kind,  does  not  receive  this  account  because 
no  mysterious  tradition  about  the  Cabeiri  is  preserved  in  Sa- 
mothrace,  yet  he  gives  the  opinion  of  Stesimbrotus  of  Thasus, 
to  the  effect  that  the  sacred  rites  in  Samothrace  were  celebrated 
in  honour  of  the  Cabeiri.'^  Demetrius,  however,  says  that  they 
had  their  name  from  Cabeirus,  the  mountain  in  Berecynthia. 
According  to  others,  the  Curetes  were  the  same  as  the  Cory- 
bantes, and  were  ministers  of  Hecate. 

The  Scepsian  says  in  another  place,  in  contradiction  to 
Euripides,  that  it  is  not  the  custom  in  Crete  to  pay  divine 
honours  to  Rhea,  and  that  these  rites  were  not  established 
there,  but  in  Phrygia  only,  and  in  the  Troad,  and  that  they 
who  affirm  the  contrary  are  mythologists  rather  than  histo- 
rians ;  and  were  probably  misled  by  an  identity  of  name,  for 
Ida  is  a  mountain  both  in  the  Troad  and  in  Crete;  and 
Dicte  is  a  spot  in  the  Scepsian  territory,  and  a  mountain  in 
Crete.^  Pytna  is  a  peak  of  Ida,  (and  a  mountain  in  Crete,) 
whence  the  city  Hierapytna  has  its  name.  There  is  Hippo- 
corona  in  the  territory  of  Adramyttium,  and  Hippocoro- 
nium^  in  Crete.  Samonium  also  is  the  eastern  promontory 
of  the  island,  and  a  plain  in  the  Neandris,'  and  in  the  terri- 
tory of  the  Alexandrians  (Alexandria  Troas). 

21.  But  Acusilaus,  the  Argive,  mentions  a  Camillus,  the 

'  Who  were  the  Prasians  of  Rhodes  I  confess  I  cannot  say.     Palmer. 

^  From  whence  Strabo  does  not  inform  us. 

3  The  Scholiast  of  Apollonius  remarks  that  it  was  formerly  called 
Leucosia,  afterwards  Samos  from  a  certain  Sails,  and  Samothrace  when 
it  came  into  possession  of  the  Thracians.  It  had  also  the  name  of  Dar- 

*  The  true  origin  of  the  word,  according  to  Casaubon,  is  to  be  found  in 
the  Hebrew  word  Cabir,  signifying  powerful.  Tobias  Gutberlethus, 
De  mysteriis  deorum  Cabirotum. 

^  M.  Sitia.  «  Places  unknown.  '  In  the  plain  of  Troy. 

190  STRABO.  Casattb.  473. 

son  of  Cabeira   and  Vulcan ;   who  had  three  sons,  Cabeiri, 
(and  three  daughters,)  the  Nymphs  Cabeirides.  ^ 

According  to  Pherecydes,  there  sprung  from  Apollo  and 
Rhetia  nine  Oorybantes,  who  lived  in  Samothrace ;  that  from 
Cabeira,  the  daughter  of  Proteus  and  Vulcan,  there  were 
three  Cabeiri,  and  three  Nymphs,  Cabeirides,  and  that  each 
had  their  own  sacred  rites.  But  it  was  at  Lemnos  and  Im- 
bros  that  the  Cabeiri  were  more  especially  the  objects  of 
divine  worship,  and  in  some  of  the  cities  of  the  Troad ;  their 
names  are  mystical. 

Herodotus  ^  mentions,  that  there  were  at  Memphis  temples 
of  the  Cabeiri  as  well  as  of  Vulcan,  which  were  destroyed  by 
Cambyses.  The  places  where  these  daemons  received  divine 
honours  are  uninhabited,  as  Corybantium  in  the  territory 
Hamaxitia  belonging  to  the  country  of  the  Alexandrians, 
near  Sminthium  ;^  and  Corybissa  in  the  Scepsian  territory 
about  the  river  Eureis,  and  a  village  of  the  same  name,  and 
the  winter  torrent  ^thaloeis.'* 

The  Scepsian  says,  that  it  is  probable  that  the  Curetes  and 
Oorybantes  are  the  same  persons,  who  as  youths  and  boys 
were  employed  to  perform  the  armed  dance  in  the  worship  of 
the  mother  of  the  gods.  They  were  called  Corybantes  ^  from 
their  dancing  gait,  and  butting  with  their  head  (KopvTrrovTag)  ; 
by  the  poet  they  were  called  PrfrapfiovEg, 

"  Come   hither,  you  who   are  the  best  skilled  Betarmones  among  the 
Phseacians."  • 

Because  the  Corybantes  are  dancers,  and  are  frantic,  we  call 
those  persons  by  this  name  whose  movements  are  furious. 

22.  Some  writers  say  that  the  first  inhabitants  of  the 
country  at  the  foot  of  Mount   Ida  were  called  Idaean  Dac- 

•  According  to  the  Scholiast  on  Apollonius  Rhod.,  Arg.  5,  917  per- 
sons were  initiated  into  the  mysteries  of  the  Cabeiri  in  Samothrace.  The 
Cabeiri  were  four  in  number ;  Axieros,  Axiokersa,  Axiokersos,  and  Cas- 
milos.  Axieros  corresponded  to  Demeter  or  Ceres,  Axiokersa  to  Perse- 
phone or  Proserpine,  Axiokersos  to  Hades  or  Pluto,  and  Casmilos  to 
Hermes  or  Mercury.  See  Ueber  die  Gottheiten  von  Samothrace,  T.  W. 
I.  Schelling,  1815 ;  and  the  Classical  Journal,  vol.  xiv.  p.  59. 

'  Herod,  iii.  37.  '  Probably  a  temple  of  Apollo  Smintheus. 

*  Corybissa,  Eureis,  and  -^thaloeis  are  unknown. 

^  They  were  called  Curetes  because  they  were  boys,  and  KovprjTsg  fiiv 
airb  Tov  Kopovg  elvai  KuXovfievoi.  Groskurd  suspects  these  or  similar 
words  to  have  followed  "  Corybantes." 

«  Od.  viii.  250. 

B.  X.  c.  III.  §  23.  THE  CURETES.  191 

tyli,  for  the  country  below  mountains  is  called  the  foot,  and 
the  summits  of  mountains  their  heads  ;  so  the  separate  ex- 
tremities of  Ida  (and  all  are  sacred  to  the  mother  of  the  gods) 
are  called  Idsean  Dactyli. ' 

But  Sophocles  2  supposes,  that  the  first  five  were  males, 
who  discovered  and  forged  iron,^  and  many  other  things 
which  were  useful  for  the  purposes  of  life ;  that  these  persons 
had  five  sisters,  and  from  their  number  had  the  name  of 
Dactyli.  *  Different  persons  however  relate  these  fables  dif- 
ferently, connecting  one  uncertainty  with  another.  They 
differ  both  with  respect  to  the  numbers  and  the  names  of 
these  persons  ;  some  of  whom  they  call  Celmis,  and  Damna- 
meneus,  and  Hercules,  and  Acmon,  who,  according  to  some 
writers,  were  natives  of  Ida,  according  to  others,  were  settlers, 
but  all  agree  that  they  were  the  first  workers  in  iron,  and 
upon  Mount  Ida.  All  writers  suppose  them  to  have  been 
magicians,  attendants  upon  the  mother  of  the  gods,  and  to  have 
lived  in  Phrygia  about  Mount  Ida.  They  call  the  Troad 
Phrygia,  because,  after  the  devastation  of  Troy,  the  neigh- 
bouring Phrygians  became  masters  of  the  country.  It  is  also 
supposed  that  the  Curetes  and  the  Corybantes  were  descend- 
ants of  the  Idsean  Dactyli,  and  that  they  gave  the  name  of 
Idaean  Dactyli  to  the  first  hundred  persons  who  were  born  in 
Crete  ;  that  from  these  descended  nine  Curetes,  each  of  whom 
had  ten  children,  who  were  called  Idaean  Dactyli.^ 

23.  Although  we  are  not  fond  of  fabulous  stories,  yet  we 
have  expatiated  upon  these,  because  they  belong  to  subjects  of 
a  theological  nature. 

All  discussion  respecting  the  gods  requires  an  examination 
of  ancient  opinions,  and  of  fables,  since  the  ancients  expressed 
enigmatically  their  physical  notions  concerning  the  nature  of 
things,  and  always  intermixed  fable  with  their  discoveries. 
It  is  not  easy  therefore  to  solve  these  enigmas  exactly,  but  if 
we  lay  before  the  reader  a  multitude  of  fabulous  tales,  some 
consistent  with  each  other,  others  which  are  contradictory,  we 

'  i.  e.  toes.  '  In  a  lost  play,  The  Deaf  Satyrs, 

^  In  hoc  quoque  dissentio,  sapientes  fuisse,  qui  ferri  metalla  et  aeris 

invenerunt,  cum  incendio  silvarum  adusta  tellus,  in  summo  venas  jacenles 

liquefacta  fudisset.     Seneca,  Epist.  90. 

*  Diodorus  Siculus,  b,  v.,  says  that  they  obtained  the  name  from  being 
equal  in  number  to  the  ten  fingers  or  toes  (Dactyli). 

*  Groskurd  proposes  Corybantes  for  these  latter  Idsean  Dactyli. 

192  STRABO.  Casaub.  474. 

may  thus  with  less  difficulty  form  conjectures  about  the  truth. 
For  example,  mythologists  probably  represented  the  ministers 
of  the  gods,  and  the  gods  themselves,  as  coursing  over  the 
mountains,  and  their  enthusiastic  behaviour,  for  the  same 
reason  that  they  considered  the  gods  to  be  celestial  beings, 
and  to  exercise  a  providential  care  over  all  things,  and 
especially  over  signs  and  presages.  Mining,  hunting,  and  a 
search  after  things  useful  for  the  purposes  of  life,  appeared  to 
have  a  relation  to  this  coursing  over  the  mountains,  but  jug- 
gling and  magic  to  be  connected  with  enthusiastic  behaviour, 
religious  rites,  and  divination.  Of  such  a  nature,  and  con- 
nected in  particular  with  the  improvement  of  the  arts  of  life, 
were  the  Dionysiac  and  Orphic  arts.  But  enough  of  this  subject. 


1.  Having  described  the  islands  about  the  Peloponnesus, 
and  other  islands  also,  some  of  which  are  upon,  and  others  in 
front  of,  the  Corinthian  Gulf,  we  are  next  to  speak  of  Crete,  ^ 
(for  it  belongs  to  the  Peloponnesus,)  and  the  islands  near 
Crete,  among  which  are  the  Cyclades  and  the  Sporades. 
Some  of  these  are  worthy  of  notice,  others  are  inconsiderable. 

2.  At  present  we  are  to  speak  first  of  Crete. 

^  The  common  European  name  Candia  is  unknown  in  the  island  ;  the 
Saracenic  "  Kandax,"  Megalo  Kastron,  became  with  the  Venetian  writers 
Candia ;  the  word  for  a  long  time  denoted  only  the  principal  city  of  the 
island,  which  retained  its  ancient  name  in  the  chroniclers  and  in  Dante, 
Inferno  xiv.  94.  It  is  described  by  Strabo  as  lying  between  Cyrenaica 
and  that  part  of  Hellas  which  extends  from  Sunium  to  Laconia,  and 
parallel  in  its  length  from  W.  to  E.  of  these  two  points.  The  words 
fiEXpi  AaKioviKrjg  may  be  understood  either  of  Malea  or  Ttenarum ;  it  is 
probable  that  this  geographer  extended  Crete  as  far  as  Taenarum,  as  from 
other  passages  in  his  work  (ii.  c.  v.  §  20;  viii.  c.  v.  §  1)  it  would  appear 
that  he  considered  it  and  the  W.  points  of  Crete  as  under  the  same 
meridian.  It  is  still  more  difficult  to  understand  the  position  assigned  to 
Crete  with  regard  to  Cyrenaica  (xvii.  c.  iii.  §  22).  Strabo  is  far  nearer 
the  truth,  though  contradicting  his  former  statements,  where  he  makes 
Cimarus,  the  N.W.  promontory  of  Crete,  700  stadia  from  Malea,  and  Cape 
Sammonium  1000  stadia  rom  Rhodes,  (ii.  c.  iv.  §  3,)  which  was  one  of 
the  best  ascertained  points  of  ancient  geography.     Smith,  v.  Crete. 

B.  X.  c.  IV.  §  3.  CRETE.  193 

According  to  Eudoxus,  it  is  situated  in  the  ^gaean  sea, 
but  he  ought  not  to  have  described  its  situation  in  that  man- 
ner, but  have  said,  that  it  lies  between  Cjrenaica  and  the 
part  of  Greece  comprehended  between  Sunium  and  Laconia,^ 
extending  in  length  in  the  direction  from  west  to  east,  and 
parallel  to  these  countries  ;^  that  it  is  washed  on  the  north  by 
the  ^gaean  and  Cretan  seas,  and  on  the  south  by  the  African, 
which  joins  the  Egyptian  sea. 

The  western  extremity  of  the  island  is  near  Phalasarna  ;  ^ 
its  breadth  is  about  200  stadia,  and  divided  into  two  promon- 
tories ;  of  which  the  southern  is  called  Criu-Metopon,  (or 
Ram's  head,)  and  that  on  the  north,  Cimarus.'*  The  eastern 
promontory  is  Samonium,^  which  does  not  stretch  much  fur- 
ther towards  the  east  than  Sunium.^ 

3.  Sosicrates,  who,  according  to  Apollodorus,  had  an  exact 
knowledge  of  this  island,  determines  its  length  (not?)'^  to 
exceed  2300  stadia,  and  its  breadth  (about  300),^  so  that  ac- 
cording to  Sosicrates  the  circuit  of  the  island  is  not  more  than 
5000  stadia,  but  Artemidorus  makes  it  4100.     Hieronymus 

'  TtiQ  'EWdSoQ  Trjg  dirb  "Eovviov  fi^XP'-  AaKU)viKrjg. 

'  Gossellin  observes  that  the  false  position  assigned  to  these  countries, 
and  the  contradiction  perceptible  in  the  measures  in  stadia,  given  by 
Strabo,  and  above  all  the  impossibility  of  reconciling  them  upon  one  given 
plan,  is  a  proof  that  the  author  consulted  different  histories,  and  different 
maps,  in  which  the  distances  were  laid  down  in  stadia  differing  in  length. 

^  The  ruins  are  indicated  as  existing  a  little  to  the  north  of  Hagios 
Kurghianis,  in  the  Austrian  map. 

*  Cimarus  is  given  in  Kiepert,  as  the  island  Grabusa  Agria,  at  the  ex- 
tremity of  Cape  Buso,  and  also  in  the  Austrian  map.  Kramer  remarks 
that  the  promontory  Cimarus  is  mentioned  by  no  other  author.  Corycus 
on  the  other  hand  is  placed  by  Strabo  below,  §  5,  in  these  parts,  although 
the  reading  is  suspicious,  and  in  b.  viii.  c.  v.  §  1,  and  in  b.  xvii.  c.  iii. 
§  22;  but  the  reading  again  in  this  last  reference  is  doubtful.  Cape 
Cimarus  is  now  C.  Buso  or  Grabusa. 

*  In  b.  ii.  c.  iv.  §  3,  it  is  written  Salmonium,  (c.  Salamoni,)  in  which 
passage  Kramer  has  retained  the  spelling  of  the  name,  on  the  ground 
that  this  form  is  to  be  found  in  Apollonius,  Arg.  4,  1693,  and  Dionys. 
Perieg.  110.     Salmone  in  the  Acts,  xxvii.  7. 

*  C.  Colonna. 

'  Not  in  the  text  of  Kramer.     Casaubon's  conjecture. 

*  The  words  of  the  text  are,  TrXarsi  dt  vtto  to  fiEyi9og,  which  Meineke 
translates,  "  Its  width  is  not  in  proportion  to  its  length."  Kramer  says 
that  the  preposition  vtto  suggests  the  omission  of  the  words  TtrpaKon'nov 
or  TpiaKomojv  ttov,  and  that  the  words  r.  fi.  are  probably  introduced 
from  the  margin,  and  are  otherwise  inadmissible. 

VOL.   II.  O 

194  STRABO.  Casaub.  475. 

says,  that  its  length  is  2000  stadia,  and  its  breadth  irregular, 
and  that  the  circuit  would  exceed  the  number  of  stadia  as- 
signed by  Artemidorus.  Throughout  one-third  of  its  length, 
(beginning  from  the  western  parts,  the  island  is  of  a  toler- 
able width).  ^  Then  there  is  an  isthmus  of  about  100  stadia, 
on  the  northern  shore  of  which  is  a  settlement,  called  Amphi- 
malla ;  ^  on  the  southern  shore  is  Phoenix,^  belonging  to  the 

The  greatest  breadth  is  in  the  middle  of  the  island. 

Here  again  the  shores  approach,  and  form  an  isthmus 
narrower  than  the  former,  of  about  60  stadia  in  extent,  reckon- 
ing from  Minoa,'*  in  the  district  of  the  Lyctii,^  to  Thera- 
pytna,^  and  the  African  sea.  The  city  is  on  the  bay.  The 
shores  then  terminate  in  a  pointed  promontory,  the  Samonium, 
looking  towards  ^gypt  and  the  islands  of  the  Rhodians.'^ 

4.  The  island  is  mountainous  and  woody,  but  has  fertile 

The  mountains  towards  the  west  are  called  Leuca,  or  the 
White  Mountains,®  not  inferior  in  height  to  the  Taygetum,^ 
and  extending  in  length  about  300  stadia.  They  form  a 
ridge,  which  terminates  at  the  narrow  parts  (the  isthmus). 
In  the  middle  of  the  island,  in  the  widest  part,  is  (Ida),^^  the 
highest  of  the  mountains  tliere.  Its  compass  is  about  600 
stadia.  It  is  surrounded  by  the  principal  cities.  There  are 
other  mountains  equal  in  height  to  the  White  Mountains,  some 
of  which  terminate  on  the  south,  others  towards  the  east. 

5.  From  the  Cyrenaean^^  territory  to  Criu-metopon^^  is  a 

*  It  is  impossible  to  say  what  words  should  fill  up  the  hiatus  in  the 
text,  but  probably  something  to  this  effect,  oltto  tCjv  ecrirfplojv  fiepuiv 
dp^afiEvoiQ  ri  vrjcrog  TrXarad  tan.  Kramer.  Groskurd  proposes  »)  vfjcrog 
ai(pvidi(t)g  (rrevoxopu,  the  island  suddenly  narrows. 

2  On  the  bay  of  Armiro. 

'  Castel  Franco.     Acts  of  Apostles,  xxvii.  12. 

*  Porto  Trano.     At  the  bottom  of  the  bay  of  Mirabel. 

*  Near  Lytto.  *  Girapetra. 

^  By  the  islands  of  the  Rhodians  are  meant  Case,  Nisari,  Scarpanto,  &c. 

^  Aspra-vuna,  or  Sfakia.  ^  Mt.  Penta-Dactylon  in  the  Morea. 

^0  Psiloriti. 

"  From  what  point  in  the  Cyrenaica  is  not  said.  From  b.  viii.  c.  iii. 
§  1,  it  would  appear  to  be  Phycus,  (Ras  al  Sem,)  but  from  b.  xvii.  c.  iii. 
§  20,  it  would  seem  to  be  Apollonias,  (Marsa-susa.)  the  maritime  arsenal 
of  the  Cyrenseans,  situated  at  about  170  stadia  to  the  east  of  Phycus,  and 
80  stadia  to  the  west  of  Gyrene. 

'2  C.  Crio 

B.  X.  c.  IV.  §  6,  7.  CRETE.  195 

voyage  of  two  days  and  nights.  From  Cimarus  [to  Malea] 
are  700  stadia.^  In  the  midway  is  Cythera.^  From  the  pro- 
montory Samonium^  to  ^gypt  a  ship  sails  in  four  days  and 
nights,  but,  according  to  other  writers,  in  three.  Some  say 
that  it  is  a  voyage  of  5000  stadia ;  others,  of  still  less  than 
this.  According  to  Eratosthenes,  the  distance  from  Cyrenaica 
to  Criu-Metopon  is  2000  stadia,  and  thence  to  Peloponnesus 
less  than  [1000].^ 

6.  One  language  is  intermixed  with  another,  says  the  poet ; 
there  are  in  Crete, 

"  Achaei,  the  brave  Eteocretans,  Cydones,  Dorians  divided  into  three 
bands,^  and  the  divine  Pelasgi."  ^ 

Of  these  people,  says  Staphylus,  the  Dorians  occupy  the 
eastern  parts  of  the  island,  Cydonians  the  western,  Eteocretans 
the  southern,  to  whom  Prasus,  a  small  town,  belonged,  where 
is  the  temple  of  the  Dictsean  Jupiter ;  the  other  nations,  being 
more  powerful,  inhabited  the  plains.  It  is  probable  that  the 
Eteocretans'^  and  Cydonians  were  aboriginal  inhabitants,  and 
that  the  others  were  foreigners,  who  Andron  says  came  from 
Thessaly,  formerly  called  Doris,  but  now  Hestiaeotis,  from 
which  country  he  says  the  Dorians,  who  were  settled  about 
Parnassus,  migrated,  and  founded  Erineum,  Boeum,  and  Cy- 
tinium,  whence  they  are  called  by  the  poet  Trichaices,  or  tri- 
partite. But  the  account  of  Andron  is  not  generally  admitted, 
who  represents  the  Tetrapolis  Doris  as  composed  of  three 
cities,  and  the  metropolis  of  the  Dorians  as  a  colony  of  Thes- 
salians.  The  epithet  Trichaices^  is  understood  to  be  derived 
either  from  their  wearing  a  triple  crest,^  or  from  having  crests 
of  hair.^° 

7.  There  are  many  cities  in  Crete,  but  the  largest  and 
most  distinguished  are  Cnossus,^^  Gortyna,^^  Cydonia.'^  Both 
Homer  and  later  writers  celebrate  Cnossus^^  above  the  rest, 

*  Of  700  stadia  to  a  degree,     Gossellin.  '  Cerigo. 

'  The  distance  from  Samonium  (Cape  Salamone)  to  Alexandria,  in  a 
Straight  line,  is  about  5500  stadia  of  1111^  to  the  degree.     Gossellin. 

*  Gossellin's  conjecture,  for  the  number  is  wanting  in  the  text. 

*  TpixaiKiQ.  6  Q(j  xix.  175.  ^  So  also  Diod.  Sic.  b.  v. 
'  rpixaiKag.                  »  TpiXoplag,  '"  Tpi\ivovg. 

"  The  ruins  are  situated  at  Makro  Teikhos,  to  the  south-east  of  Can- 
dia,  the  modern  capital. 

'2  II.  ii.  646;  Od.  xix.  178.     Hagius  Dheka.     Pashley. 
"  Near  Jerami,  in  the  Austrian  map.     Pashley  places  it  at  Khania. 
o  2 

196  STRABO.  Casaitb.  476. 

calling  it  vast,  and  the  palace  of  Minos.  It  maintained  its 
pre-eminence  for  a  long  period.  It  afterwards  lost  its  ascend- 
ency, and  was  deprived  of  many  of  its  customs  and  privi- 
leges. The  superiority  was  transferred  to  Gortyna  and  Lyc- 
tus.^  But  it  afterwards  recovered  its  ancient  rank  of  the 
capital  city.  Cnossus  lies  in  a  plain,  with  its  ancient  circum- 
ference of  30  stadia,  between  the  Lyctian  and  Gortynian 
territory  ;  [distant]  200  stadia  from  Gortyna,  and  from  Lyt- 
tus  120,  which  the  poet^  calls  Lyctus.  Cnossus  is  at  the  dis- 
tance of  25  stadia  from  the  northern  sea ;  Gortyna  90,  and 
Lyctus  80,  stadia  from  the  African  sea.  Cnossus  has  a  marine 
arsenal,  Heracleium.^ 

8.  Minos,  it  is  said,  used  as  an  arsenal  Amnisus,"*  where  is 
a  temple  of  Eileithyia.  Cnossus  formerly  had  the  name  of 
Caeratus,  which  is  the  name  of  the.  river ^  which  runs  beside  it. 

Mino»^  is  regarded  as  an  excellent  legislator,  and  the  first 
who  possessed  the  sovereignty  of  the  sea.  He  divided  the 
island  into  three  portions,  in  each  of  which  he  built  a  city ; 
Cnossus  ******  *^  opposite  to  Peloponnesus,  which 
lies  toward  the  north. 

According  to  Ephorus,  Minos  was  an  imitator  of  Rhada- 
manthus,  an  ancient  personage,  and  a  most  just  man.  He  had 
the  same  name  as  his  brother,  who  appears  to  have  been  the 
first  to  civilize  the  island  by  laws  and  institutions,  by  founding 
cities,  and  by  establishing  forms  of  government.  He  pre- 
tended to  receive  from  tJupiter  the  decrees  which  he  promul- 
gated. It  was  probably  in  imitation  of  Rhadamanthus  that 
Minos  went  up  to  the  cave  of  Jupiter,  at  intervals  of  nine 
years,  and  brought  from  thence  a  set  of  ordinances,  which  he 
said  were  the  commands  of  Jove ;  for  which  reason  the  poet 
thus  expresses  himself; 

*'  There  reigned  Minos,  who  every  ninth  year  conversed  with  the  great 
Jupiter."  ^ 

•  Lytto.  2  II.  ii.  647. 

3  Cartero,  a  maritime  town  on  the  river  of  the  same  name. 

*  At  the  mouth  of  the  Aposelemi.  *  Now  the  Cartero. 

«  Pausanias,  b.  ix.  c.  11,  says  that  the  ships  of  Minos  were  unprovided 
•with  sails,  which  were  the  subsequent  invention  of  Deedalus. 

'  Groskurd  proposes  to  supply  the  hiatus  in  the  text  thus :  Cnossus 
[towards  the  north,  inclining  to  the  ^gaean  sea,  Ph£Estus  turned  towards 
the  south  and  the  African  sea,  Cydonia  in  the  western  part  of  the  island] 
opposite.  *  Od.  xix.  178. 

B.  X.  c.  IV.  §  9,  10.  CRETE.  197 

Such  is  the  statement  of  Ephorus ;  the  ancients  on  the  other 
hand  give  a  different  account,  and  say  that  he  was  tyrannical 
and  violent,  and  an  exactor  of  tribute,  and  speak  in  the  strain 
of  tragedy  about  the  Minotaur,  the  Labyrinth,  and  the  adven- 
tures of  Theseus  and  Dsedalus. 

9.  It  is  difficult  to  determine  which  is  right.  There  is 
another  story  also  not  generally  received ;  some  persons  af- 
firming that  Minos  was  a  foreigner,  others  that  he  was  a 
native  of  the  island.  Homer  seems  to  support  the  latter 
opinion,  when  he  says,  that 

"  Minos,  the  guardian  of  Crete,  was  the  first  offspring  of  Jupiter."  ' 

It  is  generally  admitted  with  regard  to  Crete  that  in  an- 
cient times  it  was  governed  by  good  laws,  and  induced  the 
wisest  of  the  Greeks  to  imitate  its  form  of  government,  and 
particularly  the  Lacedaemonians,  as  Plato  shows  in  his  "  Laws," 
and  Ephorus  has  described  in  his  work  "  Europe."  After- 
wards there  was  a  change  in  the  government,  and  for  the 
most  part  for  the  worse.  For  the  Tyrrheni,  who  chiefly  in- 
fested our  sea,  were  followed  by  the  Cretans,  who  succeeded 
to  the  haunts  and  piratical  practices  of  the  former  people,  and 
these  again  afterwards  were  subject  to  the  devastations  of 
the  Cilicians.  But  the  Romans  destroyed  them  all  after  the 
conquest  of  Crete,^  and  demolished  the  piratical  strongholds 
of  the  Cilicians.  At  present  Cnossus  has  even  a  colony  of 

10.  So  much  then  respecting  Cnossus,  a  city  to  which  I 
am  no  stranger ;  but  owing  to  the  condition  of  human  affairs, 
their  vicissitudes  and  accidents,  the  connexion  and  inter- 
course that  subsisted  between  ourselves  and  the  city  is  at  an 
end.  Which  may  be  thus  explained.  Dorylaiis,  a  military 
tactician,  a  friend  of  Mithridates  Euergetes,  was  appointed, 
on  account  of  his  experience  in  military  affairs,  to  levy  a  body 
of  foreigners,  and  was  frequently  in  Greece  and  Thrace,  and 
often  in  the  company  of  persons  who  came  from  Crete,  before 
the  Romans  were  in  possession  of  the  island.  A  great  mul- 
titude of  mercenary  soldiers  was  collected  there,  from  whom 

1  II.  xiii.  450. 

*  The  Cretan  war  was  conducted  by  Q.  Metellus,  proconsul,  Avho  from 
thence  obtained  the  cognomen  of  Creticus. 

198  STRABO.  Casaub.  478. 

even  the  bands  of  pirates  were  recruited.  During  the  stay 
of  Dorylaiis  in  the  island,  a  war  happened  to  break  out  be- 
tween the  Cnossians  and  the  Gortynians.  He  was  appointed 
general  by  the  Cnossians,  and  having  finished  the  war  speed- 
ily and  successfully,  he  obtained  the  highest  honours.  A 
short  time  afterwards,  being  informed  that  Euergetes  had  been 
treacherously  put  to  death  by  his  courtiers  at  Sinope,  and 
that  he  was  succeeded  in  the  government  by  his  wife  and 
children,  he  abandoned  everything  there,  remained  at  Cnos- 
sus,  and  married  a  Macedonian  woman  of  the  name  of  Ste- 
rope,  by  whom  he  had  two  sons,  Lagetas  and  Stratarchas, 
(the  latter  I  myself  saw  when  in  extreme  old  age,)  and  one 
daughter.  Of  the  two  sons  of  Euergetes,  he  who  was  sur- 
named  Eupator  succeeded  to  the  throne  when  he  was  eleven 
years  of  age  ;  Dorylaiis,  the  son  of  Philetaerus,  was  his  foster- 
brother.  Philetserus  was  the  brother  of  Dorylaiis  the  Tac- 
tician. The  king  had  been  so  much  pleased  with  his  intimacy 
with  Dorylaiis  when  they  lived  together  as  children,  that  on 
attaining  manhood  he  not  only  promoted  Dorylaiis  to  the  high- 
est honours,  but  extended  his  regard  to  his  relations  and 
sent  for  them  from  Cnossus.  At  this  time  Lagetas  and  his 
brother  had  lost  their  father,  and  were  themselves  grown  up 
to  manhood.  They  quitted  Cnossus,  and  came  to  Mithridates. 
My  mother's  mother  was  the  daughter  of  Lagetas.  While 
he  enjoyed  prosperity,  they  also  prospered  ;  but  upon  his 
downfal  (for  he  was  detected  in  attempting  to  transfer  the 
kingdom  to  the  Eomans  with  a  view  to  his  own  appointment 
to  the  sovereignty)  the  affairs  of  Cnossus  were  involved  in  his 
ruin  and  disgrace  ;  and  all  intercourse  with  the  Cnossians, 
who  themselves  had  experienced  innumerable  vicissitudes  of 
fortune,  was  suspended. 

So  much  then  respecting  Cnossus. 

11.  After  Cnossus,  the  city  Gortyna  seems  to  have  held 
the  second  place  in  rank  and  power.  For  when  these  cities 
acted  in  concert  they  held  in  subjection  all  the  rest  of  the  in- 
habitants, and  when  they  were  at  variance  there  was  discord 
throughout  the  island  ;  and  whichever  party  Cydonia  espoused, 
to  them  she  was  a  most  important  accession. 

The  city  of  the  Gortynians  lies  in  a  plain,  and  was  perhaps 
anciently  protected  by  a  wall,  as  Homer  also  intimates, 

B.  X.  c.  IV.  §  12.  CRETE.  199 

**  and  Gortyna,  a  walled  city ;  "  • 
it  lost  afterwards  its  walls,  which  were  destroyed  from  their 
foundation,  and  it  has  remained  ever  since  without  walls ;  for 
Ptolemy  Philopator,  who  began  to  build  a  wall,  proceeded  with 
it  to  the  distance  only  of  about  8  stadia.  Formerly  the  building 
occupied  a  considerable  compass,  extending  nearly  50  stadia. 
It  is  distant  from  the  African  sea,  and  from  Leben  its  mart, 
90  stadia.  It  has  also  another  arsenal,  Matalum.^  It  is  dis- 
tant from  that  130  stadia.  The  river  Lethaeus^  flows  through 
the  whole  of  the  city. 

12.  Leucocomas  and  Euxynthetus  his  erastes  (or  lover), 
whom  Theophrastus  mentions  in  his  discourse  on  Love,  were 
natives  of  Leben.^  One  of  the  tasks  enjoined  Euxynthetus 
by  Leucocomas  was  this,  according  to  Theophrastus,  to 
bring  him  his  dog  from  Prasus.^  The  Prasii  border  upon 
the  Lebenii  at  the  distance  of  60  stadia  from  the  sea,  and 
from  Gortyn  180.  We  have  said  that  Prasus  was  subject  to 
the  Eteocretans,  and  that  the  temple  of  the  Dictsean  Jupiter 
was  there.  For  Dicte^  is  near  ;  not,  as  Aratus'^  alleges,  near 
Ida ;  since  Dicte  is  distant  1000  stadia  from  Mount  Ida,  and 
situated  at  that  distance  from  it  towards  the  rising  sun  ;  and 
100  stadia  from  the  promontory  Samonium.  Prasus  was 
situated  between  the  promontory  Samonium,  and  the  Cherrho- 
nesus,  at  the  distance  of  60  stadia  from  the  sea.  It  was  razed 
by  the  Hierapytnii.  He  says,  too,  that  Callimachus®  is  not 
right  in  asserting  that  Britomartis,  in  her  escape  from  the 
violence  offered  by  Minos,  leaped  from  Dicte  among  the  nets 
of  the  fishermen  {^Iktvo),  and  that  hence  she  had  the  name  of 
Dictynna   from   the  Cydoniatae,   and  the  mountain  that  of 

'  II.  ii.  646.  '  Letima  or  Matala,  Cape  Theodosia. 

'  The  Maloniti  or  Messara.  *  On  C.  Lionda. 

'  Strabo  must  have  confounded  two  totally  distinct  cities,  (Priansus 
and  Prasus,)  when  he  spoke  of  them  under  a  common  name,  and  assigned 
them  a  single  situation,  both  close  to  Mount  Dikte,  and  at  the  same  time 
continuous  with  the  Lebenians,  whose  city  was  three  days'  journey  from 
the  mountain.  Pashley,  Travels  in  Crete,  vol.  i.  p.  290.  Kramer  does  not 
agree  with  Pashley,  and,  until  further  information  shall  be  obtained,  rests 
upon  the  authority  of  Boeckh,  C.  I.  No.  2556,  who  affirms  that  there  is 
some  doubt  about  the  name  Priansus,  which  is  only  found  on  coins  and 
inscriptions;  both  Hoeck  (v.  Kreta  I.  p.  413)  and  Boeckh  (C.  I.  ii.  p.  405) 
consider  Priansus  and  Prasus  as  the  same  place. 

^  M.  Silia.  7  ph^n.  33. 

*  Callim.  Hymn  to  Diana,  195. 

200  STRABO.  Casattb.  479. 

Dicte.  For  Cydonia  is  not  at  all  situated  in  the  neighbour- 
hood of  these  places,  but  lies  at  the  western  extremity  of  the 
island.  The  mountain  Tityrus  ^  belongs  to  the  Cydonian  terri- 
tory ;  upon  it  is  situated  a  temple,  not  called  Dictsean,  but 

13.  Cydonia  is  situated  on  the  sea,  fronting  Laconia,  at  aij 
equal  distance  from  both  Cnossus  and  Gortyn,  about  800 
stadia,  and  from  Aptera  80,  and  from  the  sea  in  this  quarter 
40  stadia.  Cisainus^  is  the  naval  arsenal  of  Aptera.^  The 
Polyrrhenii  border  upon  the  Cydoniatae  towards  the  west ;  in 
their  territory  is  the  temple  of  Dictynna.  They  are  at  the 
distance  of  about  30  stadia  from  the  sea,  and  60  from  Phala- 
sarna.  Formerly  they  lived  in  villages  ;  then  Achaeans  and 
Laconians  settled  there  together,  and  fortified  with  a  wall  a 
strong  site  fronting  the  south. 

14.  Of  the  three  cities  founded  by  Minos,  the  last,  which 
was  Phgestus,"*  was  razed  by  the  Gortynians  ;  it  was  at  the 
distance  of  60  stadia  from  Gortyn,  20  from  the  sea,  and  from 
Matalum,  the  arsenal,  40  stadia.  They  who  razed  the  city 
possess  the  territory.  Rhytium  also  together  with  Phsestus 
belongs  to  the  Gortynians, 

"both  Phajstus  aAd  Rhytium."* 
Epimenides,  who  performed  lustrations  by  the  means  of  his 
poetry,  is  said  to  have  been  a  native  of  Phaestus.     Olyssa 
(Lisses  ?)  also  belonged  to  the  territory  of  Phaestus. 

Cherrhonesus,®  as  it  is  called,  is  the  arsenal  of  Lyttus  or 
(Lyctus),  which  we  have  before  mentioned ;  on  the  former  is 
the  temple  of  Britomartis. 

Miletus  and  Lycastus,  the  cities  which  were  enumerated 
together  with  Lyctus,  no  longer  exist ;  but  the  territory,  after 
they  had  razed  the  city  (Lyctus),  was  partitioned  among 
Lyctians  and  Cnossians. 

15.  As  the  poet  in  one  place  speaks  of  Crete  as  having  a 
hundred,  and  in  another  ninety,  cities,  Ephorus  says,  that  ten 
were  founded  in  later  times  after  the  Trojan  war  by  the  Dori- 

*  Tityrus  is  the  ridge  of  mountains  which  terminates  in  Cape  Spada. 

*  Kisamos. 

'  See  Pashley,  Travels  in  Crete,  vol.  i.  c.  4,  who  places  Aptera  at 
Palaeocastron,  on  the  south  of  the  bay  of  Siedh  and  Polyrrhenia,  at  the 
Palaeocastron,  to  the  south  of  the  Gulf  of  Kisamos. 

*  Hodyitra.  ^  11.  ii.  648.  ^  Episcopiano. 

B.  X.  c.  IV.  §  16.  CRETE.  201 

ans,  who  accompanied  Althoemenes  the  Argive,  and  that 
hence  Ulysses  speaks  of  its  ninety  cities.  This  account  is 
probable.  But  others  say,  that  the  ten  were  razed  by  the 
enemies  of  Idomeneus ;  but  the  poet  does  not  say  that  Crete 
had  a  hundred  cities  at  the  time  of  the  Trojan  war,  but  in  his 
own  age,  for  he  speaks  in  his  own  person  ;  but  if  the  words 
had  been  those  of  some  person  then  living,  as  those  in  the 
Odyssey,  where  Ulysses  says,  Crete  had  ninety  cities,  they 
might  have  been  properly  understood  in  this  manner.  But 
even  if  we  admit  this,  the  subsequent  verses  will  not  be  ex- 
empt from  objection.  For  neither  at  the  time  of  the  expe- 
dition, nor  after  the  return  of  Idomeneus,  is  it  probable  that 
these  cities  were  destroyed  by  his  enemies,  for  the  poet  says, 

*'  but  Idomeneus  brought  back  all  his  companions  who  had  survived  the 
war  to  Crete ;  the  sea  had  not  deprived  him  of  any  of  them ;  "  • 

for  he  would  have  mentioned  such  a  misfortune.  Ulysses  in- 
deed might  not  have  been  acquainted  with  the  destruction  of 
these  cities,  for  he  had  not  had  any  intercourse  with  any  of  the 
Greeks  either  during  or  after  his  wanderings ;  but  (Nestor), 
who  had  been  the  companion  of  Idomeneus  in  the  expedition 
and  in  his  escape  from  shipwreck,  could  not  be  ignorant  of 
what  had  happened  at  home  during  the  expedition  and  before 
his  return.  But  he  must  certainly  have  been  aware  of  what 
occurred  after  his  return.  For  if  he  and  all  his  companions 
escaped,  he  returned  so  powerful  that  their  enemies  were  not 
in  a  position  to  deprive  them  of  ten  cities. 

Such  then  is  the  general  description  of  the  country  of  Crete. 

16.  With  respect  to  the  form  of  government,  which  Epho- 
rus  has  described  at  large,  it  will  be  sufficient  to  give  a  cur- 
sory account  of  the  principal  parts.  The  law-giver,  says 
Ephorus,  seems  to  lay,  as  the  foundation  of  his  constitution, 
the  greatest  good  that  states  can  enjoy,  namely,  liberty  ;  for  it 
is  this  alone  which  makes  the  property  of  every  kind  which 
a  man  possesses  his  own ;  in  a  state  of  slavery  it  belongs  to 
the  governor,  and  not  to  the  governed.  The  liberty  also 
which  men  enjoy  must  be  guarded.  Unanimity  ensues,  when 
the  dissensions  that  arise  from  covetousness  and  luxury  ^  are 

»  Od.  iii.  191. 

2  Sordid  avarice  and  covetousness  have  taken  such  hold  upon  them,  that 
among  the  Cretans  alone,  of  all  nations,  nothing  in  the  form  of  gain  is 
considered  dishonourable.    Polybius,  b.  vi. 

202  STRABO  Casaub.  481. 

removed.  Now  where  all  live  temperately  and  frugally,  nei- 
ther envy,  nor  injuries,  nor  hatred  have  place  among  equals. 
Whence  the  young  were  enjoined  to  repair  to  the  Agelae,  and 
those  of  mature  age  to  assemble  at  the  Syssitia,  or  common 
meals,  called  Andreia,  in  order  that  the  poorer  sort,  who  were 
fed  at  the  public  charge,  might  partake  of  the  same  fare  as 
the  rich. 

With  a  view  that  courage,  and  not  fear,  should  predominate, 
they  were  accustomed  from  childhood  to  the  use  of  arms,  and 
to  endure  fatigue.  Hence  they  disregarded  heat  and  cold, 
rugged  and  steep  roads,  blows  received  in  gymnastic  exer- 
cises and  in  set  battles. 

They  practised  archery,  and  the  dance  in  armour,  which 
the  Curetes  first  invented,  and  was  afterwards  perfected  by 
Pyrrhichus,  and  called  after  him  Pyrrhiche.  Hence  even  their 
sports  were  not  without  their  use  in  their  training  for  war. 
With  the  same  intention  they  used  the  Cretan  measures  in 
their  songs ;  the  tones  of  these  measures  are  extremely  loud ; 
they  were  invented  by  Thales,  to  whom  are  ascribed  the 
paeans  and  other  native  songs  and  many  of  their  wsages. 
They  adopted  a  military  dress  also,  and  shoes,  and  considered 
armour  as  the  most  valuable  of  all  presents. 

17.  Some,  he  says,  alleged  that  many  of  the  institutions 
supposed  to  be  Cretan  were  of  Lacedaemonian  origin  ;  but  the 
truth  is,  they  were  invented  by  the  former,  but  perfected  by  the 
Spartans.  The  Cretans,  when  their  cities,  and  particularly 
Cnossus,  were  ravaged,  neglected  military  affairs,  but  some 
usages  were  more  observed  by  the  Lyttii  and  Gortynii,  and 
some  other  small  cities,  than  by  the  Cnossians.  Those  per- 
sons, who  maintain  the  priority  of  the  Laconian  institutions, 
adduce  as  evidence  of  this  those  of  the  Lyttii,  because  as  colon- 
ists they  would  retain  the  customs  of  the  parent  state.  Other- 
wise, it  would  be  absurd  for  those,  who  lived  under  a  better 
form  of  constitution  and  government,  to  be  imitators  of  a 
worse.  But  this  is  not  correct.  For  we  ought  not  to  form 
conjectures  respecting  the  ancient  from  the  present  state  of 
things,  for  each  has  undergone  contrary  changes.  The  Cre- 
tans were  formerly  powerful  at  sea,  so  that  it  was  a  pro- 
verbial saying  addressed  to  those  who  pretended  to  be  ignor- 
ant of  what  they  knew,  "  a  Cretan,  and  not  know  the  sea ;" 
but  at  present  they  have  abandoned  nautical  afiairs. 

B.  X.  c.  IV.  §  18,  19.  CRETE.  203 

Nor  did  it  follow  necessarily  that,  because  there  were  some 
cities  in  Crete  colonized  by  Spartans,  they  should  continue 
to  observe  Spartan  usages,  since  many  of  the  cities  of  colonists 
do  not  preserve  the  customs  of  the  mother  country  ;  and  there 
are  many  cities  in  Crete,  the  inhabitants  of  which  are  not 
colonists,  and  yet  have  the  same  usages  as  those  that  have  re- 
ceived colonies. 

18.  Lycurgus,  the  Spartan  legislator,  he  says,  was  five 
generations  later  than  Althaemenes,  who  conducted  the  colony 
into  Crete.  He  is  said  by  historians  to  have  been  the  son  of 
Cissus,  who  founded  Argos  ^  about  the  same  time  that  Procles 
was  engaged  in  establishing  a  colony  at  Sparta.  It  is  also 
generally  admitted  that  Lycurgus  was  the  sixth  in  descent 
from  Procles.2  Copies  do  not  precede  the  models,  nor  mo- 
dern precede  ancient  things.  The  usual  kind  of  dancing 
practised  among  the  Lacedaemonians,  the  measures,  and  the 
pasans  sung  according  to  a  certain  mood,  and  many  other 
usages,  are  called  among  them  Cretan,  as  if  they  came  from 
Crete.  But  among  the  ancient  customs,  those  relative  to  the 
administration  of  the  state  have  the  same  designations  as  in 
Crete,^  as  the  council  of  Gerontes'*  and  that  of  the  Knights,^ 
except  that  in  Crete  the  knights  had  horses ;  whence  it  is 
conjectured,  that  the  council  of  Knights  in  Crete  is  more 
ancient,  since  the  origin  of  the  appellation  is  preserved.  But 
the  Spartan  knight  did  not  keep  a  horse.  They  who  per- 
form the  same  functions  as  the  Cosmi  hi  Crete,  have  the  dif- 
ferent title  of  Ephori  [in  Sparta].  The  Syssitia,  or  common 
meal,  is  even  at  present  called  Andreia  among  the  Cretans ; 
but  among  the  Spartans  they  did  not  continue  to  call  it  by  its 
former  name,  as  it  is  found  in  the  poet  Alcman  ; 

"  In  festivals  and  in  joyous  assemblies  of  the  Andreia,  it  is  lit  to  begin 
the  paean  in  honour  of  the  guests." 

19.  The  occasion  of  the  journey  of  Lycurgus  to  Crete  is 
said  by  the  inhabitants  to  be  as  follows.  The  elder  brother 
of  Lycurgus  was  Polydectes,  who,  at  his  death,  left  his  wife 
pregnant.     Lycurgus  reigned  in  place  of  his  brother  till  the 

•  His  father,  Temenus,  was  the  founder  of  Argos.     See  b.  viii. 
2  There  is,  however,  diversity  of  opinions  on  the  subject. 

^  Aristotle,  Politics,  b.  ii.  c.  10,  where  he  compares  the  Cretan  with 
the  Lacedaemonian  constitution. 

*  tCjv  yEpovTtov.  ^  iTnrscjv. 

204  STRABO.  Casaub.  483. 

birth  of  a  son.  He  then  became  the  guardian  of  the  child, 
who  was  heir  to  the  kingdom.  Some  one  said  to  him  in- 
sultingly, he  was  sure  Lycurgus  would  be  king.  Suspecting 
that  by  this  speech  he  might  be  accused  of  contriving  a  plot 
against  the  child,  and  fearing  that,  if  the  child  should  die  by 
any  accident,  his  enemies  might  impute  its  death  to  him,  he 
departed  to  Crete.  This  is  said  to  have  been  the  cause  of  his 
journey.  Upon  his  arrival  in  Crete  he  became  acquainted  with 
Thales,  the  lyric  poet  and  legislator.  He  learnt  from  this  per- 
son the  plan  adopted  by  Rhadamanthus  in  former  times,  and 
afterwards  by  Minos  in  promulgating  their  laws,  so  as  to  pro- 
cure a  belief  that  they  proceeded  from  Jupiter.  He  was  also 
in  ^gypt,  and  obtained  information  respecting  the  laws  and 
customs  of  that  country.*  According  to  some  writers,  he  met 
at  Chios  with  Homer,  who  was  living  there,  and  then  re- 
turned to  his  own  country,  where  he  found  Charilaus,  the  son 
of  his  brother  Polydectes,  upon  the  throne.  He  then  began  to 
frame  laws,  repairing  to  the  god  at  Delphi,  and  bringing  thence 
ordinances,  as  Minos  brought  his  from  the  cave  of  Jupiter.^ 
The  greater  part  of  these  ordinances  were  similar  to  those  of 

20.  The  following  are  the  principal  of  the  laws  of  Crete, 
which  Ephorus  has  given  in  detail. 

All  the  Cretans,  who  are  selected  at  the  same  time  from 
the  troop  (ayt'Xr?)  of  youths,  are  compelled  to  marry  at  once. 
They  do  not  however  take  the  young  women  whom  they 
have  married  immediately  to  their  homes,  until  they  are  quali- 
fied to  administer  household  affairs. 

The  woman's  dower,  if  she  has  brothers,  is  half  of  the  bro- 
ther's portion. 

The  children  are  taught  to  read,  to  chaunt  songs  taken 
from  the  laws,  and  some  kinds  of  music. 

While  they  are  still  very  young  they  are  taken  to  the  Sys- 
sitia,  called  Andreia.  They  sit  on  the  ground,  eating  their  food 
together,  dressed  in  mean  garments,  which  are  not  changed 
in  winter  or  summer.  They  wait  upon  themselves  and  on  the 
men.  Both  those  of  the  same  and  those  of  different  messes 
have  battles  with  one  another.  A  trainer  of  boys  presides 
over  each  Andreion.    As  they  grow  older  they  are  formed  into 

'  According  to  Plutarch,  with  the  poems  of  Homer. 
2  Herod,  i.  65. 

B.  X.  c.  IV.  §  21.  CRETE.  205 

('AytXat)  or  troops  of  youths.  The  most  illustrious  and  power- 
ful of  the  youths  form  Agelae,  each  individual  assembling  to- 
gether as  many  as  he  can  collect.  The  governor  of  the  troop 
is  generally  the  father  of  the  youth  who  has  assembled  them 
together,  and  has  the  power  of  taking  them  to  hunt  and  to 
exercise  themselves  in  running,  and  of  punishing  the  disobe- 
dient.    They  are  maintained  at  the  public  charge. 

On  certain  set  days  troop  encounters  troop,  marching  in 
time  to  the  sound  of  the  pipe  and  lyre,  as  is  their  custom  in 
actual  war.  They  inflict  blows,  some  with  the  hand,  and 
some  even  with  iron  weapons. 

21.  They  have  a  peculiar  custom  with  respect  to  their  at- 
tachments. They  do  not  influence  the  objects  of  their  love 
by  persuasion,  but  have  recourse  to  violent  abduction.  The 
lover  apprizes  the  friends  of  the  youth,  three  or  more  days 
beforehand,  of  his  intention  to  carry  off"  the  object  of  his  affec- 
tion. It  is  reckoned  a  most  base  act  to  conceal  the  youth,  or 
not  to  permit  him  to  walk  about  as  usual,  since  it  would  be 
an  acknowledgment  that  the  youth  was  unworthy  of  such  a 
lover.  But  if  they  are  informed  that  the  ravisher  is  equal  or 
superior  in  rank,  or  other  circumstances,  to  the  youth,  they 
pursue  and  oppose  the  former  slightly,  merely  in  conformity 
with  the  custom.  They  then  willingly  allow  him  to  carry  oif 
the  youth.  If  however  he  is  an  unworthy  person,  they  take 
the  youth  from  him.  This  show  of  resistance  does  not  end, 
till  the  youth  is  received  into  the  Andreium  to  which  the 
ravisher  belongs.  They  do  not  regard  as  an  object  of  affec- 
tion a  youth  exceedingly  handsome,  but  him  who  is  distin- 
guished for  courage  and  modesty.  The  lover  makes  the  youth 
presents,  and  takes  him  away  to  whatever  place  he  likes. 
The  persons  present  at  the  abduction  accompany  them,  and 
having  passed  two  months  in  feasting,  and  in  the  chase,  (for 
it  is  not  permitted  to  detain  the  youth  longer,)  they  return  to 
the  city.  The  youth  is  dismissed  with  presents,  which  con- 
sist of  a  military  dress,  an  ox,  and  a  drinking  cup ;  the  last 
are  prescribed  by  law,  and  besides  these  many  other  very 
costly  gifts,  so  that  the  friends  contribute  each  their  share  in 
order  to  diminish  the  expense. 

The  youth  sacrifices  the  ox  to  Jupiter,  and  entertains  at  a 
feast  those  who  came  down  with  him  from  the  mountains. 
He  then  declares  concerning  the  intercourse  with  the  lover. 

206  STRABO.  Casaub.  484. 

whether  it  took  place  with  his  consent  or  not,  since  the  law 
allows  him,  if  any  violence  is  used  in  the  abduction,  to  insist 
upon  redress,  and  set  him  free  from  his  engagement  with  the 
lover.  But  for  the  beautiful  and  high-born  not  to  have 
lovers  is  disgraceful,  since  this  neglect  would  be  attributed  to 
a  bad  disposition. 

The  parastathentes,  for  this  is  the  name  which  they  give 
to  those  youths  who  have  been  carried  away,  enjoy  certain 
honours.  At  races  and  at  festivals  they  have  the  principal 
places.  They  are  permitted  to  wear  the  stole,  which  distin- 
guishes them  from  other  persons,  and  which  has  been  pre- 
sented to  them  by  their  lovers  ;  and  not  only  at  that  time,  but 
in  mature  age,  they  appear  in  a  distinctive  dress,  by  which 
each  individual  is  recognised  as  Kleinos,  for  this  name  is 
given  to  the  object  of  their  attachment,  and  that  of  Philetor 
to  the  lov^r. 

These  then  are  the  usages  respecting  attachments. 

22.  They  elect  ten  Archons.  On  matters  of  highest  mo- 
ment they  have  recourse  to  the  counsel  of  the  Gerontes,  as 
they  are  called.  They  admit  into  this  council  those  who 
have  been  thought  worthy  of  the  office  of  Cosmi,  and  who 
were  otherwise  persons  of  tried  worth. 

I  considered  the  form  of  government  among  the  Cretans  as 
worthy  of  description,  on  account  both  of  its  peculiarity  and 
its  fame.  Few  of  these  institutions  are  now  in  existence,  and 
the  administration  of  affairs  is  chiefly  conducted  according  to 
the  orders  of  the  Romans,  as  is  the  case  also  in  their  other 


1.  The  islands  about  Crete  are  Thera,^  the  capital  of  the 
Cyrenseans,  and  a  colony  of  the  Lacedasmonians ;  and  near 
Thera  is  Anaphe,^  in  which  is  the  temple  of  Apollo  JEgletes. 
Callimachus  speaks  of  it  in  one  place,  thus, 

'  Anciently  Calliste,   Herod.,  now  Santorino,  a  corruption  of  Santa 
Irene,  to  whom  it  was  dedicated. 
'  Nanphio,  or  Anafi. 

B.  X.  c.  V.  §  2.  CRETE.  207 

"  And  iEglete  Anaphe,  close  to  the  Lacedaemonian  Thera ;  " 
and  in  another,  he  mentions  Thera  only, 

"Mother  of  my  country,  celebrated  for  its  fine  breed  of  horses." 

Thera  is  a  long  island,  about  200  stadia  in  circumference.  It 
lies  opposite  to  the  island  Dia,^  towards  the  Cnossian  Hera- 
cleium.  It  is  distant  about  700  stadia  from  Crete.  Near  it 
are  Anaphe  and  Therasia.^  The  little  island  los^  is  distant 
from  the  latter  about  100  stadia.  Here  according  to  some 
authors  the  poet  Homer  was  buried.^  In  going  from  los  to- 
wards the  west  are  Sicenus  ^  and  Lagusa,^  and  Pholegandrus,'^ 
which  Aratus  calls  the  iron  island,  on  account  of  its  rocks. 
Near  these  islands  is  Cimolus,^  whence  is  obtained  the  Cimo- 
lian  earth.  From  Cimolus  Siphnus^  is  visible.  To  this 
island  is  applied  the  proverb,  "  a  Siphnian  bone  (astragalus)," 
on  account  of  its  insignificance.  Still  nearer,  both  to  Cimo- 
lus and  Crete,  is  Melos,^^  more  considerable  than  these.  It  is 
distant  from  the  Hermionic  promontory,  the  Scyllaeum,^^  700 
stadia,  and  nearly  as  many  from  the  Dictynnaean  promontory. 
The  Athenians  formerly  despatched  an  army  to  Melos,^^  and 
put  to  death  the  inhabitants  from  youth  upwards. 

These  islands  are  situated  in  the  Cretan  sea.  Delos,^^  the 
Cyclades  about  it,  and  the  Sporades  adjacent  to  these,  belong 
rather  to  the  ^g£ean  gea.  To  the  Sporades  also  are  to  be  re- 
ferred the  islands  about  Crete,  which  I  have  already  men- 

2.  The  city  of  Delos  is  in  a  plain.  Delos  contains  the  tem- 
ple of  Apollo,  and  the  Latoum,  or  temple  of  Latona.  The 
Cynthus,*^  a  naked  and  rugged  mountain,  overhangs  the  city. 

^  Standia.  ^  Therasia,  on  the  west  of  Santorino. 

'  Nio.  *  According  to  Herodotus,  in  the  Life  of  Homer. 

^  Sikino,  anciently  CEnoe.     Pliny  iv.  12. 

•  Cardiodissa,  or  Cardiana.  '  Policandro. 

*  Argentiere.  Cretae  plura  genera.  Ex  iis  Cimoliae  duo  ad  medicos 
pertinentia,  candidum  et  ad  purpurissimum  inclinans.  Pliny,  b.  v.  c.  17. 
Cretosaque  rura  Cimoli.  Ovid.  Met.  vii.  464.  But  from  Aristophanes, 
the  Frogs,  it  would  appear  to  have  been  a  kind  of  fullers'  earth. 

®  Siphanto,  anciently  also  Meropia  and  Acis.  There  were  once  gold 
and  silver  mines  in  it,  which  were  destroyed  by  inundation.  There  is 
also  another  proverb,  which  alluded  to  its  poverty,  "  a  Siphnian  pledge," 
^i(pviog  appajSojv.  Herodotus  speaks  of  its  being  once  the  most  wealthy 
of  the  islands,  iii,  57. 

'0  Milo.  "  Cape  Skylli.  «  Thucyd.  b.  v.  c.  lib,  116. 

"  Dhiles.  "  Thermia.     Hence  Apollo  Cynthius. 

208  STRABO.  Casatjb.  485. 

The  In  opus,  ^  not  a  large  river,  for  the  island  is  small,  flows 
through  it.  Anciently,  even  from  the  heroic  times,  this 
island  has  been  held  in  veneration  on  account  of  the  divinities 
worshipped  here.  Here,  according  to  the  fable,  Latona  was 
relieved  from  the  pains  of  labour,  and  gave  birth  to  Apollo 
and  Diana. 

*'  Before  this  time,"  (says  Pindar,'^)  "  Delos  was  carried  about  by  the 
waves,  and  by  winds  blowing  from  every  quarter,  but  when  the  daughter 
of  Coeus  set  her  foot  upon  it,  who  was  then  suffering  the  sharp  pangs  of 
approaching  child-birth,  at  that  instant  four  upright  columns,  resting  on 
adamant,  sprang  from  the  depths  of  the  earth  and  retained  it  fast  on  the 
rugged  rock  ;  there  she  brought  forth,  and  beheld  her  happy  offspring." 

The  islands  lying  about  it,  called  Cyclades,  gave  it  celebrity, 
since  they  were  in  the  habit  of  sending  at  the  public  charge, 
as  a  testimony  of  respect,  sacred  delegates,  (Theori,)  sacrifices, 
and  bands  of  virgins ;  they  also  repaired  thither  in  great 
multitudes  to  celebrate  festivals.^ 

3.  Originally,  there  were  said  to  be  twelve  Cyclades,  but 
many  others  were  added  to  them.  Artemidorus  enumerates 
(fifteen  ?)  where  he  is  speaking  of  the  island  Helena,'*  and 
of  which  he  says  that  it  extends  from  Thoricus  ^  to  Sunium,^ 
and  is  about  60  stadia  in  length ;  it  is  from  this  island,  he 
says,  the  Cyclades,  as  they  are  called,  begin.  He  names 
Ceos,^  as  the  nearest  island  to  Helena,  and  next  to  this  Cyth- 
nus,  Seriphus,^  Melos,  Siphnus,  Cimolus,  Prepesinthus,^  Olia- 
rus,^^  and  besides  these  Pares,''  Naxos,'^  Syros,'^  Myconus,''* 
Tenos,'^  Andros,'®  Gyarus.''^  The  rest  I  consider  as  belong- 
ing to  the  Twelve,  but  not  Prepesinthus,  Oliarus,  and  Gyarus. 
When  I  put  in  at  the  latter  island  I  found  a  small  village  in- 
habited by  fishermen.  When  we  left  it  we  took  in  a  fisher- 
man, deputed  from  the  inhabitants  to  go  to  Caesar,  who  was 
at  Corinth  on  his  way  to  celebrate  his  triumph  after  the  vic- 
tory at  Actium.'*     He  told  his  fellow-passengers,  that  he  was 

*  Mentioned  in  b.  vi.  c.  ii.  §  4,  as  connected  with  the  Nile.  Bryant, 
Mytho.  V.  i.  p.  206,  derives  the  name  from  Ain  Opus,  The  fountain  of 
the  Serpent,  i.  e.  Python. 

^  Boeckh,  Fragm.  Pind.  58.  ii.  2,  p.  587. 

^  Thucyd.  iii.  104.  *  Isola  Longa,  or  Macronisi. 

*  It  was  situated  in  the  bay  of  Mandri.  «  C.  Colonna.  '  Zia. 
^  Serpho.  *  Polino.  *"  Antiparos.  "  Bara.  '^  Naxia. 
"  Syra.                "«  Myconi.                 '*  Tino.                 »«  Andro. 

"  Jura.  Pliny,  viii.  29,  says  the  inhabitants  were  driven  from  the  island 
by  mice.  '*  b.  c.  31. 

B.  X.  c.  V.  §  4, 0.  THE  CYCLADES.  209 

deputed  to  apply  for  an  abatement  of  the  tribute,  for  they 
were  required  to  pay  150  drachmae,  when  it  was  with  diffi- 
culty they  could  pay  100. 

Aratus,*  in  his  Details,  intimates  how  poor  they  were ; 

"  0  Latona,  thou  art  shortly  going  to  pass  by  me  [an  insignificant  is- 
land'] like  to  the  iron-bound  Pholegandrus,  or  to  unhappy  Gyarus. 

4.  Although  Delos^  was  so  famous,  yet  it  became  still  more 
so,  and  flourished  after  the  destruction  of  Corinth  by  the 
Romans.^  For  the  merchants  resorted  thither,  induced  by 
the  immunities  of  the  temple,  and  the  convenience  of  its  har- 
bour. It  lies  favourably'*  for  those  who  are  sailing  from 
Italy  and  Greece  to  Asia.  The  general  festival  held  there 
serves  the  purposes  of  commerce,  and  the  Romans  particularly 
I'requented  it  even  before  the  destruction  of  Corinth.^  The 
Athenians,  after  having  taken  the  island,  paid  equal  attention 
to  the  aifairs  both  of  religion  and  of  commerce.  But  the 
generals^  of  Mithridates,  and  the  tyrant, "^  who  had  occasioned 
the  defection  of  (Athens  from  the  Romans),  ravaged  it  en- 
tirely. The  Romans  received  the  island  in  a  desolate  state 
on  the  departure  of  the  king  to  his  own  country ;  and  it  has 
continued  in  an  impoverished  condition  to  the  present  time.^ 
The  Athenians  are  now  in  possession  of  it. 

o.  Rheneia^  is  a  small  desert  island  4  stadia  from  Delos, 
where  are  the  sepulchral  monuments  of  the  Delians.  For  it 
is  not  permitted  to  bury  the  dead  in  Delos,  nor  to  burn  a 

^  The  title  (which  has  been  much  questioned  by  critics)  of  this  lost 
work  of  Aratus  appears  to  have  been,  from  this  passage,  Td  Kara.  XtirTov, 
which  Latin  translators  have  rendered,  Minuta,  or  Details.  Casaubon  is 
of  opinion  that  it  is  the  same  as  referred  to  by  Callimachus,  under  the 
title  'Pr}(TtiQ  XsTrrai,  Clever  Sayings.  Ernest,  ad  Callim.  Ep.  29.  T.  1.  p. 
333.    The  translation  of  the  lines  quoted  follows  the  corrections  of  Coray. 

2  In  the  middle  of  the  Cyclades,  and  by  far  the  most  remarkable,  is 
Delos,  celebrated  for  the  temple  of  Apollo,  and  for  its  commerce.  Pliny 
iv.  12. 

3  Under  L.  Mummius,  b.  c.  146.  *  Thucyd.  i.  36. 

5  Kai  oTe  avvtarrfKH  r)  KopivQog.         *  Archelaiis  and  Metrophanes. 

7  Aristion,  b.  c.  87. 

8  Pausanias,  viii.  33,  §  2,  (writing  in  the  time  of  Hadrian,)  says  of 
Delos,  that  with  the  exception  of  the  persons  who  came  from  Athens, 
for  the  purpose  of  protecting  the  temple  and  to  perform  the  Delian  cere- 
monies, it  was  deserted, 

^  Rhena,  called  also  Dhiles ;  but  it  is  the  largest  of  the  two  islands  now 
bearing  that  name.  Pliny  says  it  was  anciently  called  also  Celadussa, 
from  the  noise  of  the  waves,  KtKaStiv. 

VOL.    II.  p 

210  STRABO.  Casatjb.  486. 

dead  body  there.  It  is  not  permitted  even  to  keep  a  dog  in 

Formerly  it  had  the  name  of  Ortygia.^ 

6.  Ceos'^  once  contained  lour  cities.  Two  remain,  lulls 
and  Carthae,  to  -which  the  inhabitants  of  the  others  were 
transferred ;  those  of  Poeeessa  to  Carthae,  and  those  of  Cores- 
sia  to  lulls.  Simonides  the  lyric  poet,  and  Bacchylides  his 
nephew,  and  after  their  times  Erasistratus  the  physician,  and 
Ariston  the  Peripatetic  philosopher,  the  imitator  of  Bion,^  the 
Borysthenite,  were  natives  of  this  city. 

There  was  an  ancient  law  among  these  people,  mentioned 
by  Menander. 

"  Phanias,  that  is  a  good  law  of  the  Ceans ;  who  cannot  Hve  comfortably 
(or  well),  let  him  not  live  miserably  (or  ill)."* 

For  the  law,  it  seems,  ordained  that  those  above  sixty  years 
old  should  be  compelled  to  drink  hemlock,  in  order  that  there 
might  be  sufficient  food  for  the  rest.  It  is  said  that  once 
when  they  were  besieged  by  the  Athenians,  a  decree  was 
passed  to  the  effect  that  the  oldest  persons,  fixing  the  age, 
sliould  be  put  to  death,  and  that  the  besiegers  retired  in  con- 

The  city  lies  on  a  mountain,  at  a  distance  from  the  sea  of 
about  25  stadia.  Its  arsenal  is  the  place  on  which  Coressia 
was  built,  which  does  not  contain  the  population  even  of  a 
village.  Near  the  Coressian  territory  and  Poeeessa  is  a  tem- 
ple of  Apollo  Sminthius.  But  between  the  temple  and  the 
ruins  of  Poeeessa  is  the  temple  of  Minerva  Nedusia,  built  by 
Nestor,  on  his  return  from  Troy.  The  river  Elixus  runs 
around  the  territory  of  Coressia. 

7.  After  Ceos  are  Naxos^  and  Andros,^  considerable 
islands,  and  Paros,  the  birth-place  of  the  poet  Archilochus. 
Thasos'*'  was  founded  by  Parians,  and  Parium,^  a  city  in  the 
Propontis.  In  this  last  place  there  is  said  to  be  an  altar 
worthy  of  notice,  each  of  whose  sides  is  a  stadium  in  length. 

*  Virg.  ^n.  ill.  124,  Linquimus  Ortygiae  portus  pelagoque  volamus. 
-  Zia.  Pinguia  Caeae, 

Ter  centum  nivei  tondent  dumeta  juvenci. 

Virg.  Geor.  i.  14,  15. 
^  Of  Olbia  or  Olbiopolis,  on  the  Borysthenes  or  Bog. 

*  6  jxri  Swafxevog  i^fjv  KaXaii;  ov  Z,y  kukuiq. 

*  Naxia.  ^  Audro.  ^  Taschos.  ^  Kemars. 

B.  X.  c.  V.  §  8—12.  THE  CYCLADES.  211 

In  Paros  is  obtained  the  Parian  marble,  the  best  adapted  for 
statuary  work.  ^ 

8.  Here  also  is  Syros,  (the  first  syllable  is  long,)  where 
Pherecydes  the  son  of  Babys  was  born.  The  Athenian 
Pherecydes  is  younger  than  the  latter  person.  The  poet  seems 
to  have  mentioned  this  island  under  the  name  of  Syria ; 

"  above  Ortygia  is  an  island  called  Syria."  ^ 

9.  Myconus  ^  is  an  island  beneath  which,  according  to  the 
mythologists,  lie  the  last  of  the  giants,  destroyed  by  Hercules  ; 
whence  the  proverb,  "  all  under  one  Myconus,"  applied  to 
persons  who  collect  under  one  title  things  that  are  disjoined 
by  nature.  Some  also  call  bald  persons  Mioonians,  because 
baldness  is  frequent  among  the  inhabitants  of  the  island."* 

10.  Seriphos^  is  the  island  where  is  laid  the  scene  of  the 
fable  of  Dictys,  who  drew  to  land  in  his  net  the  chest  in 
which  were  enclosed  Perseus  and  his  mother  Danae,  who 
were  thrown  into  the  sea  by  order  of  Acrisius,  the  father 
of  Danae.  There  it  is  said  Perseus  was  brought  up,  and 
to  this  island  he  brought  the  head  of  the  Gorgon ;  he  ex- 
hibited it  to  the  Seriphians,  and  turned  them  all  into  stone. 
This  he  did  to  avenge  the  wrongs  of  his  mother,  because  their 
king  Polydectes,  with  the  assistance  of  his  subjects,  desired 
to  make  her  his  wife  by  force.  Seriphus  abounds  so  much 
with  rocks,  that  they  say  in  jest  that  it  was  the  work  of  the 

1 1.  Tenos^  has  a  small  city,  but  there  is,  in  a  grove  beyond 
it,  a  large  temple  of  Neptune  worthy  of  notice.  It  contains 
large  banqueting  rooms,  a  proof  of  the  great  multitudes  that 
repair  thither  from  the  neighbouring  places  to  celebrate  a  feast, 
and  to  perform  a  common  sacrifice  in  honour  of  Neptune. 

12.  To  the  Sporades  belongs  Amorgos,"^  the  birth-place  of 

^  The  marble  was  taken  from  Mt.  Marpessus.  Pliny  xxxvi.  5 ;  Virg, 
iEn.  6,  Marpesia  cautes. 

2  Od.  XV.  402.  3  Myconi. 

*  Myconi  calva  omnis  juventus.  Terence,  Hecy.  a.  3,  s.  4;  Pliny, 
b.  xi.  c.  37. 

*  It  was  an  erroneous  opinion  entertained  by  the  ancients,  that  frogs 
did  not  croak  in  this  island  (Sirpho)  ;  hence  the  proverb,  a  Seriphian  frog, 
(3aTpaxog  'S.epi(pioQ. 

^  Tine.     Anciently  it  had  also  the  names  Hydrussa  and  Ophiussa. 
^  Amorgu. 

p  2 

212  STRABO.  Casaub.  488. 

Simonides,    the  Iambic   poet;    Lebinthus^    also,   and   Leria 
(Lero.s).^     Phocylides  refers  to  Leria  in  these  lines ; 

"the  Lerians  are  bad,  not  some,  but  all,  except  Procles;  but  Procles  is 
a  Lerian ; " 

for  the  Lerians  are  reputed  to  have  bad  dispositions. 

13.  Near  these  islands  are  Patmos,^  and  the  Corassiae* 
islands,  situated  to  the  west  of  Icaria,^  as  the  latter  is  with 
respect  to  Samos. 

Icaria  has  no  inhabitants,  but  it  has  pastures,  of  which  the 
Samians  avail  themselves.  Notwithstanding  its  condition  it 
is  famous,  and  gives  the  name  of  Icarian  to  the  sea  in  front 
of  it,  in  which  are  situated  Samos,  Cos,  and  the  islands  just 
mentioned,^  the  Corassiae,  Patmos,  and  Leros"^  [in  Samos  is  the 
mountain  the  Cerceteus,  more  celebrated  than  the  Ampelus, 
which  overhangs  the  city  of  the  Samians].^  Continuous  to 
the  Icarian  sea,  towards  the  south,  is  the  Carpathian  sea,  and 
the  -Egyptian  sea  to  this ;  to  the  west  are  the  Cretan  and 
African  seas. 

14.  In  the  Carpathian  sea,  between  Cos,  Rhodes,  and  Crete, 
are  situated  many  of  the  Sporades,  as  Astypalaea,^  Telos,^^ 
Chalcia,^^  and  those  mentioned  by  Homer  in  the  Catalogue. 

"  They  who  occupied  Nisyrus,  Crapathus,  Casus,  and  Cos, 
The  city  of  Eurypylus,  and  the  Calydnas  islands."  '^ 

Except  Cos,  and  Rhodes,  of  which  we  shall  speak  hereafter, 

'  Levita.  *  Lero.  ^  Patmo. 

*  The  Fumi ;  called  in  b.  xiv.  c.  i.  §  13,  Corsiae.  ^  Nicaria. 

'  According  to  the  enumeration  here  made  by  Strabo,  of  the  islands 
comprehended  in  the  Icarian  sea,  it  appears  that  in  his  opinion  none  of 
the  islands  situated  to  the  north  of  Cos  belonged  to  the  Carpathian  sea ; 
for  according  to  his  own  statement,  which  immediately  follows,  the  Car- 
pathian sea  to  the  north  was  bounded  by  the  Icarian  sea. 

7  All  the  manuscripts  and  all  editions  give  Aspog.  Is  the  island  spoken 
of  in  this  passage  the  same  as  the  one  mentioned  just  above  by  the  name 
of  Leria?  Pliny,  Hist.  Nat.  b.  iv.  23,  appears  to  have  been  acquainted 
with  two  islands  bearing  the  name  of  Leros.  One,  from  the  position  he 
assigns  to  it,  appears  to  be  the  one  Strabo  above  speaks  of  under  the 
name  of  Leria ;  but  the  second  Leros  of  Pliny,  b.  v.  §  36,  must  be  placed 
on  the  coast  of  Caria.  Strabo  appears  to  have  entertained  nearly  the 
same  ideas,  for  we  shall  hereafter  (b.  xiv.  c.  i.  §  6)  see  him  give  the  name 
of  Leros  to  an  island  situated  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Icaria ;  and  below 
(§  19)  he  cites  also  a  Leros,  which  would  seem  to  have  been  in  the  neigh- 
bourhood of  the  southern  extremity  of  Caria. 

*  Probably  internolated.  ®  Istanpolia,  or  Stanpalia. 
'»  Tino.                        "  Carchi.  '«  II.  ii.  G76. 

B,  X.  c.  V.  §  15—19.     THE  SPORADES.    CRETE.  213 

we  place  the  rest  among  the  Sporades,  and  we  mention  them 
here  although  they  do  not  lie  near  Europe,  but  Asia,  because 
the  course  of*  my  work  induces  me  to  include  the  Sporades 
in  the  description  of  Crete  and  of  the  Cyclades. 

We  shall  traverse  in  the  description  of  Asia  the  consider- 
able islands  adjacent  to  that  country,  as  Cyprus,  Rhodes,  Cos, 
and  those  situated  on  the  succeeding  line  of  coast,  Samos, 
Chios,  Lesbos,  and  Tenedos.  At  present  we  are  to  describe 
the  remaining  islands  of  the  Sporades,  which  deserve  mention. 

15.  Astypalsea  lies  far  out  at  sea,  and  contains  a  city. 
Telos,  which  is  long,  high,  and  narrow,  in  circumference 

about  140  stadia,  with  a  shelter  for  vessels,  extends  along  the 
Cnidian  territory. 

Chalcia  is  distant  from  Telos  80,  from  Carpathus  400  stadia, 
and  about  double  this  number  from  Astypalaea.  It  has  a  set- 
tlement of  the  same  name,  a  temple  of  Apollo,  and  a  harbour. 

16.  Nisyrus  lies  to  the  north  of  Telos,  at  the  distance  of 
about  60  stadia,  which  is  its  distance  also  from  Cos.  It  is 
round,  lofty,  and  rocky,  and  has  abundance  of  mill-stone, 
whence  the  neighbouring  people  are  well  supplied  with  stones 
for  grinding.  It  contains  a  city  of  the  same  name,  a  harbour, 
hot  springs,  and  a  temple  of  Neptune.  Its  circumference  is 
80  stadia.  Near  it  are  small  islands,  called  the  islands  of  the 
Nisyrians.  Nisyrus  is  said  to  be  a  fragment  broken  off  from 
Cos ;  a  story  is  also  told  of  Neptune,  that  when  pursuing  Poly- 
botes,.  one  of  the  giants,  he  broke  off  with  his  trident  a  piece 
of  the  island  Cos,  and  hurled  it  at  him,  and  that  the  missile 
became  the  island  Nisyrus,  with  the  giant  lying  beneath  it. 
But  some  say  that  the  giant  lies  beneath  Cos. 

17.  Carpathus,  which  the  poet  calls  Crapathus,  is  lofty, 
having  a  circumference  of  200  stadia.  It  contained  four  cities, 
and  its  name  was  famous,  which  it  imparted  to  the  surround- 
ing sea.  One  of  the  cities  was  called  Nisyrus,  after  the  name 
of  the  island  Nisyrus.  It  lies  opposite  Leuce  Acte  in  Africa, 
which  is  distant  about  1000  stadia  from  Alexandria,  and 
about  4000  from  Carpathus. 

18.  Casus  is  distant  from  Carpathus  70,  and  from  the  pro- 
montory Salmonium  in  Crete  250  stadia.  It  is  80  stadia  in 
circumference.  It  contains  a  city  of  the  same  name ;  and  many 
islands,  called  the  islands  of  the  Casii,  lie  about  it. 

19.  They  say  that  the  poet  calls  the  Sporades,  Calydnse, 

214  STRABO.  Casaub.  489. 

one  of  which  is  Calymna.^  But  it  is  probable  that  as  the 
islands,  which  are  near  and  dependent,  have  their  names  from 
the  Nisjrii  and  Casii,  so  those  that  lie  around  Calymna  had 
their  name  from  that  island,  which  was  then  perhaps  called 
Calydna.  Some  say  that  the  Calydnae  islands  are  two,  Leros 
and  Calymna,  and  that  the  poet  means  these.  But  the  Scepsian 
says,  that  the  name  of  the  island  was  used  in  the  plural 
number,  Calymnae,  like  Athense,  Thebae,  and  that  the  words 
of  the  poet  must  be  understood  according  to  the  figure  hyper- 
baton,  or  inversion,  for  he  does  not  say,  the  islands  Calydnae, 

"  they  who  occupied  the  islands  Nisyrus,  Crapathus,  Casus,  and  Cos,  the 
city  of  Eurypylus,  and  Calydnae." 

All  the  honey  of  the  islands  is,  for  the  most  part,  excellent, 
and  rivals  that  of  Attica ;  but  the  honey  of  these  islands  sur- 
passes it,  particularly  that  of  Calymna.  ^ 

^  Calimno. 

-  Ffecundaque  melle  Calydna  (v.  1.  Calumne).  Ovid.  Met.  b.  viii.  ver. 


The  Eleventh  Book  commences  with  Asia  and  the  river  Don,  which,  taking 
its  rise  in  the  northern  regions,  separates  Europe  from  Asia.  It  includes 
the  nations  situated  in  Asia  near  its  sources  on  the  east  and  south,  and 
the  barbarous  Asiatic  nations  who  occupy  the  neighbourhood  of  Mount 
Caucasus,  among  whom  are  the  Amazones,  Massagetae,  Scythians,  Al- 
bani,  Iberes,  Bactriani,  Caspii,  Medes,  Persians,  and  the  two  Armenias, 
extending  to  Mesopotamia.  Among  these  nations  are  included  the  Tro- 
glodytae,  Heniochi,  Sceptuchi,  Soanes,  Assyrians,  Polyphagi,  Nabiani, 
JSiraci,  and  Tapyri.  Mention  is  made  of  Jason  and  Medea,  and  of  the 
cities  founded  by  them :— of  Xerxes,  Mithridates,  and  Alexander,  son  of 


1.  Asia  is  contiguous  to  Europe,  approaching  close  to  it 
at  the  Tanais  or  Don. 

I  am  to  describe  this  country  next,  after  dividing  it,  for 
the  sake  of  perspicuity,  by  certain  natural  boundaries.  What 
Eratosthenes  has  done  with  respect  to  the  whole  habitable 
earth,  this  I  propose  to  do  with  respect  to  Asia. 

2.  The  Taurus,  extending  from  west  to  east,  embraces  the 
middle  of  this  continent,  like  a  girdle,  leaving  one  portion  to 
the  north,  another  to  the  south.  The  Greeks  call  the  former 
Asia  Within  the  Taurus,'  the  latter,  Asia  Without  the 
Taurus.  We  have  said  this  before,  but  it  is  repeated  now  to 
assist  the  memory. 

3.  The  Taurus  has  in  many  places  a  breadth  of  3000 
stadia  ;  its  length  equals  that  of  Asia,  namely  45,000  stadia,^ 

'  B.  ii.  c.  V.  §31. 

^  The  following  are  the  measurements  of  our  author  : 


From  Rhodes  to  Issus 5,000 

From  Issus  to  the  Caspian  Gates       ....  10,000 

From  the  Caspian  Gates  to  the  sources  of  the  Indus  14,000 

.  From  the  Indus  to  the  mouth  of  the  Ganges          .         .  13.500 

From  thence  to  Thinae 2,500 


216  STRABO.  Casaub.  491. 

reckoning  from  the  continent  opposite  to  Rhodes  to  the  eastern 
extremities  of  India  and  Scythia. 

4.  It  is  divided  into  many  parts,  which  are  circumscribed 
by  boundaries  of  greater  or  less  extent,  and  distinguished  by 
various  names. 

But  as  such  an  extended  range  of  mountains  must  comprise 
nations  some  of  which  are  little  known,  and  others  with 
whom  we  are  well  acquainted,  as  Parthians,^  Medes,  Arme- 
nians, some  of  the  Cappadocians,  Cilicians,  and  Pisidians  ; 
those  which  approach  near  the  northern  parts  must  be  as- 
signed to  the  north,  (northern  Asia,)  those  approximating 
the  southern  parts,  to  the  south,  (southern  Asia,)  and  those 
situated  in  the  middle  of  the  mountains  must  be  placed  on 
account  of  the  similarity  of  the  temperature  of  the  air,  for  it 
is  cold  to  the  north,  while  the  air  of  the  south  is  warm. 

The  currents  of  almost  all  the  rivers  which  flow  from  the 
Taurus  are  in  a  direction  contrary  to  each  other,  some  run- 
ning to  the  north,  others  to  the  south,  at  least  at  the  com- 
mencement of  their  course,  although  afterwards  some  bend 
towards  the  east  or  west.  They  naturally  suggest  the  adop- 
tion of  this  chain  of  mountains  as  a  boundary  in  the  division 
of  Asia  into  two  portions ;  in  the  same  manner  that  the  sea 
within  the  Pillars,  which  for  the  most  part  runs  in  the  same 
line  with  these  mountains,  conveniently  forms  two  conti- 
nents, Europe  and  Africa,  and  is  a  remarkable  boundary  to 

5.  In  passing  in  our  geographical  description  from  Europe 
to  Asia,  the  first  parts  of  the  country  which  present  them- 
selves are  those  in  the  northern  division,  and  we  shall  there- 
fore begin  with  these. 

Of  these  parts  the  first  are  those  about  the  Tana'is,  (or 
Don,)  which  we  have  assumed  as  the  boundary  of  Europe 
and  Asia.  These  have  a  kind  of  peninsular  form,  for  they  are 
surrounded  on  the  west  by  the  river  Tana'is  (or  Don)  and 
the  Palus  Maaotis  ^  as  far  as  the  Cimmerian  Bosporus,^  and 
that  part  of  the  coast  of  the  Euxine  which  terminates  at 
Colchis  ;  on  the  north  by  the  Ocean,  as  far  as  the  mouth  of 
the  Caspian  Sea ;  on  the  east  by  the  same  sea,  as  far  as  the 

'   Strabo  calls  the  Parthians,  Parthva?! ;   and  Parthia,  Parthysea. 
2  The  Sea  of  AzofF.  ^  The"  Straits  of  Kertch  or  Zabache. 

B.  XI.  c.  I.  §  6.  ASIA.  217 

confines  of  Albania  and  Armenia^  where  the  rivers  Cyrus  ^ 
and  Araxes^  empty  themselves;  the  latter  flowing  through 
Armenia,  and  the  Cyrus  through  Iberia^  and  Albania  ;'*  on 
the  south  is  the  tract  of  country  extending  from  the  mouth  of 
the  Cyrus  as  far  as  Colchis,  and  comprising  about  3000 
stadia  from  sea  to  sea,  across  the  territory  of  the  Albani,  and 
Iberes,^  so  as  to  represent  an  isthmus.^ 

Those  writers  do  not  deserve  attention  who  contract  the 
isthmus  as  much  as  Cleitarchus,  according  to  whom  it  is  sub- 
ject to  inundations  of  the  sea  from  either  side.  According  to 
Posidonius  the  isthmus  is  1500  stadia  in  extent,  that  is,  as 
large  as  the  isthmus  from  Pelusium  to  the  Red  Sea.  And  I 
think,  says  he,  that  the  isthmus  between  the  Palus  Maeotis 
and  the  Ocean  is  not  very  different  from  this  in  extent. 

6.  I  know  not  how  any  one  can  rely  upon  his  authority 
respecting  what  is  uncertain,  when  he  has  nothing  probable 
to  advance  on  the  subject ;  for  he  reasons  so  falsely  respecting 
things  which  are  evident,  and  this  too  when  he  enjoyed  the 
friendship  of  Pompey,  who  had  carried  on  war  against  the 
Iberes  and  Albani,  and  was  acquainted  with  both  the  Cas- 
pian and  Colchian  "^  Seas  on  each  side  of  the  isthmus.  It  is 
related,  that  when  Pompey  ^  was  at  Rhodes,  on  his  expedi- 
tion against  the  pirates,  (he  was  soon  afterwards  to  carry  on 
war  against  Mithridates  and  the  nations  as  far  as  the  Caspian 
Sea,)  he  accidentally  heard  a  philosophical  lecture  of  Posido- 
nius ;  and  on  his  departure  he  asked  Posidonius  if  he  had  any 
commands  ;  to  which  he  replied, 

'  The  Kur  or  Kour.  ^  Eraskh  or  Aras.  '  Georgia. 

*  Shirvan.  ^  See  b.  ii.  c.  v.  §  31. 

'  To  iinderstand  how  this  part  of  Asia  formed  a  peninsula,  according  to 
the  ideas  of  our  author,  we  must  bear  in  mind,  that  (1)  he  supposed  the 
source  of  the  Don  to  have  been  situated  in  the  neighbourhood  of  the 
Northern  Ocean  ;  (2)  he  imagined  the  Caspian  Sea  to  communicate  with 
the  same  Ocean.  Thus  all  the  territory  comprehended  between  the  Don 
and  the  Caspian  formed  a  sort  of  peninsula,  united  to  the  continent  by  an 
isthmus  which  separated  the  Euxine  from  the  Caspian,  and  on  which  was 
situated  Colchis,  Iberia,  and  Albania.  The  3000  stadia  assigned  to  the 
breadth  of  this  isthmus  appears  to  be  measured  by  stadia  of  1111 1  to  a  de- 
gree.    Goftsellin. 

'  The  Euxine. 

'  Pompey  appears  to  have  visited  this  philosopher  twice  on  this  occa- 
sion, B.  c.  62,  and  b.  c.  67,  on  the  termination  of  his  eastern  cam- 

218  STRABO.  Casatjb.  492. 

"  To  stand  the  first  in  worth,  as  in  command."  • 

Add  to  this,  that  he  wrote  the  history  of  Pompey.  For 
these  reasons  he  ought  to  have  paid  a  greater  regard  to  truth. 

7.  The  second  portion  is  that  above  the  Hyrcanian,^  which 
we  also  call  the  Caspian  Sea,  extending  as  far  as  the  Scythians 
near  the  Indians. 

The  third  portion  is  continuous  with  the  above-mention- 
ed isthmus,  and  consists  of  the  country  following  next  in 
order  to  the  isthmus  and  the  Caspian  Gates,^  and  approaching 
nearest  the  parts  within  the  Taurus,  and  to  Europe  ;  these  are 
Media,  Armenia,  Cappadocia,  and  the  intervening  country.'* 

The  fourth  portion  consists  of  the  tract  within  the  Halys,^ 
and  the  parts  upon  and  without  the  Taurus,  which  coincide 
with  the  peninsula  formed  by  the  isthmus,^  which  separates 
the  Euxine-  and  the  Cilician  Seas.  Among  the  other  coun- 
tries beyond  the  Taurus  we  place  Indica  and  Ariana,^  as  far 

'  II.  vi.  208.     Pope. 

'  In  many  authors  these  names  are  used  indifferently,  the  one  for  the 
other ;  they  are  however  distinguished  by  Pliny,  (iv.  13,)  who  states  that 
this  sea  begins  to  be  called  the  Caspian  after  you  have  passed  the  river 
Cyrus,  (Kur,)  and  that  the  Caspii  live  near  it;  and  in  vi.  16,  that  it  is 
called  the  Hyrcanian  Sea,  from  the  Hyrcani  who  live  along  its  shores. 
The  western  side  should  therefore  in  strictness  be  called  the  Caspian ; 
the  eastern,  the  Hyrcanian.    Smith,  art.  Caspium  Mare. 

^  A  narrow  pass  leading  from  North  Western  Asia  into  the  N.  E 
provinces  of  Persia.  Their  exact  position  was  at  the  division  of  Parthia 
from  Media,  about  a  day's  journey  from  the  Median  town  of  Rhaga?. 
(Arrian.  iii.  19.)  According  to  Isodorus  Charax,  they  were  immediately 
below  Mt.  Caspius.  As  in  the  case  of  the  people  called  Caspii,  there 
seem  to  have  been  two  mountains  Caspius,  one  near  the  Armenian  fron- 
tier, the  other  near  the  Parthian.  It  was  through  the  pass  of  the  Caspiae 
Pylse  that  Alexander  the  Great  pursued  Darius.  (Arrian.  Anah.  iii.  19  ; 
Curt.  vi.  14 ;  Amm.  Marc,  xxiii.  6.)  It  was  one  of  the  most  important 
places  in  ancient  geography,  and  from  it  many  of  the  meridians  were  mea- 
sured. The  exact  place  corresponding  with  the  Caspiae  Pylae  is  probably  a 
spot  between  Hark-a-Koh,  and  Siah-Koh,  about  6  parasangs  from  Rexj,  the 
name  of  the  entrance  of  which  is  called  Dereh.  Smith,  art.   Caspige  Pylae.^ 

*  Du  Theil  justly  remarks  on  the  obscurity  of  this  passage.  His 
translation  or  paraphrase  is  as  follows  :  "  La  troisieme  contiendra  ce  qui 
touche  a  V  isthme  dont  nous  avons  parle ;  et,  par  suite,  ceux  des  pays 
qui,  au  sud  de  cet  isthme  et  des  Pyles  Caspiennes,  mais  to uj ours  en  decja, 
ou,  au  moins,  dans  le  sein  meme  du  Taurus,  se  succedant  de  V  est  a  V 
ouest,  se  rapprochent  le  plus  de  1'  Europe.  In  b.  ii.  c  v.  §  31,  Strabo 
assigns  Colchis  to  the  third  portion,  but  in  this  book  to  the  first. 

5  The  Kizil  Ermak.  «  B.  i.  c.  iii.  §  2. 

^  A  district  of  wide  extent  in  Central  Asia,  comprehending  nearly  the 

B.  XI.  c.  II.  H-  ASIA.  219 

as  the  nations  which  extend  to  the  Persian  Sea,  the  Arabian 
Gulf,  and  the  Nile,  and  to  the  Egyptian  and  the  Issic  seas. 


1.  According  to  this  disposition,  the  first  portion  towards 
the  north  and  the  Ocean  is  inhabited  by  certain  tribes  of  Scy- 
thians, shepherds,  (nomades,)  and  Hamaxoeci  (or  those  who 
live  in  waggon-houses).  Within  these  tribes  live  Sarmatians, 
who  also  are  Scythians,  Aorsi,^  and  Siraci,  extending  as  far  as 
the  Caucasian  Mountains  towards  the  south.  Some  of  these 
are  Nomades,  or  shepherd  tribes,  others  Scenitae,  (or  dwellers 
in  tents,)  and  Georgi,  or  tillers  of  the  ground.  About  the 
lake  Mgeotis  live  the  Maeotae.  Close  to  the  sea  is  the  Asiatic 
portion  of  the  Bosporus  and  Sindica.^  Next  follow  Achaei, 
Zygi,  Heniochi,^  Cercetae,  and  Macropogones  (or  the  long- 
beards).  Above  these  people  are  situated  the  passes  of  the 
Phtheirophagi  (or  Lice-eaters).  After  the  Heniochi  is  Colchis, 
lying  at  the  foot  of  the  Caucasian  and  Moschic  mountains. 
Having  assumed  the  Tanai's  as  the  boundary  of  Europe  and 
Asia,  we  must  begin  our  description  in  detail  from  this  river. 

■whole  of  ancient  Persia;  and  bounded  on  the  N.  by  the  provinces  of 
Bactriana,  Margiana,  and  Hyrcania  ;  on  the  E.  by  the  Indus ;  on  the  S.  by 
the  Indian  Ocean  and  the  eastern  portion  of  the  Persian  Gulf;  and  on  the 
W.  by  Media  and  the  mountains  S,  of  the  Caspian  Sea.  Its  exact  limits 
are  laid  down  with  little  accuracy  in  ancient  authors,  and  it  seems  to  have 
been  often  confounded  (as  in  Pliny,  b.  vi.  c.  23,  25)  with  the  small  pro- 
vince of  Aria.  It  comprehended  the  provinces  of  Gedrosia,  Drangiana, 
Arachosia,  Paropamisus  mountains,  Aria,  Parthia,  and  Carmania.  Smith, 
art.  Ariana.     See  b.  xv.  c.  ii.  §  7,  8. 

*  The  Aorsi  and  Siraci  occupied  the  country  between  the  Sea  of  Azoflf, 
the  Don,  the  Volga,  the  Caspian  Sea,  and  the  Terek.  May  not  the  Aorsi, 
says  Gossellin,  be  the  same  as  the  Thyrsageta;,  Agathursi,  Utidorsi, 
Adorsi,  Alanorsi  of  other  writers,  but  whose  real  name  is  Thyrsi  ?  The 
Siraci  do  not  appear  to  differ  from  the  Soraci  or  Seraci. of  Tacitus,  (Ann. 
xii.  15,  &c.,)  and  may  be  the  same  as  lyrces,  'Ivp/ctf,  afterwards  called 

^  The  country  to  the  N.  and  N.  E.  of  Anapa.  By  Bosporus  we  are  to 
understand  the  territory  on  each  side  of  the  Straits  of  Kertch. 

3  B.  ii.  c.  V.  §  31. 

220  STRABO.  Casaub.  493. 

2.  The  Tana'is  or  Don  flows  from  the  northern  parts.  It  does 
not  however  flow  in  a  direction  diametrically  opposite  to  the 
Nile,  as  some  suppose,  but  its  course  is  more  to  the  east  than 
that  of  the  latter  river  ;  its  sources,  like  those  of  the  Nile, 
are  unknown.  A  great  part  of  the  course  of  the  Nile  is  ap- 
parent, for  it  traverses  a  country  the  whole  of  which  is  easy 
of  access,  and  its  stream  is  navigable  to  a  great  distance  from 
its  mouth.  We  are  acquainted  with  the  mouths  of  the  Don, 
(there  are  two  in  the  most  northerly  parts  of  the  Maeotis,  dis- 
tant 60  stadia  from  each  other,)  but  a  small  part  only  of  the 
tract  above  the  mouths  is  explored,  on  account  of  the  sever- 
ity of  the  cold,  and  the  destitute  state  of  the  country  ;  the 
natives  are  able  to  endure  it,  who  subsist,  like  the  wandering 
shepherd  tribes,  on  the  flesh  of  their  animals  and  on  milk,  but 
strangers  cannot  bear  the  climate  nor  its  privations.  Besides, 
the  nomades  dislike  intercourse  with  other  people,  and  being 
a  strong  and  numerous  tribe  have  excluded  travellers  from 
every  part  of  the  country  which  is  accessible,  and  from  all 
such  rivers  as  are  navigable.  For  this  reason  some  have  sup- 
posed that  the  sources  of  the  river  are  among  the  Caucasian 
mountains,  that,  after  flowing  in  a  full  stream  towards  the 
north,  it  then  makes  a  bend,  and  discharges  itself  into  the 
Maeotis.  Theophanes  '  of  Mitylene  is  of  the  same  opinion  with 
these  writers.  Others  suppose  that  it  comes  from  the  higher 
parts  of  the  Danube,  but  they  do  not  produce  any  proof  of  so 
remote  a  source,  and  in  other  climates,  though  they  seem  to 
think  it  impossible  for  it  to  rise  at  no  great  distance  and  in 
the  north. 

3.  Upon  the  river,  and  on  the  lake,  stands  a  city  Tana'is, 
founded  by  the  Greeks,  who  possess  the  Bosporus  ;  but 
lately  the  King  Polemon  '^  laid  it  waste  on  account  of  the  re- 
fractory disposition  of  the  inhabitants.  It  was  the  common 
mart  both  of  the  Asiatic  and  of  the  European  nomades,  and 
of  those  who  navigate  the  lake  from  the  Bosporus,  some  of 
whom  bring  slaves  and  hides,  or  any  other  nomadic  commo- 
dity ;  others  exchange  wine  for  clothes,  and  other  articles 
peculiar  to  a  civilized  mode  of  life. 

*  Cn.  Pompeius  Theophanes  was  one  of  the  more  intimate  friends  of 
Pompey,  by  whom  he  was  presented  with  the  Roman  franchise  in  the 
presence  of  his  army.  This  occurred  in  all  probabiUty  about  b.  c.  62. 
Smith,  art.  Theophanes.  *  About  b.  c.  16.     Smith,  art.  Polemon  I, 

B.  XI.  c.  II.  §  4, 5.  SEA  OF  AZOFF.  221 

In  front  of  the  mart  at  the  distance  of  100  stadia  is  an  is- 
land Alopecia,  a  settlement  of  a  mixed  people.  There  are 
other  small  islands  not  far  off  in  the  lake. 

The  city  Tanais,^  to  those  who  sail  in  a  direct  line  to- 
wards the  north,  is  distant  from  the  mouth  of  the  Mseotis 
2200  stadia,  nor  is  the  distance  much  greater  in  sailing  along 
the  coast  (on  the  east). 

4.  In  the  voyage  along  the  coast,  the  first  object  which 
presents  itself  to  those  who  have  proceeded  to  the  distance  of 
800  stadia  from  the  Tanais,  is  the  Great  Rhombites,  as  it  is 
called,  where  large  quantities  of  fish  are  captured  for  the  pur- 
pose of  being  salted.  Then  at  the  distance  of  800  stadia 
more  is  the  Lesser  Rhombites,^  and  a  promontory,  which  has 
smaller  fisheries.  The  [nomades]  at  the  former  have  small 
islands  as  stations  for  their  vessels,  those  at  the  Lesser  Rhom- 
bites are  the  Mseotie  who  cultivate  the  ground.  For  along 
the  whole  of  this  coasting  voyage  live  Mseotae,  who  are  hus- 
bandmen, but  not  less  addicted  to  war  than  the  nomades. 
They  are  divided  into  several  tribes ;  those  near  the  Tana'is 
are  more  savage,  those  contiguous  to  the  Bosporus  are  more 
gentle  in  their  manners. 

From  the  Lesser  Rhombites  to  Tyrambe,  and  the  river  An- 
ticeites,  are  600  stadia;  then  120  to  the  Cimmerian  village, 
whence  vessels  set  out  on  their  voyage  along  the  lake.  In 
this  coasting  voyage  we  meet  with  some  look-out  places,  (for 
observing  the  fish,)  said  to  belong  to  the  Clazomenians. 

5.  Cimmericum  was  formerly  a  city  built  upon  a  peninsula, 
the  isthmus  of  which  it  enclosed  with  a  ditch  and  mound. 
The  Cimmerii  once  possessed  great  power  in  the  Bosporus, 
whence  it  was  called  the  Cimmerian  Bosporus.  These  are 
the  people  who  overran  the  territory  of  the  inhabitants  of 
the  inland  parts,  on  the  right  of  the  Euxine,  as  far  as  Ionia. 
They  were  dislodged  from  these  places  by  Scythians,  and  the 
Scythians  by  Greeks,  who  founded  Panticapaeum,^  and  the 
other  cities  on  the  Bosporus. 

*  If  there  ever  did  exist  such  a  city  as  Tanais  I  should  expect  to 
find  it  at  the  extremity  of  that  northern  embouchure  of  the  Don,  which 
I  have  before  mentioned  as  bearing  the  very  name  the  Greeks  gave  to 
the  city,  with  the  slightest  variation  of  orthojrraphy,  in  the  appellation 
Tdanaets  or  Danaetz,     Clarke's  Travels  in  Russia,  chap.  14. 

^  Strabo  makes  the  distance  too  great  between  the  two  rivers  Rhom- 
bites. 3  Kertch. 

222  STRABO.  Casaub.  494. 

6.  Next  to  the  village  Achilleium/  where  is  the  temple  of 
Achilles,  are  20  stadia.  Here  is  the  narrowest  passage,  20 
stadia  or  more,  across  the  mouth  of  the  Maeotis  ;  on  the  op- 
posite continent  is  Myrmecium,  a  village.  Near  are  Hera- 
cleium  and  Parthenium. 

7.  Thence  to  the  monument  of  Satyrus  are  90  stadia ;  this 
is  a  mound  raised  on  a  promontory,^  in  memory  of  one  of  the 
illustrious  princes  of  the  Bosporus. 

8.  Near  it  is  Patraeus,^  a  village,  from  which  to  Corocon- 
dame,^  a  village,  are  130  stadia.  This  is  the  termination  of 
the  Cimmerian  Bosporus,  as  it  is  called.  The  narrow  pass- 
age at  the  mouth  of  the  Maeotis  derives  its  name  from  the 
straits  opposite  the  Achilleium,  and  the  Myrmecium ;  it  ex- 
tends as  far  as  Corocondame  and  a  small  village  opposite  to 
it  in  the  territory  of  the  Panticapeeans,  called  Acra,^  and 
separated  by  a  channel  of  70  stadia  in  width.  The  ice 
reaches  even  to  this  place,  for  the  Masotis  is  frozen  during 
severe  frost  so  as  to  become  passable  on  foot.  The  whole  of 
this  narrow  passage  has  good  harbours. 

9.  Beyond  Corocondame  is  a  large  lake^  which  is  called 
from  the  place  Corocondametis.  It  discharges  itself  into  the 
sea  at  the  distance  of  10  stadia  from  the  village.  A  branch^ 
of  the  river  Anticeites  empties  itself  into  the  lake,  and  forms 
an  island,  which  is  surrounded  by  the  waters  of  the  lake,  of 
the  Maeotis,  and  of  the  river.  Some  persons  give  this  river 
the  name  of  Hypanis,^  as  well  as  to  that^  near  the  Borys- 

10.  Upon  sailing  ^^  into  the  Corocondametis,  we  meet  with 

*  According  to  La  Motraye,  Achilleum  corresponds  to  Adasbournout, 
but  Du  Theil  quotes  also  the  following  passage  from  Peyssonel.  Ac- 
cording to  Strabo,  Achilleum  must  have  been  situated  opposite  Casau-dip, 
the  ancient  Parthenium  on  the  point  Tchochekha-Bournou  (the  pig's 
head).  But  perhaps  the  ancients  placed  Achilleum  near  the  entrance  of 
the  Euxine  into  the  Palus  Maeotis.  Is  not  the  fort  of  Achou,  which  is  8 
leagues  more  to  the  east  on  the  Palus  Maeotis,  the  true  Achilleum,  tlie 
name  being  corrupted  and  abridged  by  the  Tartars  ? 

^  The  point  Rubanova.  ^  Ada.  *  Taman.  *  C.  Takli. 

^  Ak  Tengis.  '  Another  branch  of  the  Kuban. 

*  The  Kuban,  anciently  also  the  Vardanus. 

«  The  Bog.  10  The  Dnieper. 

"  It  is  probable  that  the  Kuban  Lake  is  here  confounded  with,  or  con- 
sidered a  portion  of,  the  Lake  Ak  Tengis.  Considering  the  intricacy  of 
all  this  coast,  the  changes  that  have  taken  place,  and  the  absence  of  ac- 

B.  XI.  c.  II.  ^  11.  SEA  OF  AZOFF.  223 

Phanagoria,  a  considerable  city,  Cepi,  Hermonas§a,  and  Apa- 
turum,  the  temple  of  Venus  (Apatura).  Of  these  cities  Phana- 
goria and  Cepi  are  situated  in  the  above-mentioned  island  on 
the  left  hand  at  the  entrance  of  the  lake ;  the  others  are  on. 
the  right  hand  in  Sindica  beyond  the  Hypanis.  There  is 
Gorgipia,^  but  the  royal  seat  of  the  Sindi  is  in  Sindica  near 
the  sea,  and  Aborace. 

All  those  who  are  subject  to  the  princes  of  the  Bosporus 
are  called  Bosporani.  The  capital  of  the  European  Bospo- 
rani  is  Panticapaeum,  and  of  the  Asian  Bosporani,  the  city  of 
Phanagorium,^  for  this  is  the  name  given  to  it.  Phanagoria 
seems  to  be  the  mart  for  those  commodities  which  are 
brought  down  from  the  Maeotis,  and  from  the  barbarous  coun- 
try lying  above  it ;  and  Panticapaeum,  the  mart  for  the  com- 
modities which  are  transported  thither  from  the  sea.  There 
is  also  in  Phanagoria  a  magnificent  temple  of  Venus  Apa- 
tura, the  Deceitful.  This  epithet  of  the  goddess  is  derived 
from  a  fable,  according  to  which  the  giants  assaulted  her  in 
this  place.  Having  obtained  the  assistance  of  Hercules  she  hid 
him  in  a  cave,  and  then  admitted  the  giants  one  by  one  into 
her  presence,  and  delivered  them  over  to  Hercules,  thus 
craftily^  to  be  put  to  death. 

11.  The  Sindi,  Dandarii,  Toreatae,  Agri,  Arrhechi,  and 
besides  these,  the  Tarpetes,  Obidiaceni,  Sittaceni,  Dosci,  and 
many  others,  belong  to  the  Maeotae ;  to  this  people  belong  the 
Aspurgiani  also,  who  live  between  Phanagoria  and  Gorgi- 
pia,  at  the  distance  of  500  stadia  [from  the  Maeotis  ?].  Pole- 
mon,  the  king,  entered  the  country  of  these  people  under  a 

curate  knowledge,  both  in  ancient  and  modern  times,  of  these  unfre- 
quented parts,  much  must  be  left  to  conjecture.  The  positions  therefore 
assigned  to  ancient  cities  are  doubtful.  The  names  indeed  are  inserted 
in  Kiepert's  maps,  but  without  the  assistance  of  recent  travellers  it  would 
be  hazardous  to  pretend  to  fix  upon  their  exact  sites. 

'  icTi  St  Kal  Fopynria.  Some  word  or  words  appear  to  be  wanting 
here.  Kiepert  assigns  a  place  to  this  name,  but  it  seems  doubtful  whe- 
ther a  place  or  a  district  is  to  be  understood.  Below,  §  14,  the  Sindic 
harbour  and  city  are  mentioned,  which  may  have  been  situated  at 
Sound-jouk-kale.  D'  Anville  places  them  here  or  at  Anapa,  but  the 
contour  of  the  coast  in  his  map  does  not  resemble  that  of  any  modern 

-  The  modern  town  Phanagoria  does  not  seem  to  occupy  the  site  of 
the  ancient  city. 

^  ai  dTTurriQ. 

224  STRABO. 

Casaub.  495. 

show  of  friendship,  but  his  design  was  discovered,  and  they 
on  their  part  attacked  him  unawares.  He  was  taken  prisoner, 
and  put  to  death. 

With  respect  to  the  Asian  MaBotae  in  general,  some  of 
them  were  the  subjects  of  those  who  possessed  the  mart  on 
the  Tanai's ;  others,  of  the  Bosporani ;  and  different  bodies 
have  revolted  at  different  times.  The  princes  of  the  Bospo- 
rani were  frequently  masters  of  the  country  as  far  as  the 
Tanais,  and  particularly  the  last  princes,  Pharnaces,  Asander, 
and  Polemon. 

Pharnaces  is  said  to  have  once  brought  even  the  river 
Hypanis  over  the  territory  of  the  Dandarii  through  some 
ancient  canal,  which  he  had  caused  to  be  cleared,  and  inun- 
dated the  country. 

12.  Next  to  Sindica,  and  Gorgipia  upon  the  sea,  is  the 
sea-coast  inhabited  by  the  Achsei,  Zygi,  and  Heniochi.  It 
is  for  the  most  part  without  harbours  and  mountainous,  being 
a  portion  of  the  Caucasus. 

These  people  subsist  by  piracy. 

Their  boats  are  slender,  narrow,  light,  and  capable  of  hold- 
ing about  five  and  twenty  men,  and  rarely  thirty.  The 
Greeks  call  them  camarae.  They  say,  that  at  the  time  of 
the  expedition  of  Jason  the  Achsei  Phthiotae  founded  the 
Achaia  there,  and  the  Lacedaemonians,  Heniochia.  Their 
leaders  were  Rhecas,  and  Amphistratus,  the  charioteers  ^  of 
the  Dioscuri;  it  is  probable  that  the  Heniochi  had  their 
name  from  these  persons.  They  equip  fleets  consisting  of 
these  camarae,  and  being  masters  of  the  sea  sometimes  at- 
tack vessels  of  burden,  or  invade  a  territory,  or  even  a  city. 
Sometimes  even  those  who  occupy  the  Bosporus  assist  them, 
by  furnishing  places  of  shelter  for  their  vessels,  and  supply 
them  with  provision  and  means  for  the  disposal  of  their 
booty.  When  they  return  to  their  own  country,  not  having 
places  suitable  for  mooring  their  vessels,  they  put  their  camarae 
on  their  shoulders,  and  carry  them  up  into  the  forests,  among 
which  they  live,  and  where  they  cultivate  a  poor  soil.  When 
the  season  arrives  for  navigation,  they  bring  them  down  again 
to  the  coast.  Their  habits  are  the  same  even  in  a  foreign 
country,  for  they  are  acquainted  with  wooded  tracts,  in  which, 
after  concealing  their  camarse,  they  wander  about  on  foot  day 
1  t'jvioxoi. 

B.  XI.  c.  II.  ^  13,  14.        COAST  OF  CIRCASSIA.  225 

and  night,  for  the  purpose  of  capturing  the  inhabitants  and 
reducing  them  to  slavery.  But  they  readily  allow  whatever 
is  taken  to  be  ransomed,  and  signify  this  after  their  departure 
to  those  who  have  lost  their  property.  In  places  where  there 
is  a  regular  government,  the  injured  find  means  of  repelling 
them.  For,  frequently,  the  pirates  are  attacked  in  return,  and 
are  carried  off  together  with  their  camarae.  But  the  country 
subject  to  the  Romans  is  not  so  well  protected,  in  conse- 
quence of  the  neglect  of  those  who  are  sent  there. 

13.  Such  then  is  their  mode  of  life.  But  even  these  peo- 
ple are  governed  by  persons  called  Sceptuchi,  and  these  again 
are  subject  to  the  authority  of  tyrants,-  or  of  kings.  The 
Heniochi  had  four  kings  at  the  time  that  Mithridates  Eupator 
fled  from  the  country  of  his  ancestors  to  the  Bosporus,  and 
passed  through  their  country,  which  was  open  to  him,  but  he 
avoided  that  of  the  Zygi  on  account  of  its  ruggedness,  and 
the  savage  character  of  the  people.  He  proceeded  with  dif- 
ficulty along  the  sea-coast,  frequently  embarking  in  vessels, 
till  he  came  to  the  country  of  the  Achaei,  by  whom  he  was 
hospitably  received.  He  had  then  completed  a  journey  from 
the  Phasis  of  not  much  less  than  4000  stadia. 

14.  From  Corocondame,  the  course  of  the  voyage  is  direct- 
ly towards  the  east.  At  the  distance  of  180  stadia  is  the 
Sindic  harbour,  and  a  city.  Then  at  the  distance  of  400 
stadia  is  Bata,^  as  it  is  called,  a  village  with  a  harbour.  It  is 
at  this  place  that  Sinope  on  the  south  seems  to  be  directly 
opposite  to  this  coast,  as  Carambis^  has  been  said  to  be  oppo- 
site to  Criu-Metopon.-^ 

Next  to  Bata  Artemidorus  places  the  coast  of  the  Cercetae, 
which  .has  places  of  shelter  for  vessels,  and  villages  along  an 
extent  of  about  850  stadia;  then  at  500  stadia  more  the 
coast  of  the  Achaei,  then  that  of  the  Heniochi,  at  1000  stadia, 
then  the  Great  Pityus,  from  which  to  Dioscurias  are  360 

The  authors  most  worthy  of  credit  who  have  written  the 
history  of  the  Mithridatic  wars,  enumerate  the  Achaei  first, 
then  Zygi,  then  Heniochi,  then  Cercetae,  Moschi,  Colchi,  and 
above  these  the  Phtheirophagi,  Soanes,  and  other  smaller 
nations  about  the  Caucasus. 

^  Pschate.  '  Keremp.  ^  C.  Aia. 

VOL.    II.  Q 

226  STRABO.  Casaub.  497. 

The  direction  of  the  sea-coast  is  at  first,  as  I  have  said, 
towards  the  east,  with  a  southern  aspect ;  but  from  Bata 
it  makes  a  bend  for  a  small  distance,  then  fronts  the  west, 
and  terminates  towards  Pityus,  and  Dioscurias,  for  these 
places  are  contiguous  to  the  coast  of  Colchis,  which  I  have 
already  mentioned.  Next  to  Dioscurias  is  the  remainder  of 
the  coast  of  Colchis,  and  Trapezus  contiguous  to  it ;  where 
the  coast,  having  made  a  considerable  turn,  then  extends 
nearly  in  a  straight  line,  and  forms  the  side  on  the  right  hand 
of  the  Euxine,  looking  to  the  north. 

The  whole  of  the  coast  of  the  Achaei,  and  of  the  other 
nations,  as  far  as  Dioscurias,  and  the  inland  places  lying  in  a 
straight  line  towards  the  south,  are  at  the  foot  of  the  Caucasus. 

15.  This  mountain  overhangs  both  the  Euxine  and  the  Cas- 
pian seas,,  forming  a  kind  of  rampart  to  the  isthmus  which 
separates  one  sea  from  the  other.  To  the  south  it  is  the 
boundary  of  Albania  and  Iberia,  to  the  north,  of  the  plains 
of  the  Sarmatians.  It  is  well  wooded,  and  contains  vari- 
ous kinds  of  timber,  and  especially  trees  adapted  to  ship- 
building. Eratosthenes  says  that  the  Caucasus  is  called 
Mount  Caspius  by  the  natives,  a  name  borrowed  perhaps 
from  the  Caspii.  It  throws  out  forks  towards  the  south,  which 
embrace  the  middle  of  Iberia,  and  touch  the  Armenian  and 
those  called  the  Moschic  mountains,'  and  besides  these  the 
mountains  of  Scydises,  and  the  Paryadres.  All  these  are 
portions  of  the  Taurus,  which  forms  the  southern  side  of 
Armenia,  and  are  broken  off  in  a  manner  from  it  towards  the 
north,  and  extend  as  far  as  Caucasus,  and  the  coast  of  the 
Euxine  which  lies  between  Colchis  and  Themiscyra.^ 

16.  Situated  on  a  bay  of  this  kind,  and  occupying  the  most 
easterly  point  of  the  whole  sea,  is  Dioscurias,^  called  the  recess 

^  The  Tschilder  mountains,  of  which  Scydeces  and  Paryandres  are  a 
continuation.  2  Thermeh. 

'  On  the  mouth  of  the  river  Anthemus  to  the  N.  of  Colchis.  It  was 
situated  100  M.  P.,  or  790  stadia  to  the  N.  P.  of  the  Phasis,  and  2260 
stadia  from  Trapezus  (Trebizond).  (PHny,  vi.  5;  Arrian,  Perip.  pp.  10, 
18.)  Upon  or  near  the  spot  to  which  the  twin  sons  of  Leda  gave  their 
name,  (Mela,  i.  19,  §  5;  comp.  Am.  Marc.  xxii.  8,  §  24,)  the  Romans 
built  Sebastopolis,  (Steph.  B. ;  Procop.  B.  G.  iv.  4,)  which  was  deserted 
in  the  time  of  Pliny,  but  was  afterwards  garrisoned  by  Justinian.  The 
SoTERiopoLis  of  later  times  has  been  identified  with  it.  The  position  of 
this  place  must  be  looked  for  near  the  roadstead  of  Iskuria.  Smith,  art. 

B.  XI.  c.  IT.  §  17.  GEORGIA.  227 

of  the  Euxine  Sea,  and  the  extreme  boundary  of  naviga- 
tion, for  in  this  sense  we  are  to  understand  the  proverbial 

"  To  Phasis  where  ships  end  their  course." 

Not  as  if  the  author  of  the  iambic  intended  to  speak  of  the 
river,  nor  of  the  city  of  the  same  name  upon  the  river,  but 
Colchis  designated  by  a  part,  because  from  the  city  and  the 
river  there  remains  a  voyage  of  not  less  than  600  stadia  in  a 
straight  line  to  the  recess  of  the  bay.  This  same  Dioscurias 
is  the  commencement  of  the  isthmus  lying  between  the  Cas- 
pian Sea  and  the  Euxine.  It  is  a  common  mart  of  the  nations 
situated  above  it,  and  in  its  neighbourhood.  There  assemble 
at  Dioscurias  70  or,  according  to  some  writers  who  are  care- 
less in  their  statements,^  300  nations.  All  speak  different 
languages,  from  living  dispersed  in  various  places  and  with- 
out intercourse,  in  consequence  of  their  fierce  and  savage 
manners.  They  are  chiefly  Sarmatians,  but  all  of  them  Cau- 
casian tribes.     So  much  then  respecting  Dioscurias. 

17.  The  greater  part  of  the  rest  of  Colchis  lies  upon  the  sea. 
The  Phasis,^  a  large  river,  flows  through  it.  It  has  its  source 
in  Armenia,  and  receives  the  Glaucus,^  and  the  Hippus,"*  which 
issue  from  the  neighbouring  mountains.  Vessels  ascend  it  as 
far  as  the  fortress  of  Sarapana,^  which  is  capable  of  contain- 
ing the  population  even  of  a  city.  Persons  proceed  thence  by 
land  to  the  Cyrus  in  four  days  along  a  carriage  road.^  Upon 
the  Phasis  is  a  city  of  the  same  name,  a  mart  of  the  Colchians, 
bounded  on  one  side  by  the  river,  on  another  by  a  lake,  on 
the  third  by  the  sea.  Thence  it  is  a  voyage  of  three  or  two"^ 
days  to  Amisus  and  Sinope,  on  account  of  the  softness  of  the 
shores  caused  by  the  discharge  of  rivers.® 

The  country  is  fertile  and  its  produce  is  good,  except  the 

'  olg  ovStv  Toiv  ovTix)v  fisXd,  or  careless  of  the  truth.  Kramer  observes 
that  these  words  are  inconveniently  placed  in  the  Greek  text. 
2  The  Rion.  »  The  Tschorocsu.  *  The   Ilori. 

^  Choropani. 

*  The  point  of  embarkation  on  the  Cyrus  (the  Kur)  Is  supposed  to 
have  been  Surham,  the  ancient  Sura. 

^  Gossellin,  Groskurd,  and  Kramer,  all  agree  that  there  is  here  an  error. 
Kramer  is  of  opinion  that  the  conjecture  of  Gossellin  may  be  adopted,  viz. 
"  eight  or  nine,"  instead  of  "  three  or  two,"  the  letters  T  and  B  being  a 
corruption  of  H  and  9. 

*  Coray's  proposed  reading  is  adopted,  Kara  for  kuL 

Q  2 

228  STRABO.  Casaub.  498. 

honey,  which  has  generally  a  bitter  taste.  It  furnishes  all 
materials  for  ship-building.  It  produces  them  in  great  plenty, 
and  they  are  conveyed  down  by  its  rivers.  It  supplies  flax, 
hemp,  wax,  and  pitch,  in  great  abundance.  Its  linen  manu- 
facture is  celebrated,  for  it  was  exported  to  foreign  parts  ; 
and  those  who  wish  to  establish  an  affinity  of  race  between 
the  Colchians  and  the  Egyptians,  advance  this  as  a  proof  of  it. 
Above  the  rivers  which  I  have  mentioned  in  the  Moschic 
territory  is  the  temple  of  Leucothea,^  founded  by  Phrixus^ 
and  his  oracle,  where  a  ram  is  not  sacrificed.  It  was  once 
rich,  but  was  plundered  in  our  time  by  Pharnaces,  and  a  little 
afterwards  by  Mithridates  of  Pergamus.^  For  when  a  coun- 
try is  devastated,  in  the  words  of  Euripides, 

"  respect  to  the  gods  languishes,  and  they  are  not  honoured."* 

18.  How  great  anciently  was  the  celebrity  of  this  country, 
appears  from  the  fables  which  refer  obscurely  to  the  expedition 
of  Jason,  who  advanced  as  far  even  as  Media ;  and  still  earlier 
intimations  of  it  are  found  in  the  fables  relative  to  the  expe- 
dition of  Phrixus.  The  kings  that  preceded,  and  who  pos- 
sessed the  country  when  it  was  divided  into  Sceptuchies,^ 
were  not  very  powerful,  but  when  Mithridates  Eupator  had 
enlarged  his  territory,  this  country  fell  under  his  dominion. 
One  of  his  courtiers  was  always  sent  as  sub-governor  and 
administrator  of  its  public  affairs.  Of  this  number  was  Moa- 
phernes,  my  mother's  paternal  uncle.  It  was  from  this  country 
that  the  king  derived  the  greatest  part  of  his  supplies  for  the 
equipment  of  his  naval  armament.  But  upon  the  overthrow 
of  Mithridates,  all  the  country  subject  to  his  power  was  dis- 
united, and  divided  among  several  persons.     At  last  Polemon 

^  According'to  Heyne,  this  was  an  Assyrian  goddess  worshipped  under 
various  titles. 

'^  In  consequence  of  the  intrigues  of  his  stepmother  Ino  he  was  to  he 
sacrificed  to  Zeus,  but  his  mother  Nephele  removed  him  and  his  sister 
Helle,  and  the  two  then  rode  away  on  the  ram  with  the  golden  fleece,  the 
gift  of  Hermes,  through  the  air.  Helle  fell  into  the  sea,  which  was  after- 
wards called,  after  her,  the  Hellespont.    Smith,  art.  Phrixus. 

^  The  son  of  Menodotus  by  a  daughter  o  Adobogion,  a  descendant  of 
the  tetrarchs  of  Galatia.  He  was  the  personal  friend  of  Csesar,  who  at 
the  commencement  of  the  Alexandrian  war  (b.  c.  48)  sent  him  into 
Syria  and  Cilicia  to  raise  auxiliary  forces.  Smith,  art.  Mithridates,  and 
see  B.  xiii.  c.  iv.  §  3. 

*  Eurip.  Troad.  26. 

B.  XI.  c.  n.  §  19.  CAUCASUS.  229 

obtained  possession  of  Colchis,  and  after  his  death  his  wife 
Pythodoris  reigned  over  the  Colchians,  Trapezus,  Pharnacia, 
and  the  Barbarians  situated  above  them,  of  whom  I  shall 
speak  in  another  place. 

The  territory  of  the  Moschi,  in  which  is  situated  the  tem- 
ple, is  divided  into  three  portions,  one  of  which  is  occupied 
by  Colchians,  another  by  Iberians,  and  the  third  by  Arme- 
nians. There  is  in  Iberia  on  the  confines  of  Colchis,  a  small 
city,  the  city  of  Phrixus,  the  present  Idessa,  a  place  of 
strength.     The  river  Charis  ^  flows  near  Dioscurias. 

19.  Among  the  nations  that  assemble  at  Dioscurias  are 
the  Phtheiropagi,  who  have  their  appellation  from  their  dirt 
and  filth. 

Near  them  live  the  Soanes,  not  less  dirty  in  their  habits, 
but  superior  perhaps  to  all  the  tribes  in  strength  and  courage. 
They  are  masters  of  the  country  around  them,  and  occupy 
the  heights  of  Caucasus  above  Dioscurias.  They  have  a  king, 
and  a  council  of  three  hundred  persons.  They  can  assemble, 
it  is  said,  an  army  of  two  hundred  thousand  men,  for  all  their 
people  are  fighting  men,  but  not  distributed  into  certain  orders. 
In  their  country  the  winter  torrents  are  said  to  bring  down 
even  gold,  which  the  Barbarians  collect  in  troughs  pierced 
with  holes,  and  lined  with  fleeces;  and  hence  the  fable  of 
the  golden  fleece.  Some^  say  that  they  are  called  Iberians 
(the  same  name  as  the  western  Iberians)  from  the  gold  mines 
found  in  both  countries.  The  Soanes  use  poison  of  an  extra- 
ordinary kind  for  the  points  of  their  weapons ;  even  the  odour 
of  this  poison  is  a  cause  of  suffering  to  those  who  are  wounded 
by  arrows  thus  prepared. 

The  other  neighbouring  nations  about  the  Caucasus  occupy 
barren  and  narrow  tracts  of  land.  But  the  tribes  of  the  Al- 
banians and  Iberians,  who  possess  nearly  the  whole  of  the 
above-mentioned  isthmus,  may  also  be  denominated  Cauca- 
sian, and  yet  they  live  in  a  fertile  country  and  capable  of 
being  well  peopled. 

*  Casaubon  would  read  Corax. — ^The  Sukum. 

-  Adopting  Kramer's  proposed  reading,  svioi  in  place  of  el  firj. 

230  STRABO.  Casaub.  499. 


1.  The  greater  part  of  Iberia  is  well  inhabited,  and  con- 
tains cities  and  villages  where  the  houses  have  roofs  covered 
with  tiles,  and  display  skill  in  building  ;  there  are  market- 
places in  them,  and  various  kinds  of  public  edifices. 

2.  Some  part  of  the  country  is  encompassed  by  the  Cauca- 
sian mountains ;  for  branches  of  this  range  advance,  as  I  have 
said,  towards  the  south.  These  districts  are  fruitful,  com- 
prise the  whole  of  Iberia,  and  extend  to  Armenia  and  Colchis. 
In  the  middle  is  a  plain  watered  by  rivers,  the  largest  of 
which  is  the  Cyrus,  which,  rising  in  Armenia,  immediately 
enters  the  above-mentioned  plain,  having  received  the  Ara- 
gus,^  which  flows  at  the  foot  of  the  Caucasus,  and  other 
streams,  passes  through  a  narrow  channel  into  Albania.  It 
flows  however  between  this  country  and  Armenia  in  a  large 
body  through  plains,  which  afford  excellent  pasture.  After 
having  received  several  rivers,  and  among  these  the  Alazo- 
nius,^  Sandobanes,  the  Rhoetaces,  and  Chanes,  all  of  which 
are  navigable,  it  discharges  itself  into  the  Caspian  Sea.  Its 
former  name  was  Corns. 

3.  The  plai]:\  is  occupied  by  those  Iberians  who  are  more 
disposed  to  agriculture,  and  are  inclined  to  peace.  Their 
dress  is  after  the  Armenian  and  Median  fashion.  Those 
who  inhabit  the  mountainous  country,  and  they  are  the  most 
numerous,  are  addicted  to  war,  live  like  the  Sarmatians  and 
Scythians,  on  whose  country  they  border,  and  with  whom 
they  are  connected  by  affinity  of  race.  These  people  how- 
ever engage  in  agriculture  also,  and  can  assemble  many 
myriads  of  persons  from  among  themselves,  and  from  the 
Scythians  and  Sarmatians,  whenever  any  disturbance  occurs. 

4.  There  are  four  passes  into  the  country;  one  through 
Sarapana,  a  Colchian  fortress,  and  through  the  defiles  near  it, 
along  which  the  Phasis,  rendered  passable  from  one  side 
to  the  other  by  a  hundred  and  twenty  bridges,  in  conse- 

1  The  Arak. 

^  In  the  English  map,  reduced  from  the  Russian  military  map,  there 
are  two  rivers  Alasan,  flowing  in  contrary  directions  from  M.  Bebala. 
The  modern  names  of  the  other  rivers  here  mentioned  are  not  well  as- 

B.  XI.  c.  III.  §  5,  6.  CAUCASUS.    IBERIA.  231 

quence  of  the  winding  of  its  stream,  descends  abruptly  and 
violently  into  Colchis.  The  places  in  its  course  are  hollowed 
by  numerous  torrents,  during  the  rainy  season.  It  rises  in 
the  mountains  which  lie  above,  and  many  springs  contribute 
to  swell  its  stream.  In  the  plains  it  receives  other  rivers 
also,  among  which  are  the  Glaucus  ^  and  the  Hippus.^  The 
stream  thus  filled  and  navigable  discharges  itself  into  the 
Pontus.  It  has  on  its  banks  a  city  of  the  same  name,  and 
near  it  a  lake.  Such  is  the  nature  of  the  entrance  into 
Iberia  from  Colchis,  shut  in  by  rocks  and  strongholds,  and 
by  rivers  running  through  ravines. 

5.  From  the  Nomades  on  the  north  there  is  a  difficult 
ascent  for  three  days,  and  then  a  narrow  road  by  the  side  of 
the  river  Aragus,  a  journey  of  four  days,  which  road  admits 
only  one  person  to  pass  at  a  time.  The  termination  of  the 
road  is  guarded  by  an  impregnable  wall. 

From  Albania  the  entrance  is  at  first  cut  through  rocks, 
then  passes  over  a  marsh  formed  by  the  river  (Alazonius),^ 
in  its  descent  from  the  Caucasus.  On  the  side  of  Armenia  are 
the  narrow  passes  on  the  Cyrus,  and  those  on  the  Aragus,  for 
before  the  junction  of  these  rivers  they  have  on  their  banks 
strong  cities  set  upon  rocks,  at  the  distance  from  each  other 
of  about  18  stadia,  as  Harmozica*  on  the  Cyrus,  and  on  the 
other  (Aragus)  Seusamora.  Pompey  formerly  in  his  way 
from  Armenia,  and  afterwards  Canidius,  marched  through 
these  passes  into  Iberia. 

6.  The  inhabitants  of  this  country  are  also  divided  into 
four  classes ;  the  first  and  chief  is  that  from  which  the  kings 
are  appointed.  The  king  is  the  oldest  and  the  nearest  of  his 
predecessor's  relations.  The  second  administers  justice,  and 
is  commander  of  the  army. 

The  second  class  consists  of  priests,  whose  business  it  is  to 
settle  the  respective  rights  of  their  own  and  the  bordering 

The  third  is  composed  of  soldiers  and  husbandmen.  The 
fourth  comprehends  the  common  people,  who  are  royal  slaves, 
and  perform  all  the  duties  of  ordinary  life^ 

'  Tchorocsu.  2  Uori. 

^  Probably  the  Alasan  flowing  from  M.  Bebala. 

*  Akalziche. 

232  STRABO.  Casaub.  501. 

Possessions  are  common  property  in  families,  but  the  eldest 
governs,  and  is  the  steward  of  each. 

Such  is  the  character  of  the  Iberians,  and  the  nature  of 
their  country. 


1.  The  Albanians  pursue  rather  a  shepherd  life,  and  resem- 
ble more  the  nomadic  tribes,  except  that  they  are  not  savages, 
and  hence  they  are  little  disposed  to  war.  They  inhabit  the 
country  between  the  Iberians  and  the  Caspian  Sea,  approach- 
ing close  to  the  sea  on  the  east,  and  on  the  west  border  upon 
the  Iberians. 

Of  the  remaining  sides  the  northern  is  protected  by  the 
Caucasian  mountains,  for  these  overhang  the  plains,  and  are 
called,  particularly  those  near  the  sea,  Ceraunian  mountains. 
The  southern  side  is  formed  by  Armenia,  which  extends 
along  it.  A  large  portion  of  it  consists  of  plains,  and  a 
large  portion  also  of  mountains,  as  Cambysene,  where  the 
Armenians  approach  close  both  to  the  Iberians  and  the  Al- 

2.  The  Cyrus,  which  flows  through  Albania,  and  the  other 
rivers  which  swell  the  stream  of  the  Cyrus,  improve  the 
qualities  of  the  land,  but  remove  the  sea  to  a  distance.  For 
the  mud,  accumulating  in  great  quantity,  fills-  up  the  channel 
in  such  a  manner,  that  the  small  adjacent  islands  are  an- 
nexed to  the  continent,  irregular  marshes  are  formed,  and 
difficult  to  be  avoided ;  the  reverberation  also  of  the  tide  in- 
creases the  irregular  formation  of  the  marshes.  The  mouth 
of  the  river  is  said  to  be  divided  into  twelve  branches,  some 
of  which  afford  no  passage  through  them,  others  are  so  shallow 
as  to  leave  no  shelter  for  vessels.  The  shore  for  an  extent 
of  more  than  60  stadia  is  inundated  by  the  sea,  and  by  the 
rivers ;  all  that  part  of  it  is  inaccessible ;  the  mud  reaches 
even  as  far  as  50Q  stadia,  and  forms  a  bank  along  the  coast. 
The  Araxes^  discharges  its  waters  not  far  off,  coming  with 
an  impetuous  stream  from  Armenia,  but  the  mud  which  this 

1  The  Aras. 

B.  XI.  c.  IV.  §  3—5.       CAUCASUS.    ALBANIA.  233 

river  impels  fonvard,  making  the  channel  pervious,  is  replaced 
by  the  Cyrus. 

3.  Perhaps  such  a  race  of  people  have  no  need  of  the  sea, 
for  they  do  not  make  a  proper  use  even  of  the  land,  which 
produces  every  kind  of  fruit,  even  the  most  delicate,  and 
every  kind  of  plant  and  evergreen.  It  is  not  cultivated  with 
the  least  care  ;  but  all  that  is  excellent  grows  without  sowing, 
and  without  ploughing,  according  to  the  accounts  of  persons 
who  have  accompanied  armies  there,  and  describe  the  inhabit- 
ants as  leading  a  Cyclopean  mode  of  life.  In  many  places  the 
ground,  which  has  been  sowed  once,  produces  two  or  three 
crops,  the  first  of  which  is  even  fifty-fold,  and  that  without 
a  fallow,  nor  is  the  ground  turned  with  an  iron  instrument, 
but  with  a  plough  made  entirely  of  wood.  The  whole  plain 
is  better  watered  than  Babylon  or  JEgypt,  by  rivers  and 
streams,  so  that  it  always  presents  the  appearance  of  herbage, 
and  it  affords  excellent  pasture.  The  air  here  is  better  than 
in  those  countries.  The  vines  remain  always  without  digging 
round  them,  and  are  pruned  every  five  years.  The  young 
trees  bear  fruit  even  the  second  year,  but  the  full  grown 
yield  so  much  that  a  large  quantity  of  it  is  left  on  the 
branches.  The  cattle,  both  tame  and  wild,  thrive  well  in  this 

4.  The  men  are  distinguished  for  beauty  of  person  and  for 
size.  They  are  simple  in  their  dealings  and  not  fraudulent, 
for  they  do  not  in  general  use  coined  money  ;  nor  are  they 
acquainted  with  any  number  above  a  hundred,  and  transact 
their  exchanges  by  loads.  They  are  careless  with  regard  to 
the  other  circumstances  of  life.  They  are  ignorant  of  weights 
and  measures  as  far  as  exactness  is  concerned  ;  they  are  im- 
provident with  respect  to  war,  government,  and  agriculture. 
They  fight  however  on  foot  and  on  horseback,  both  in  light 
and  in  heavy  armour,  like  the  Armenians. 

5.  Thej  can  send  into  the  field  a  larger  army  than  the 
Iberians,  for  they  can  equip  60,000  infantry  and  22,000 
horsemen  ;  with  such  a  force  they  offered  resistance  to  Pom- 
pey.  The  Nomades  also  co-operate  with  them  against  foreign- 
ers, as  they  do  with  the  Iberians  on  similar  occasions.  When 
there  is  no  war  they  frequently  attack  these  people  and  pre- 
vent them  from  cultivating  the  ground.  They  use  javelins 
and  bows,  and  wear  breastplates,  shields,  and  coverings  for 

234  STRABO.  Casaub.  502. 

the  head,  made  of  the  hides  of  wild  animals,  like  the  Ibe- 

To  the  country  of  the  Albanians  belongs  Caspiana,  and  has 
its  name  from  the  Caspian  tribe,  from  whom  the  sea  also  has 
its  appellation  ;  the  Caspian  tribe  is  now  extinct. 

The  entrance  from  Iberia  into  Albania  is  through  the  Cam- 
bysene,  a  country  without  water,  and  rocky,  to  the  river  Ala- 
zonius.  The  people  themselves  and  their  dogs  are  exces- 
sively fond  of  the  chase,  pursuing  it  with  equal  eagerness 
and  skill. 

6.  Their  kings  differ  from  one  another  ;  at  present  one  king 
governs  all  the  tribes.  Formerly  each  tribe  was  governed  by 
a  king,  who  spoke  the  peculiar  language  of  each.  They 
speak  six  and  twenty  languages  from  the  want  of  mutual 
intercourse  and  communication  with  one  another. 

The  country  produces  some  venomous  reptiles,  as  scorpions 
and  tarantulas.  These  tarantulas  cause  death  in  some  instances 
by  laughter,  in  others  by  grief  and  a  longing  to  return  home. 

7.  The  gods  they  worship  are  the  Sun,  Jupiter,  and  the 
Moon,  but  the  Moon  above  the  rest.  She  has  a  temple  near 
Iberia.  The  priest  is  a  person  who,  next  to  the  king,  re- 
ceives the  highest  honours.  He  has  the  government  of  the 
sacred  land,  which  is  extensive  and  populous,  and  authority 
over  the  sacred  attendants,  many  of  whom  are  divinely  in- 
spired, and  prophesy.  Whoever  of  these  persons,  being  vio- 
lently possessed,  wanders  alone  in  the  woods,  is  seized  by  the 
priest,  who,  having  bound  him  with  sacred  fetters,  maintains 
him  sumptuously  during  that  year.  Afterwards  he  is  brought 
forth  at  the  sacrifice  performed  in  honour  of  the  goddess,  and 
is  anointed  with  fragrant  ointment  and  sacrificed  together  with 
other  victims.  The  sacrifice  is  performed  in  the  following 
manner.  A  person,  having  in  his  hand  a  sacred  lance,  with 
which  it  is  the  custom  to  sacrifice  human  victims,  advances  out 
of  the  crowd  and  pierces  the  heart  through  the  side,  which  he 
does  from  experience  in  this  office.  When  the  man  has  fallen, 
certain  prognostications  are  indicated  by  the  manner  of  the 
fall,  and  these  are  publicly  declared.  The  body  is  carried  away 
to  a  certain  spot,  and  then  they  all  trample  upon  it,  perform- 
ing this  action  as  a  mode  of  purification  of  themselves. 

8.  The  Albanians  pay  the  greatest  respect  to  old  age,  which 
is  not  confined  to  their  parents,  but  is  extended  to  old  persons 

B.  XI.  c.  V.  §  1.  AMAZONS.  235 

in  general.  It  is  regarded  as  impious  to  show  any  concern 
for  the  dead,  or  to  mention  their  names.  Their  money  is  buried 
with  them,  hence  they  live  in  poverty,  having  no  patrimony. 
So  much  concerning  the  Albanians.  It  is  said  that  when 
Jason,  accompanied  by  Armenus  the  Thessalian,  undertook 
the  voyage  to  the  Colchi,  they  advanced  as  far  as  the  Caspian 
Sea,  and  traversed  Iberia,  Albania,  a  great  part  of  Armenia, 
and  Media,  as  the  Jasoneia  and  many  other  monuments  tes- 
tify. Armenus,  they  say,  was  a  native  of  Armenium,  one  of 
the  cities  on  the  lake  Boebeis,  between  Pherae  and  Parisa,  and 
that  his  companions  settled  in  Acihsene,  and  the  Suspiritis, 
and  occupied  the  country  as  far  as  Calachene  and  Adiabene, 
and  that  he  gave  his  own  name  to  Armenia. 


1.  The  Amazons  are  said  to  live  among  the  mountains 
above  Albania.  Theophanes,  who  accompanied  Pompey  in 
his  wars,  and  was  in  the  country  of  the  Albanians,  says  that 
Gelae  and  Legae,^  Scythian  tribes,  live  between  the  Amazons 
and  the  Albanians,  and  that  the  river  Mermadalis^  takes  its 
course  in  the  country  lying  in  the  middle  between  these 
people  and  the  Amazons.  But  other  writers,  and  among 
these  Metrodorus  of  Scepsis,  and  Hypsicrates,  who  were 
themselves  acquainted  with  these  places,  say  that  the  Ama- 
zons bordered  upon  the  Gargarenses^  on  the  north,  at  the 
foot  of  the  Caucasian  mountains,  which  are  called  Ceraunia. 

*  Strabo  mentions  the  Gelae  again,  c.  vii.  §  1,  but  in  a  manner  which 
does  not  agree  with  what  he  here  says  of  their  position.  We  must  per- 
haps suppose  that  this  people,  in  part  at  least,  have  changed  their  place 
of  residence,  and  that  now  the  greater  part  of  their  descendants  are  to  be 
found  in  Ghilan,  under  the  name  of  Gele,  or  Gelaki.  The  name  of 
Leges,  or  Legse,  who  have  continued  to  occupy  these  regions,  is  recog- 
nised in  that  of  Legi,  Leski.     Gossellin. 

2  The  Mermadalis  seems  to  be  the  same  river  called  below  by  Strabo 
Mermodas.  Critics  and  modern  travellers  differ  respecting  its  present 
name.  One  asserts  that  it  is  the  Marubias,  or  Marabias,  of  Ptolemy, 
another  takes  it  to  be  the  Manitsch,  called  in  Austrian  maps  Calaus. 
Others  believe  it  to  be  the  small  stream  Mermedik,  which  flows  into  the 
Terek.  Others  again  recognise  the  Mermadalis  in  the  Egorlik.  Gossellin. 

'  Unknown.    Pallas  thought  that  he  had  discovered  their  name  in 

236  STRABO.  Casaub.  504. 

When  at  home  they  are  occupied  in  performing  with  their 
own  hands  the  work  of  ploiaghing,  planting,  pasturing  cattle, 
and  particularly  in  training  horses.  The  strongest  among 
them  spend  much  of  their  time  in  hunting  on  horseback,  and 
practise  warlike  exercises.  All  of  them  from  infancy  have 
the  right  breast  seared,  in  order  that  they  may  use  the  arm  with 
ease  for  all  manner  of  purposes,  and  particularly  for  throw- 
ing the  javelin.  They  employ  the  bow  also,  and  sagaris, 
(a  kind  of  sword,)  and  wear  a  buckler.  They  make  helmets, 
and  coverings  for  the  body,  and  girdles,  of  the  skins  of  wild 
animals.  They  pass  two  months  of  the  spring  on  a  neigh- 
bouring mountain,  which  is  the  boundary  between  them  and 
the  Gargarenses.  The  latter  also  ascend  the  mountain  ac- 
cording to  some  ancient  custom  for  the  purpose  of  perform- 
ing common  sacrifices,  and  of  having  intercourse  with  the 
women  with  a  view  to  offspring,  in  secret  and  in  darkness, 
the  man  with  the  first  woman  he  meets.  When  the  women 
are  pregnant  they  are  sent  away.  The  female  children  that 
may  be  born  are  retained  by  the  Amazons  themselves,  but 
the  males  are  taken  to  the  Gargarenses  to  be  brought  up, 
The  children  are  distributed  among  families,  in  which  the 
master  treats  them  as  his  own,  it  being  impossible  to  ascertain 
the  contrary. 

2.  The  Mermodas,^  descending  like  a  torrent  from  the 
mountains  through  the  country  of  the  Amazons,  the  Siracene, 
and  the  intervening  desert,  discharges  itself  into  the  Masotis.^ 

It  is  said  that  the  Gargarenses  ascended  together  with  the 
Amazons  from  Themiscyra  to  these  places,  that  they  then 
separated,  and  with  the  assistance  of  some  Thracians  and 
Euboeans,  who  had  wandered  as  far  as  this  country,  made  war 
against  the  Amazons,  and  at  length,  upon  its  termination,  enter- 
ed into  a  compact  on  the  conditions  above  mentioned,  namely, 
that  there  should  be  a  companionship  only  with  respect  to 

that  of  the  Tscherkess,  who  occupied  the  country  where  Strabo  places 
the  Gargarenses,  and  might  be  their  descendants. 

^  The  same  river  probably  before  called  the  Mermadalis. 

"^  This  sentence  has  been  supposed  by  some  critics  to  be  an  interpola- 
tion. Strabo  above,  c.  ii.  §  1,  has  already  spoken  of  the  Siraci,  who 
would  seem  to  have  been  the  inhabitants  of  Siracena,  and  may  sometimes 
have  been  called  Siraceni.  In  c.  ii.  §  11,  he  speaks  of  the  Sittaceni,  and 
assigns  them  a  position  which  would  indicate  them  as  a  different  people 
from  the  Seraci,  or  Siraceni.     Gossellin. 

B.  XI.  c.  V.  ^  3-5.  AMAZONS.  237 

offspring,  and  that  they  should  live  each  independent  of  the 

3.  There  is  a  peculiarity  in  the  history  of  the  Amazons. 
In  other  histories  the  fabulous  and  the  historical  parts  are 
kept  distinct.  For  what  is  ancient,  false,  and  marvellous  is 
called  fable.  But  history  has  truth  for  its  object,  whether 
it  be  old  or  new,  and  it  either  rejects  or  rarely  admits  the 
marvellous.  But,  with  regard  to  the  Amazons,  the  same  facts 
are  related  both  by  modern  and  by  ancient  writers  ;  they  are 
marvellous  and  exceed  belief.  For  who  can  believe  that  an 
army  of  women,  or  a  city,  or  a  nation,  could  ever  subsist 
without  men  ?  and  not  only  subsist,  but  make  inroads  upon 
the  territory  of  other  people,  and  obtain  possession  not  only 
of  the  places  near  them,  and  advance  even  as  far  as  the  pre- 
sent Ionia,  but  even  despatch  an  expedition  across  the  sea  to 
Attica?  This  is  as  much  as  to  say  that  the  men  of  those 
days  were  women,  and  the  women  men.  But  even  now  the 
same  things  are  told  of  the  Amazons,  and  the  peculiarity  of 
their  history  is  increased  by  the  credit  which  is  given  to 
ancient,  in  preference  to  modern,  accounts. 

4.  They  are  said  to  have  founded  cities,  and  to  have  given 
their  names  to  them,  as  Ephesus,  Smyrna,  Cyme,  Myrina, 
besides  leaving  sepulchres  and  other  memorials.  Themiscyra, 
the  plains  about  the  Thermodon,  and  the  mountains  lying 
above,  are  mentioned  by  all  writers  as  once  belonging  to  the 
Amazons,  from  whence,  they  say,  they  were  driven  out.  Where 
they  are  at  present  few  writers  undertake  to  point  out,  nor  do 
they  advance  proofs  or  probability  for  what  they  state;  as  in 
the  case  of  Thalestria,  queen  of  the  Amazons,  with  whom 
Alexander  is  said  to  have  had  intercourse  in  Hyrcania  with 
the  hope  of  having  offspring.  Writers  are  not  agreed  on  this 
point,  and  among  many  who  have  paid  the  greatest  regard  to 
truth  none  mention  the  circumstance,  nor  do  writers  of  the 
highest  credit  mention  anything  of  the  kind,  nor  do  those  who 
record  it  relate  the  same  facts.  Cleitarchus  says  that  Tha- 
lestria set  out  from  the  Caspian  Gates  and  Thermodon  to 
meet  Alexander.  Now  from  the  Caspian  Gates  to  Thermodon 
are  more,  than  6000  stadia. 

5.  Stories  circulated  for  the  purpose  of  exalting  the  fame 
[of  eminent  persons]  are  not  received  with  equal  favour  by 
all ;  the  object  of  the  inventors  was  flattery  rather  than  truth ; 

238  STRABO.  Casaue.  505. 

they  transferred,  for  example,  the  Caucasus  to  the  mountains 
of  India,  and  to  the  eastern  sea,  which  approaches  close  to 
them,  from  the  mountains  situated  above  Colchis,  and  the 
Euxine  Sea.  These  are  the  mountains  to  which  the  Greeks 
give  the  name  of  Caucasus,  and  are  distant  more  than  30,000 
stadia  from  India.  Here  they  lay  the  scene  of  Prometheus 
and  his  chains,  for  these  were  the  farthest  places  towards  the 
east  with  which  the  people  of  those  times  were  acquainted. 
The  expeditions  of  Bacchus  and  of  Hercules  against  the 
Indi  indicate  a  mythological  story  of  later  date,  for  Hercules 
is  said  to  have  released  Prometheus  a  thousand  years  after  he 
was  first  chained  to  the  rock.  It  was  more  glorious  too  for 
Alexander  to  subjugate  Asia  as  far  as  the  mountains  of  India, 
than  to  the  recess  only  of  the  Euxine  Sea  and  the  Caucasus. 
The  celebrity,  and  the  name  of  the  mountain,  together  with 
the  persuasion  that  Jason  and  his  companions  had  accom- 
plished the  most  distant  of  all  expeditions  when  they  had 
arrived  in  the  neighbourhood  of  the  Caucasus,  and  the  tra- 
dition that  Prometheus  had  been  chained  on  Caucasus  at  the 
extremity  of  the  earth,  induced  writers  to  suppose  that  they 
should  gratify  the  king  by  transferring  the  name  of  the 
mountain  to  India. 

6.  The  highest  points  of  the  actual  Caucasus  are  the  most 
southerly,  and  lie  near  Albania,  Iberia,  the  Colchi,  and  Henio- 
chi.  They  are  inhabited  by  the  people  whom  I  have  men- 
tioned as  assembling  at  Dioscurias.  They  resort  thither 
chiefly  for  the  purpose  of  procuring  salt.  Of  these  tribes 
some  occupy  the  heights  ;  others  live  in  wooded  valleys,  and 
subsist  chiefly  on  the  flesh  of  wild  animals,  wild  fruits,  and 
milk.  The  heights  are  impassable  in  winter ;  in  summer  they 
are  ascended  by  fastening  on  the  feet  shoes  as  wide  as  drums, 
made  of  raw  hide,  and  furnished  with  spikes  on  account  of  the 
snow  and  ice.  The  natives  in  descending  with  their  loads 
slide  down  seated  upon  skins,  which  is  the  practice  in  Media, 
Atropatia,  and  at  Mount  Masius  in  Armenia,  but  there  they 
fasten  circular  disks  of  wood  with  spikes  to  the  soles  of  their 
feet.     Such  then  is  the  nature  of  the  heights  of  Caucasus. 

7.  On  descending  to  the  country  lying  at  the  foot  of  these 
heights  the  climate  is  more  northerly,  but  milder,  for  the 
land  below  the  heights  joins  the  plains  of  the  Siraces.  There 
are  some  tribes  of  Troglodytse  who  inhabit  caves  on  account 

B.  XI.  c.  VI.  §  1.  THE  CASPIAN.  239 

of  the  cold.  There  is  plenty^  of  grain  to  be  had  in  the 

Next  to  the  Troglodytae  are  Chamaecoetse,^  and  a  tribe  called 
Poljphagi  (the  voracious),  and  the  villages  of  the  Eisadici, 
who  are  able  to  cultivate  the  ground  because  they  are  not 
altogether  exposed  to  the  north. 

8.  Immediately  afterwards  follow  shepherd  tribes,  situated 
between  the  Maeotis  and  the  Caspian  Sea,  Nabiani,  Pangani,^ 
the  tribes  also  of  the  Siraces  and  Aorsi. 

The  Aorsi  and  Siraces  seem  to  be  a  fugitive  people  from 
parts  situated  above.     The  Aorsi  lie  more  to  the  north.^ 

Abeacus,  king  of  the  Siraces,  when  Pharnases  occupied 
the  Bosporus,  equipped  20,000  horse,  and  Spadines,  king  of 
the  Aorsi  200,000,  and  the  Upper  Aorsi  even  a  larger  body, 
for  they  were  masters  of  a  greater  extent  of  territory,  and 
nearly  the  largest  part  of  the  coast  of  the  Caspian  Sea  was 
under  their  power.  They  were  thus  enabled  to  transport  on 
camels  the  merchandise  of  India  and  Babylonia,  receiving 
it  from  Armenians  and  Medes.  They  wore  gold  also  in  their 
dress  in  consequence  of  their  wealth. 

The  Aorsi  live  on  the  banks  of  the  Tanais,  and  the  Siraces 
on  those  of  Achardeus,  which  rises  in  Caucasus,  and  dis- 
charges itself  into  the  Maeotis. 


1 .  The  second  portion  of  northern  Asia  begins  from  the 
Caspian  Sea,  where  the  first  terminates.  This  sea  is  called 
also  the  Hyrcanian  Sea.  We  must  first  speak  of  this  sea,  and 
of  the  nations  that  live  near  its  shores. 

It  is  a  bay  extending  from  the  Ocean  to  the  south.  At  its 
commencement  it  is  very  narrow  ;  as  it  advances  further  in- 
wards, and  particularly  towards  the  extremity,  it  widens  to 
the  extent  of  about  500  stadia.  The  voyage  from  the  entrance 

'  Groskurd  reads  uTropia,  want,  instead  of  sviropia,  plenty. 

'  XafiaiKoirai.     People  who  lie  on  the  ground. 

'  Panxani,  Paxani,  Penzani.  ♦  The  text  is  here  corrupt. 

240  STRABO.  Casaub.  507. 

to  the  extremity  may  exceed  that  a  little,  the  entrance  ap- 
proaching very  near  the  uninhabited  regions. 

Eratosthenes  says  that  the  navigation  of  this  sea  was  known 
to  the  Greeks,  that  the  part  of  the  voyage  along  the  coast  of 
the  Albanians  and  Cadusii  ^  comprised  5400  stadia  ;  and  the 
part  along  the  country  of  the  Anariaci,  Mardi,  [or  Amardi,] 
and  Hyrcani,  as  far  as  the  mouth  of  the  river  Oxus,^  4800 
stadia,  and  thence  to  the  laxartes  ^  2400  stadia. 

But  with  respect  to  the  places  situated  in  this  portion  of 
Asia,  and  to  those  lying  so  far  removed  from  our  own  coun- 
try, we  must  not  understand  the  accounts  of  writers  in  too 
literal  a  sense,  particularly  with  regard  to  distances. 

2.  Upon  sailing  into  the  Caspian,  on  the  right  hand,  con- 
tiguous to  the  Europeans,  Scythians  and  Sarmatians  occupy 
the  country  between  the  Tanais  and  this  sea  ;  they  are  chiefly 
Nomades,  or  shepherd  tribes,  of  whom  I  have  already  spoken. 
On  the  left  hand  are  the  Eastern  Scythian  Nomades,  who 
extend  as  far  as  the  Eastern  sea,  and  India. 

The  ancient  Greek  historians  called  all  the  nations  towards 
the  north  by  the  common  name  of  Scythians,  and  Kelto- Scy- 
thians. Writers  still  more  ancient  than  these  called  the  nations 
living  above  the  Euxine,  Danube,  and  Adriatic,  Hyperboreans, 
Sauromatae,  and  Arimaspi.^  But  in  speaking  of  the  nations 
on  the  other  side  the  Caspian  Sea,  they  called  some  Sacae,^ 
others  Massagetse.  They  were  unable  to  give  any  exact  ac- 
count of  them,  although  they  relate  the  history  of  the  war  of 
Cyrus  with  the  Massagetae.  Concerning  these  nations  no  one 
has  ascertained  the  truth,  and  the  ancient  histories  of  Persia, 
Media,  and  Syria  have  not  obtained  much  credit  on  account  of 
the  credulity  of  the  writers  and  their  love  of  fable. 

3.  For  these  authors,  having  observed  that  those  who  pro- 
fessedly were  writers  of  fables  obtained  repute  and  success, 
supposed  that  they  also  should  make  their  writings  agreeable, 

^  The  country  occupied  by  the  Cadusii  of  whom  Eratosthenes  speaks 
appears  to  have  been  the  Ghilan,  a  name  probably  derived  from  the 
Gelae,  who  are  constantly  associated  with  the  Cadusii. 

2  The  Gihon.  »  The  Sihon. 

*  i.  e.  the  Hyperboreans  above  the  Adriatic,  the  Sauromatfe  above  the 
Danube,  and  the  Arimaspi  above  the  Euxine. 

*  The  name  Sacae  is  to  be  traced  in  Sakita,  a  district  on  the  confines  of 
those  of  Vash  and  Gil,  situated  on  the  north  of  the  Gihon  or  Oxus,  con- 
sequently in  ancient  Sogdiana.     D'Anville. 

B.  XI,  c.  VII.  §  1.  HYRCANIA.  241 

if,  under  the  form  of  history,  they  related  what  they  had 
never  seen  nor  heard,  (not  at  least  from  eye-witnesses,)  and 
had  no  other  object  than  to  please  and  surprise  the  reader. 
A  person  would  more  readily  believe  the  stories  of  the  heroes 
in  Hesiod,  Homer,  and  in  the  tragic  poets,  than  Ctesias,  He- 
rodotus, Hellanicus,  and  writers  of  this  kind. 

4.  We  cannot  easily  credit  the  generality  of  the  historians  of 
Alexander,  for  they  practise  deception  with  a  view  to  en- 
hance the  glory  of  Alexander  ;  the  expedition  also  was  direct- 
ed to  the  extremities  of  Asia,  at  a  great  distance  from  our 
country,  and  it  is  difficult  to  ascertain  or  detect  the  truth  or 
falsehood  of  what  is  remote.  The  dominion  of  the  Romans 
and  of  the  Parthians  has  added  very  much  to  former  dis- 
coveries, and  the  writers  who  speak  of  these  people  describe 
nations  and  places,  where  certain  actions  were  performed,  in  a 
manner  more  likely  to  produce  belief  than  preceding  historians, 
for  they  had  better  opportunities  of  personal  observation. 


1.  The  nomades,  or  wandering  tribes,  who  live  on  the  left 
side  of  the  coast  on  entering  the  Caspian  Sea,  are  called  by 
the  moderns  Dahas,  and  surnamed  Parni.^  Then  there  inter- 
venes a  desert  tract,  which  is  followed  by  Hyrcania  ;  here  the 
Caspian  spreads  like  a  deep  sea  till  it  approaches  the  Median 
and  Armenian  mountains.  The  shape  of  these  hills  at  the 
foot  is  lunated.-  Their  extremities  terminate  at  the  sea,  and 
form  the  recess  of  the  bay. 

A  small  part  of  this  country  at  the  foot  of  the  mountains, 
as  far  as  the  heights,  if  we  reckon  from  the  sea,  is  inhabited  by 
some  tribes  of  Albanians  and  Armenians,  but  the  greater  por- 
tion by  Gelae,  Cadusii,  Amardi,  Vitii,  and  Anariacae.  It  is  said, 
that  some  Parrhasii  were  settled  together  with  the  Anariacas, 
who  are  now  called  Parrhasii,  (Parsii  ?)  and  that  the  ^nianes 
built  a  walled  city  in  the  territory  of  the  Vitii,  which  city  is 

'  C.  viii.  §  2. 

'  At  ubi  coepit  in  latitudinem  pandi  lunatis  obliquatur  cornibus.  Pliny, 
N.  H. 

VOL.  II.  B 

242  STRABO.  Casaub.  508. 

now  called  ^nlana  (^nia).  Grecian  armour,  brazen  vessels, 
and  sepulchres  are  shown  there.  There  also  is  a  city  Ana- 
riacae,  in  which  it  is  said  an  oracle  is  shown,  where  the 
answer  is  given  to  those  who  consult  it,  during  sleep,  [and 
some  vestiges  of  Greek  colonization,  but  all  these]  tribes  are 
predatory,  and  more  disposed  to  war  than  husbandry,  which 
arises  from  the  rugged  nature  of  the  country.  The  greater 
part  of  the  coast  at  the  foot  of  the  mountainous  region  is  oc- 
cupied by  Cadusii,  to  the  extent  of  nearly  5000  stadia,  accord- 
ing to  Patrocles,  who  thinks  that  this  sea  equals  the  Euxine 
in  size.     These  countries  are  sterile. 

2.  Hyrcania  ^  is  very  fertile,  and  extensive,  consisting  for 
the  most  part  of  plains,  and  has  considerable  cities  dispersed 
throughout  it,  as  Talabroce,  Samariane,  Carta,  and  the  royal 
residence,  Tape,^  which  is  said  to  be  situated  a  little  above 
the  sea,  and  distant  1400  stadia  from  the  Caspian  Gates.  The 
following  facts  are  narrated  as  indications  of  the  fertility  of 
the  country.^  The  vine  produces  a  metretes^  of  wine;  the 
fig-tree  sixty  medimni  ^  of  fruit ;  the  corn  grows  from  the 
seed  which  falls  out  of  the  stalk ;  bees  make  their  hives  in 
the  trees,  and  honey  drops  from  among  the  leaves.  This  is 
the  case  also  in  the  territory  of  Matiane  in  Media,  and  in  the 
Sacasene,  and  Araxene  of  Armenia.® 

But  neither  this  country,  nor  the  sea  which  is  named  after 
it,  has  received  proper  care  and  attention  from  the  inhabit- 
ants, for  there  are  no  vessels  upon  the  sea,  nor  is  it  turned  to 
any  use.  According  to  some  writers  there  are  islands  on  it,  ca- 
pable of  being  inhabited,  in  which  gold  is  found.  The  cause  of 
this  neglect  is  this  ;  the  first  governors  of  Hyrcania  were 
barbarians,  Medes,  and  Persians,  and  lastly,  people  who  were 
more  oppressive  than  these,  namely,  Parthians.  The  whole 
of  the  neighbouring  country  was  the  haunt  of  robbers  and 
wandering  tribes,  and  abounded  with  tracts  of  desert  land. 
For  a  short  time  Macedonians  were  sovereigns  of  the  country, 
but  being  engaged  in  war  were  unable  to  attend  to  remote 

•  See  b.  ii.  c.  i.  §  14. 

'  These  names  have  here  probably  undergone  some  change.  Talabroce 
may  be  the  Tambraee  or  Tembrax  of  Polybius  ;  Samariane,  the  Soconax 
of  Ptolemy ;  Carta,  Zadra-Carta;  and  Tape,  the  Syrinx  of  Polybius. 

'  The  text  is  here  corrupt. 

*  About  7  gallons.  *  About  12  gallons.  «  B.  ii.  c.  i.  §  14. 

B.  XI.  c.  VII.  §  3, 4.  HYRCANIA.  243 

possessions.  Aristobulus  says  that  Hyrcania  has  forests,  and 
produces  the  oak,  but  not  the  pitch  pine,^  nor  the  fir,^  nor  the 
pine,^  but  that  India  abounds  with  these  trees. 

Nessea  *  belongs  to  Hyrcania,  but  some  writers  make  it  an 
independent  district. 

3.  Hyrcania  is  watered  by  the  rivers  Ochus  and  Oxus  as 
far  as  their  entrance  into  the  sea.  The  Ochus  flows  through 
Nessea,  but  some  writers  say  that  the  Ochus  empties  itself 
into  the  Oxus. 

Aristobulus  avers  that  the  Oxus  was  the  largest  river,  ex- 
cept those  in  India,  which  he  had  seen  in  Asia.  He  says 
also  that  it  is  navigable  with  ease,  (this  circumstance  both 
Aristobulus  and  Eratosthenes  borrow  from  Patrocles,)  and 
that  large  quantities  of  Indian  merchandise  are  conveyed  by 
it  to  the  Hyrcanian  Sea,  and  are  transferred  from  thence  into 
Albania  by  the  Cyrus,  and  through  the  adjoining  countries  to 
the  Euxine.  The  Ochus  is  not  often  mentioned  by  the  an- 
cients, but  Apollodorus,  the  author  of  the  Parthica,  frequently 
mentions  it,  [and  describes  it]  as  flowing  very  near  the  Par- 

4.  Many  additional  falsehoods  were  invented  respecting 
this  sea,  to  flatter  the  ambition  of  Alexander  and  his  love  of 
glory ;  for,  as  it  was  generally  acknowledged  that  the  river 
Tanais  separated  Europe  from  Asia  throughout  its  whole 
course,  and  that  a  large  part  of  Asia,  lying  between  this  sea 
and  the  Tanais,  had  never  been  subjected  to  the  power  of  the 
Macedonians,  it  was  resolved  to  invent  an  expedition,  in  order 
that,  according  to  fame  at  least,  Alexander  might  seem  to 
have  conquered  those  countries.  They  therefore  made  the 
lake  Maeotis,  which  receives  the  Tanais,  and  the  Caspian  Sea, 
which  also  they  call  a  lake,  one  body  of  water,  affirming  that 
there  was  a  subterraneous  opening  between  both,  and  that 
one  was  part  of  the  other.  Polycleitus  produces  proofs  to 
show  that  this  sea  is  a  lake,  for  instance,  that  it  breeds  ser- 
pents, and  that  the  water  is  sweetish.^  That  it  was  not  a  dif- 

'    -KiVKr).  *    IXcLTIfi.  ^    TTITVQ. 

*  The  country  here  spoken  of  appears  to  be  that  celebrated  from  the 
earliest  times  for  its  breed  of  horses  to  which  the  epithet  Nessean  was 
applied  by  ancient  writers.     See  c.  xiii.  §  7. 

'  The  modern  name  is  uncertain. 

*  The  same  statement  was  made  to  Pompey,  when  in  these  regions  in 
pursuit  of  Mithridates. 

R  2 

244  STRABO.  Casaub.  510. 

ferent  lake  from  the  Mseotis,  he  conjectures  from  the  circum- 
stance of  the  Tanai's  discharging  itself  into  it.  From  the 
same  mountains  in  India,  where  the  Ochus  and  the  Oxus  rise, 
many  other  rivers  take  their  course,  and  among  these  the 
laxartes,  which  like  the  former  empties  itself  into  the  Cas- 
pian Sea,  although  it  is  the  most  northerly  of  them  all.  This 
river  then  they  called  Tanais,  and  alleged,  as  a  proof  that  it 
was  the  Tanais  mentioned  by  Polycleitus,  that  the  country  on 
the  other  side  of  the  river  produced  the  fir-tree,  and  that  the 
Scythians  there  used  arrows  made  of  fir-wood.  It  was  a 
proof  also  that  the  country  on  the  other  side  of  the  river  was 
a  part  of  Europe  and  not  of  Asia,  that  Upper  and  Eastern  Asia 
do  not  produce  the  fir-tree.  But  Eratosthenes  says  that  the 
fir  does  grow  even  in  India,  and  that  Alexander  built  his 
ships  of  that  wood.  Eratosthenes  collects  many  things  of  this 
kind,  with  a  view  to  show  their  contradictory  character.  But 
I  have  said  enough  about  them. 

5.  Among  the  peculiarities  recorded  of  the  Hyrcanian  sea, 
Eudoxus  and  others  relate  the  following.  There  is  a  certain 
coast  in  front  of  the  sea  hollowed  out  into  caverns,  between 
which  and  the  sea  there  lies  a  flat  shore.  Rivers  on  reaching 
this  coast  descend  from  the  precipices  above  with  sufficient  force 
to  dart  the  water  into  the  sea  without  wetting  the  intervening 
shore,  so  that  even  an  army  could  pass  underneath  sheltered 
by  the  stream  above.  The  inhabitants  frequently  resort  to 
this  place  for  the  purposes  of  festivity  and  of  performing 
sacrifices,  one  while  reclining  beneath  the  caverns,  at  another 
basking  in  the  sun  (even)  beneath  the  fall  of  water.  They 
divert  themselves  in  various  ways,  having  in  sight  on  each 
side  the  sea  and  shore,  the  latter  of  which  by  the  dew  [and 
moisture  of  the  falls]  is  rendered  a  grassy  and  flowery  meadow. 


1.  In  proceeding  from  the  Hyrcanian  Sea  towards  the  east, 
on  the  right  hand  are  the  mountains  which  the  Greeks  call 
Taurus,  extending  as  far  as  India.  They  begin  from  Pam- 
phylia  and  Cilicia,  and  stretch  to  this  part  from  the  west  in 
a  continuous  line,  bearing  different  names  in  different  places. 

B.  XI.  c.  VIII.  §  2.  SAC JE.     MASSAGETiE.  245 

The  northern  parts*  of  this  range  are  occupied  first  by  Gelae, 
Cadusii,  and  Amardi,  as  we  have  said,  and  by  some  tribes  of 
Hyrcanians  ;  then  follow,  as  we  proceed  towards  the  east 
and  the  Ochus,  the  nation  of  the  Parthians,  then  that  of  the 
Margiani  and  Arii,  and  the  desert  country  which  the  river 
Sarnius  separates  from  Hyrcania.  The  mountain,  which  ex- 
tends to  this  country,  or  within  a  small  distance  of  it,  from 
Armenia,  is  called  Parachoathras. 

From  the  Hyrcanian  sea  to  the  Arii  are  about  6000  stadia.'^ 
Next  follow  Bactriana,  Sogdiana,  and  lastly  nomade  Scythians. 
The  Macedonians  gave  the  name  of  Caucasus  to  all  the 
mountains  which  follow  after  Ariana,^  but  among  the  bar- 
barians the  heights  and  the  northern  parts  of  the  Parapo- 
misus  were  called  Emoda,  and  Mount  Imaus;"*  and  other 
names  of  this  kind  were  assigned  to  each  portion  of  this 

2.  On  the  left  hand^  opposite  to  these  parts  are  situated 
the  Scythian  and  nomadic  nations,  occupying  the  whole  of 
the  northern  side.  Most  of  the  Scythians,  beginning  from 
the  Caspian  Sea,  are  called  Dahoe  Scythae,  and  those  situated 
more  towards  the  east  Massagetae  and  Sacae  ;  the  rest  have 
the  common  appellation  of  Scythians,  but  each  separate  tribe 
has  its  peculiar  name.  All,  or  the  greatest  part  of  them,  are 
nomades.  The  best  known  tribes  are  those  who  deprived 
the  Greeks  of  Bactriana,  the  Asii,  Pasiani,  ( Asiani  ?)  Tochari, 
and  Sacarauli,  who  came  from  the  country  on  the  other  side 
of  the  laxartes,^  opposite  the  Sacae  and  Sogdiani,  and  which 
country  was  also  occupied  by  Sacae  ;  some  tribes  of  the 
Dahae  are  surnamed  Aparni,  some  Xanthii,  others  Pissuri.'' 

••  avTov  in  this  passage,  as  Kramer  remarks,  is  singular. 

^  From  what  point  our  author  does  not  say. 

^  There  is  some  confusion  in  the  text,  which  Groskurd  attempts  to 
amend  as  follows:  "But  among  the  barbarians  the  heights  of  Ar'ana, 
and  the  northern  mountains  of  India,  are  separately  called  Emoda,  &c. 

♦  B.  XV.  c.  i.  §  11.  The  name  is  derived  from  the  Sanscrit  himavat, 
which  is  preserved  in  the  Latm  hiems,  winter,  and  in  the  modern  name 
Himalaya.     See  Smith,  art.  Imaus. 

*  On  advancing  from  the  S.  E.  of  the  Hyrcanian  Sea  towards  the  E. 
«  The  Syr-Daria. 

'  Aparni,  Xanthii,  and  Pissuri,  in  this  passage,  seem  to  be  the  same  as 
Pami,  Xandii,  and  Parii,  in  c.  ix.  §  3,  if  we  may  understand  in  the  pre- 
sent passage  these  people  to  be  referred  to  only  by  name,  but  not  as 
living  in  the  country  here  described. 

246  STRABO.  Casaub.  511. 

The  Aparni  approacli  the  nearest  of  any  of  these  people  to 
Hyrcania,  and  to  the  Caspian  Sea.  The  others  extend  as  far 
as  the  country  opposite  to  Aria. 

3.  Between  these  people,  Hyrcania,  and  Parthia  as  far  as 
Aria  lies  a  vast  and  arid  desert,  which  they  crossed  by  long 
journeys,  and  overran  Hyrcania,  the  Nesaean  country,  and 
the  plains  of  Parthia.  These  people  agreed  to  pay  a  tribute 
on  condition  of  having  permission  to  overrun  the  country  at 
stated  times,  and  to  carry  away  the  plunder.  But  when  these 
incursions  became  more  frequent  than  the  agreement  allowed, 
war  ensued,  afterwards  peace  was  made,  and  then  again  war 
was  renewed.  Such  is  the  kind  of  life  which  the  otlier  No- 
mades  also  lead,  continually  attacking  theu'  neighbours,  and 
then  making  peace  with  them. 

4.  The  Sacae  had  made  incursions  similar  to  those  of  the 
Cimmerians  and  Treres,  some  near  their  own  country,  others 
at  a  greater  distance.  They  occupied  Bactriana,  and  got 
possession  of  the  most  fertile  tract  in  Armenia,  which  was 
called  after  their  own  name,  Sacasene.  They  advanced  even 
as  far  as  the  Cappadocians,  those  particularly  situated  near 
the  Euxine  ;  who  are  now  called  Pontici.  When  they  were 
assembled  together  and  feasting  on  the  division  of  the  booty, 
they  were  attacked  by  night  by  the  Persian  generals  who 
were  then  stationed  in  that  quarter,  and  were  utterly  exter- 
minated. The  Persians  raised  a  mound  of  earth  in  the  form 
of  a  hill  over  a  rock  in  the  plain,  (where  this  occurred,)  and 
fortified  it.  They  erected  there  a  temple  to  Anaitis  and  the 
gods  Omanus  and  Anadatus,  Persian  deities  who  have  a 
common  altar.^  They  also  instituted  an  annual  festival,  (in 
memory  of  the  event,)  the  Sacaea,  which  the  occupiers  of  Zela, 
for  this  is  the  name  of  the  place,  celebrate  to  this  day.  It  is 
a  small  city  chiefly  appropriated  to  the  sacred  attendants. 
Pompey  added  to  it  a  considerable  tract  of  territory,  the  in- 
habitants of  which  he  collected  within  the  walls.  It  was  one 
of  the  cities  which  he  settled  after  the  overthrow  of  Mi- 

5.  Such  is  the  account  which  is  given  of  the  Sacaa  by  some 
writers.    Others  say,  that  Cyrus  in  an  expedition  against  the 

'  These  gods,  otherwise  unknown,  are  mentioned  again  in  b.  xv.  c.  iii. 
{  15. 

B.  XI.  c.  VIII,  §  6.  SAC^.    MASSAGETJE.  24? 

Sacae  was  defeated,  and  fled.  He  advanced  with  his  army  to 
the  spot  where  he  had  left  his  stores,  consisting  of  large  sup- 
plies of  every  kind,  particularly  of  wine  ;  he  stopped  a  short 
time  to  refresh  his  army,  and  set  out  in  the  evening,  as 
though  he  continued  his  flight,  the  tents  being  left  full  of  pro- 
visions. He  proceeded  as  far  as  he  thought  requisite,  and 
then  halted.  The  Sacas  pursued,  who,  finding  the  camp  aban- 
doned and  full  of  the  means  of  gratifying  their  appetites,  in- 
dulged themselves  without  restraint.  Cyrus  then  returned 
and  found  them  drunk  and  frantic  ;  some  were  killed,  stretch- 
ed on  the  ground  drowsy  or  asleep  ;  others,  dancing  and  mad- 
dened with  wine,  fell  defenceless  on  the  weapons  of  their 
enemies.  Nearly  all  of  them  perished.  Cyrus  ascribed 
this  success  to  the  gods  ;  he  consecrated  the  day  to  the  god- 
dess worshipped  in  his  own  country,  and  called  it  Sacaea. 
Wherever  there  is  a  temple  of  this  goddess,  there  the  Sacsean 
festival,  a  sort  of  Bacchanalian  feast,  is  celebrated,  in  which 
both  men  and  women,  dressed  in  the  Scythian  habit,  pass  day 
and  night  in  drinking  and  wanton  play. 

6.  The  Massagetae  signalized  their  bravery  in  the  war  with 
Cyrus,  of  which  many  writers  have  published  accounts  ;  we 
must  get  our  information  from  them.  Such  particulars  as 
the  following  are  narrated  respecting  this  nation  ;  some 
tribes  inhabit  mountains,  some  plains,  others  live  among 
marshes  formed  by  the  rivers,  others  on  the  islands  among  the 
marshes.  The  Araxes  is  said  to  be  the  river  which  is  the  chief 
cause  of  inundating  the  country ;  it  is  divided  into  various 
branches  and  discharges  itself  by  many  mouths  into  the  other 
sea^  towards  the  north,  but  by  one  only  into  the  Hyrcanian 
Gulf.  The  Massagetse  regard  no  other  deity  than  the  sun,  and 
to  his  honour  they  sacrifice  a  horse.  Each  man  marries  only 
one  wife,  but  they  have  intercourse  with  the  wives  of  each 
other  without  any  concealment.  He  who  has  intercourse  with 
the  wife  of  another  man  hangs  up  his  quiver  on  a  waggon, 
and  lies  with  her  openly.  They  account  the  best  mode  of 
death  to  be  chopped  up  when  they  grow  old  with  the  flesh  of 
sheep,  and  both  to  be  devoured  together.  Those  who  die  of 
disease  are  cast  out  as  impious,  and  only  fit  to  be  the  prey  of 
wild  beasts  ;  they  are  excellent  horsemen,  and  also  fight  well 
on  foot.  They  use  bows,  swords,  breastplates,  and  sagares 
*  The  Northern  Ocean. 

248  STRABO.  Casaur.  513. 

of  brass,  they  w^ear  golden  belts,  and  turbans  ^  on  their  heads 
in  battle.  Their  horses  have  bits  of  gold,  and  golden  breast- 
plates ;  they  have  no  silver,  iron  in  small  quantity,  but  gold 
and  brass  in  great  plenty. 

7.  Those  v^ho  live  in  the  islands  have  no  corn-fields.  Their 
food  consists  of  roots  and  wild  fruits.  Their  clothes  are  made 
of  the  bark  of  trees,  for  they  have  no  sheep.  They  press  out 
and  drink  the  juice  of  the  fruit  of  certain  trees. 

The  inhabitants  of  the  marshes  eat  fish.  They  are  clothed 
in  the  skins  of  seals,  which  come  upon  the  island  from  the  sea. 

The  mountaineers  subsist  on  wild  fruits.  They  have  be- 
sides a  few  sheep,  but  they  kill  them  sparingly,  and  keep 
them  for  the  sake  of  their  wool  and  milk.  Their  clothes 
they  variegate  by  steeping  them  in  dyes,  which  produce  a 
colour  not  easily  efiaced. 

The  inhabitants  of  the  plains,  although  they  possess  land, 
do  not  cultivate  it,  but  derive  their  subsistence  from  their 
fiocks,  and  from  fish,  after  the  manner  of  the  nomades  and 
Scythians.  I  have  frequently  described  a  certain  way  of  life 
common  to  all  these  people.  Their  burial-places  and  their 
manners  are  alike,  and  their  whole  manner  of  living  is  inde- 
pendent, but  rude,  savage,  and  hostile  ;  in  their  compacts,  how- 
ever, they  are  simple  and  without  deceit. 

8.  The  Attasii  (Augasii  ?)  and  the  Chorasmii  belong  to 
the  Massagetae  and  Sacae,  to  whom  Spitamenes  directed  his 
flight  from  Bactria  and  Sogdiana.  He  was  one  of  the  Per- 
sians who,  like  Bessus,  made  his  escape  from  Alexander  by 
flight,  as  Arsaces  afterwards  fled  from  Seleucus  Callinicus, 
and  retreated  among  the  Aspasiacae. 

Eratosthenes  says,  that  the  Bactrians  lie  along  the  Arachoti 
and  Massagetae  on  the  west  near  the  Oxus,  and  that  Sacae  and 
Sogdiani,  through  the  whole  extent  of  their  territory,^  are  op- 
posite to  India,  but  the  Bactrii  in  part  only,  for  the  greater  part 
of  their  country  lies  parallel  to  the  Parapomisus  ;  that  the 
Sac£e  and  Sogdiani  are  separated  by  the  laxartes,  and  the 
Sogdiani  and  Bactriani  by  the  Oxus  ;  that  Tapyri  occupy 
the  country  between  Hyrcani  and  Arii ;  that  around  the 
shores  of  the  sea,  next  to  the  Hyrcani,  are  Amardi,  Anariacae, 
Cadusii,  Albani,  Caspii,  Vitii,  and  perhaps  other  tribes  ex- 
tending as  far  as  the  Scythians  ;  that  on  the  other  side  of  the 
'  diadfifiaTU.  ^  toXq  oXoig  idd(p£(jiv. 

B.  XI.  c.  VIII.  §  9.  SAC^.    MASSAGETtE. 


Hyrcani  are  Derbices,  that  the  Caducii  are  contiguous  both  to 
the  Medes  and  Matiani  below  the  Parachoathras. 
9.  These  are  the  distances  which  he  gives. 


From  the  Caspian  Sea  to  the  Cyrus  about  1800 

Thence  to  the  Caspian  Gates  .         .         .         5600 

Thence  to  Alexandreia  in  the  territory  of  the  }       q^qq 

Arii       .......      j 

Thence  to  the  city  Bactra,  which  is  called  alsol       3370 
Zariaspa     ......  J 

Thence  to  the  river  laxartes,  which  Alexander  \      5000 
reached,  about        .....      J 

Making  a  total  of 22,670 

He  also  assigns  the  following  distances  from  the  Caspian 
Gates  to  India. 


To  Hecatompylos  ^ 1960 

To  Alexandreia^  in  the  country  of  the  Arii )  4/^Qo 

(Ariana)         ......      j 

Thence  to  Prophthasia^  in  Dranga'*         .  \  i/^qq 

(or  according  to  others  1500)  .         .      j 

Thence  to  the  city  Arachoti^  .         .  4120 

Thence  to  Ortospana  on  the  three  roads  from )  oooo 

Bactra^ J 

Thence  to  the  confines  of  India       .         .         .  1000 

Which  together  amount  to         .         .         .  15,300^ 

^  There  is  great  doubt  where  it  was  situated ;  the  distances  recorded  by 
ancient  writers  not  corresponding  accurately  with  known  ruins.  It  has 
been  supposeji  that  Damgham  corresponds  best  with  this  place;  but 
Damgham  is  too  near  the  Pylae  Caspiae :  on  the  whole  it  is  probable  that 
any  remains  of  Hecatompylos  ought  to  be  sought  in  the  neighbourhood 
of  a  place  now  called  Jah  Jirm.     Smithy  art.  Hecatompylos. 

2  Now  Herat,  the  capital  of  Khorassan.    See  Smith,  art.  Aria  Civitas. 

'  Zarang:.  ♦  Sigistan. 

*  Ulan  Robat,  but  see  Smith,  art.  Arachotus. 

6  Balkh.     See  Smith. 

'  The  sum  total  is  15,210  stadia,  and  not  15,300  stadia.  This  latter 
sum  total  is  to  be  found  again  in  b,  xv,  c.  ii.  §  8,  but  the  passage  there 
referred  to  has  served  to  correct  a  still  greater  error  in  the  reading  of 
this  chapter,  viz.  15,500.  Corrections  of  the  te^t  have  been  proposed,  but 
their  value  is  doubtful. 

250  STRABO.  Casaub.  514. 

We  must  regard  as  continuous  with  this  distance,  in  a  straight 
line,  the  length  of  India,  reckoned  from  the  Indus  to  the 
Eastern  Sea. 

Thus  much  then  respecting  the  Sacse. 


1.  Parthia  is  not  an  extensive  tract  of  country;  for  this 
reason  it  was  united  with  the  Hyrcani  for  the  purpose  of  pay- 
ing tribute  under  the  Persian  dominion  and  afterwards,  during 
a  long  period  when  the  Macedonians  were  masters  of  the  coun- 
try. Besides  its  small  extent,  it  is  thickly  wooded,  moun- 
tainous, and  produces  nothing ;  so  that  the  kings  with  their 
multitude  of  followers  pass  with  great  speed  through  the 
country,  which  is  unable  to  furnish  subsistence  for  such  num- 
bers even  for  a  short  time.  At  present  it  is  augmented  in 
extent.  Comisene^  and  Chorene  are  parts  of  Parthiene,  and 
perhaps  also  the  country  as  far  as  the  Caspian  Gates,  Rhagae, 
and  the  Tapyri,  which  formerly  belonged  to  Media.  Apameia 
and  Heracleia  are  cities  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Rhagae. 

From  the  Caspian  Gates  to  Rhagas  are  500  stadia  accord- 
ing to  Apollodorus,  and  to  Hecatompylos,  the  royal  seat  of 
the  Parthians,  1260  stadia.  Rhagas^  is  said  to  have  had  its 
name  from  the  earthquakes  which  occurred  in  that  country,  by 
which  many  cities  and  two  thousand  villages,  as  Poseidonius 
relates,  were  overthrown.  The  Tapyri  are  said  to  live  be- 
tween the  Derbices  and  the  Hyrcani.  Historians  say,  that 
it  is  a  custom  among  the  Tapyri  to  surrender  the  married 
women  to  other  men,  even  when  the  husbands  have  had  two 
or  three  children  by  them,  as  Cato  surrendered  Marcia  in 
our  times,  according  to  an  ancient  custom  of  the  Romans,  to 
Hortensius,  at  his  request. 

2.  Disturbances  having  arisen  in  the  countries  beyond  the 
Taurus  in  consequence  of  the  kings  of  Syria  and  Media, 
who  possessed  the  tract  of  which  we  are  speaking,  being  en- 
gaged in  other  affairs,^  those  who  were  intrusted  with  the 

*  Its  present  name  is  said  to  be  Comis.  2  The  Rents. 

3  Adopting  Tyrwhitt's  conjecture,  irpbg  dXXoig. 

B.  XI.  c.  IX.  §  3.    PARTHTA.    ARIA.    MARGIANA. 


government  of  it  occasioned  first  the  revolt  of  Bactriana  ; 
then  Euthydemus  and  his  party  the  revolt  of  all  the  country 
near  that  province.  Afterwards  Arsaces,  a  Scythian,  (with 
the  Parni,  called  nomades,  a  tribe  of  the  Dahae,  wlio  live  on 
the  banks  of  the  Ochus,)  invaded  Parthia,  and  made  himself 
master  of  it.  At  first  both  Arsaces  and  his  successors  were 
weakened  by  maintaining  wars  with  those  who  had  been  de- 
prived of  their  territory.  Afterwards  they  became  so  powerful, 
in  consequence  of  their  successful  warfare,  continually  depriv- 
ing their  neighbours  of  portions  of  their  territory,  that  at  last 
they  took  possession  of  all  the  country  within  the  Euphrates. 
They  deprived  Eucratidas,  and  then  the  Scythians,  by  force 
of  arms,  of  a  part  of  Bactriana.  They  now  have  an  empire 
comprehending  so  large  an  extent  of  country,  and  so  many 
nations,  that  it  almost  rivals  that  of  the  Romans  in  magnitude. 
This  is  to  be  attributed  to  their  mode  of  life  and  manners, 
which  have  indeed  much  of  the  barbarous  and  Scythian  cha- 
racter, but  are  very  well  adapted  for  establishing  dominion, 
and  for  insuring  success  in  war. 

3.  They  say  that  the  Dahas  Parni  were  an  emigrant  tribe 
from  the  Dahae  above  the  Meeotis,  who  are  called  Xandii 
and  Parii.  But  it  is  not  generally  acknowledged  that  Dahse 
are  to  be  found  among  the  Scythians  above  the  Maeotis,  yet 
from  these  Arsaces  according  to  some  was  descended ;  ac- 
cording to  others  he  was  a  Bactrian,  and  withdrawing  him- 
self from  the  increasing  power  of  Diodotus,  occasioned  the 
revolt  of  Parthia. 

We  have  enlarged  on  the  subject  of  the  Parthian  customs 
in  the  sixth  book  of  historical  commentaries,  and  in  the  second 
of  those,  which  are  a  sequel  to  Polybius  :  we  shall  omit  what 
we  said,  in  order  to  avoid  repetition ;  adding  this  only,  that 
Poseidonius  afiirms  that  the  council  of  the  Parthians  is  com- 
posed of  two  classes,  one  of  relatives,  (of  the  royal  family,) 
and  another  of  wise  men  and  magi,  by  both  of  which  kings 
are  chosen. 


1.  Aria  and  Margiana,  which  are  the  best  districts  in  this 
portion  of  Asia,  are  partly  composed  of  valleys  enclosed  by 

252  STRABO  Casaub.  516. 

mountains,  and  partly  of  inhabited  plains.  Some  tribes  of  Sce- 
nitse  (dwellers  in  tents)  occupy  the  mountains  ;  the  plains  are 
watered  by  the  rivers  Arius  and  by  the  Margus. 

-^ria  borders  upon  Bactriana,  and  the  mountain  ^  which  has 
Bactriana  at  its  foot.  It  is  distant  from  [the]  Hyrcania[n 
sea]  about  6000  stadia. 

Drangiana  as  far  as  Carmania  furnished  jointly  with  Aria 
payment  of  the  tribute.  The  greater  part  of  this  country 
is  situated  at  the  foot  of  the  southern  side  of  the  mountains  ; 
some  tracts  however  approach  the  northern  side  opposite  Aria. 

Arachosia,  which  belongs  to  the  territory  of  Aria,  is  not  far 
distant ;  it  lies  at  the  foot  of  the  southern  side  of  the  moun- 
tains, and  extends  to  the  river  Indus. 

The  length  of  Aria  is  about  2000  stadia,  and  the  breadth 
of  the  plain  300  stadia.  Its  cities  are  Artacaena,  Alexandreia, 
and  Achaia,  which  are  called  after  the  names  of  their  founders. 

The  soil  produces  excellent  wines,  which  may  be  kept  for 
three  generations  in  unpitched  vessels. 

2.  Margiana  is  like  this  country,  but  the  plain  is  surround- 
ed by  deserts.  Antiochus  Soter  admired  its  fertility  ;  he 
enclosed  a  circle  of  1500  stadia  with  a  wall,  and  founded  a 
city,  Antiocheia.  The  soil  is  well  adapted  to  vines.  They 
say  that  a  vine  stem  has  been  frequently  seen  there  which 
would  require  two  men  to  girth  it,  and  bunches  of  grapes 
two  cubits  in  size. 


1.  Some  parts  of  Bactria  lie  along  Aria  to  the  north, 
but  the  greater  part  stretches  beyond  (Aria)  to  the  east.  It 
is  an  extensive  country,  and  produces  everything  except  oil. 

The  Greeks  who  occasioned  its  revolt  became  so  powerful 
by  means  of  the  fertility  and  advantages  of  the  country,  that 
they  became  masters  of  Ariana  and  India,  according  to 
Apollodorus  of  Artamita.  Their  chiefs,  particularly  Menan- 
der,  (if  he  really  crossed  the  Hypanis  to  the  east  and  reached 
Isamus,)^  conquered  more  nations  than  Alexander.      These 

'  The  Parapomisus.     Kramer's  proposed  correction  is  adopted. 

*  For  Isamus  in  the  text,  Imaus  is  adopted  by  Groskurd,  and  Kramer 

B.  XI.  c.  XI.  §  2, 3.  BACTRIA.  253 

conquests  were  achieved  partly  by  Menander,  partly  by  De- 
metrius, son  of  Euthydemus,  king  of  the  Bactrians.  They 
got  possession  not  only  of  Pattalene,^  but  of  the  kingdoms  of 
Saraostus,  and  Sigerdis,  which  constitute  the  remainder  of  the 
coast.  Apollodorus  in  short  says  that  Bactriana  is  the  orna- 
ment of  all  Ariana.  They  extended  their  empire  even  as  far 
as  the  Seres  and  Phryni. 

2.  Their  cities  were  Bactra,  which  they  call  also  Zariaspa, 
(a  river  of  the  same  name  flows  through  it,  and  empties  itself 
into  the  Oxus,)  and  Darapsa,^  and  many  others.  Among 
these  was  Eucratidia,  which  had  its  name  from  Eucratidas, 
the  king.  When  the  Greeks  got  possession  of  the  country, 
they  divided  it  into  satrapies  ;  that  of  Aspionus  and  Turiva^ 
the  Parthians  took  from  Eucratidas.  They  possessed  Sog- 
diana  also,  situated  above  Bactriana  to  the  east,  between  the 
river  Oxus  (which  bounds  Bactriana  and  Sogdiana)  and  the 
laxartes ;  the  latter  river  separates  the  Sogdii  and  the 

3.  Anciently  the  Sogdiani  and  Bactriani  did  not  differ 
much  from  the  nomades  in  their  mode  of  life  and  manners, 
yet  the  manners  of  the  Bactriani  were  a  little  more  civilized. 
Onesicritus  however  does  not  give  the  most  favourable  account 
of  this  people.  Those  who  are  disabled  by  disease  or  old  age 
are  thrown  alive  to  be  devoured  by  dogs  kept  expressly  for 
this  purpose,  and  whom  in  the  language  of  the  country  they 
call  entombers.'*  The  places  on  the  exterior  of  the  walls  of 
the  capital  of  the  Bactrians  are  clean,  but  the  interior  is  for 
the  most  part  full  of  human  bones.  Alexander  abolished  this 
custom.  Something  of  the  same  kind  is  related  of  the  Caspii 
also,  who,  when  their  parents  have  attained  the  age  of  70 
years,  confine  them,  and  let  them  die  of  hunger.  This  cus- 
tom, although  Scythian  in  character,  is  more  tolerable  than 
that  of  the  Bactrians,  and  is  similar  to  the  domestic  law  of 
the  Cei  ;^  the  custom  however  of  the  Bactrians  is  much  more 
according  to  Scythian  manners.     We  may  be  justly  at  a  loss 

considers  this  reading  highly  probable.  Isamus  is  not  found  in  any  other 
passage,  but  Mannert,  (Geogr,  v.  p.  295,)  finding  in  Pliny  (N.  H.  vi.  21, 
§  17)  the  river  lomanes,  proposes  to  read  in  this  passage  'lofidvov,  in 
which  he  recognises  the  Jumna. 

*  Tatta  or  Sindi.  *  Adraspa.     B.  xv.  c.  ii.  §  10. 

^  Mentioned  nowhere  else.  Kramer  seems  to  approve  of  Du  Theil's 
proposed  correction,  Tapuria.         *  iVTa<pia(TTdg.        *  B.  x.  c.  v.  §  6. 

254  STRABO.  Casaub.  517. 

to  conjecture,^  if  Alexander  found  such  customs  prevailing 
there,  what  were  the  customs  which  probably  were  observed 
by  them  in  the  time  of  the  first  kings  of  Persia,  and  of  the 
princes  v/ho  preceded  them. 

4.  Alexander,  it  is  said,  founded  eight  cities  in  Bactriana 
and  Sogdiana ;  some  he  razed,  among  which  were  Cariatae  in 
Bactriana,  where  Callisthenes  was  seized  and  imprisoned  ; 
Maracanda  in  Sogdiana,  and  Cyra,  the  last  of  the  places 
founded  by  Cyrus,  situated  upon  the  river  laxartes,  and  the 
boundary  of  the  Persian  empire.  This  also,  although  it  was 
attached  to  Cyrus,  he  razed  on  account  of  its  frequent  revolts. 

Alexander  took  also,  it  is  said,  by  means  of  treachery,  strong 
fortified  rocks  ;  one  of  which  belonged  to  Sisimithres  in  Bac- 
triana, where  Oxyartes  kept  his  daughter  Roxana ;  another  to 
Oxus  in  Sogdiana,  or,  according  to  some  writers,  to  Aria- 
mazas.  The  stronghold  of  Sisimithres  is  described  by  his- 
torians to  have  been  fifteen  stadia  in  height,  and  eighty  stadia 
in  circuit.  On  the  summit  is  a  level  ground,  which  is  fertile 
and  capable  of  maintaining  500  men.  Here  Alexander  was 
entertained  with  sumptuous  hospitality,  and  here  he  espoused 
Roxana  the  daughter  of  Oxyartes.  The  height  of  the  fortress 
in  Sogdiana  is  double  the  height  of  this.  It  was  near  these 
places  that  he  destroyed  the  city  of  the  Branchida?,  whom 
Xerxes  settled  there,  and  who  had  voluntarily  accompanied  him 
from  their  own  country.  They  had  delivered  up  to  the  Per- 
sjans  the  riches  of  the  god  at  Didymi,  and  the  treasure  there 
deposited.  Alexander  destroyed  their  city  in  abhorrence  of 
their  treachery  and  sacrilege. 

5.  Aristobulus  calls  the  river,  which  runs  through  Sog- 
diana, Polytimetus,  a  name  imposed  by  the  Macedonians,  as 
they  imposed  many  others,  some  of  which  were  altogether 
new,  others  were  deflections ^  from  the  native  appellations. 
This  river  after  watering  the  country  flows  through  a  desert 
and  sandy  soil,  and  is  absorbed  in  the  sand,  like  the  Arius, 
which  flows  through  the  territory  of  the  Arii. 

It  is  said  that  on  digging  near  the  river  Ochus  a  spring  of 
oil  was  discovered.  It  is  probable,  that  as  certain  nitrous,  as- 
tringent, bituminous,  and  sulphurous  fluids  permeate  the 
earth,  greasy  fluids  may  be  found,  but  the  rarity  of  their  oc- 
currence makes  their  existence  almost  doubtful. 
*  The  text  is  corrupt. 

B.  XI.  c.  XI.  §  6,  7.  NORTHERN  ASIA.  255 

The  course  of  the  Ochus,  according  to  some  writers,  is 
through  Bactriana,  according  to  others  parallel  to  it.  Some 
allege  that,  taking  a  more  southerly  direction,  it  is  distinct 
from  the  Oxus  to  its  mouths,  but  that  they  both  discharge 
themselves  (separately)  into  the  Caspian  in  Hyrcania.  Others 
again  say  that  it  is  distinct,  at  its  commencement,  from  the 
Oxus,  but  that  it  (afterwards)  unites  with  the  latter  river, 
having  in  many  places  a  breadth  of  six  or  seven  stadia. 

The  laxartes  is  distinct  from  the  Oxus  from  its  commence- 
ment to  its  termination,  and  empties  itself  into  the  same  sea. 
Their  mouths,  according  to  Patrocles,  are  about  80  parasangs 
distant  from  each  other.  The  Persian  parasang  some  say 
contains  60,  others  30  or  40,  stadia. 

When  I  was  sailing  up  the  Nile,  schoeni  of  different  mea- 
sures were  used  in  passing  from  one  city  to  another,  so  that 
the  same  number  of  schoeni  gave  in  some  places  a  longer,  in 
others  a  shorter,  length  to  the  voyage.  This  mode  of  com- 
putation has  been  handed  down  from  an  early  period,  and  is 
continued  to  the  present  time. 

6.  In  proceeding  from  Hyrcania  towards  the  rising  sun  as 
far  as  Sogdiana,  the  nations  beyond  (within  ?)  the  Taurus 
were  known  first  to  the  Persians,  and  afterwards  to  the  Mace- 
donians and  Parthians.  The  nations  lying  in  a  straight  line  ^ 
above  these  people  are  supposed  to  be  Scythian,  from  their 
resemblance  to  that  nation.  But  we  are  not  acquainted  with 
any  expeditions  which  have  been  undertaken  against  them, 
nor  against  the  most  northerly  tribes  of  the  nomades.  Alex- 
ander proposed  to  conduct  his  army  against  them,  when  he 
was  in  pursuit  of  Bessus  and  Spitamenes,  but  when  Bessus  was 
taken  prisoner,  and  Spitamenes  put  to  death  by  the  Barba- 
rians, he  desisted  from  executing  his  intention. 

It  is  not  generally  admitted,  that  persons  have  passed 
round  by  sea  from  India  to  Hyrcania,  but  Patrocles  asserts 
that  it  may  be  done. 

7.  It  is  said  that  the  termination  of  Taurus,  which  is  called 
Imaus,  approaches  close  to  the  Indian  Sea,  and  neither  ad- 
vances towards  nor  recedes  from  the  East  more  than  India 
itself.  But  on  passing  to  the  northern  side,  the  sea  contracts 
(throughout  the  whole  coast)  the  length  and  breadth  of  India, 
so  as  to  shorten  on  the  East  the  portion  of  Asia  we  are  now 

'  i.  e.  on  the  same  parallel. 

256  STRABO.  Casaub.  519. 

describing,  comprehended  between  the  Taurus  and  the  North- 
ern Ocean,  which  forms  the  Caspian  Sea. 

The  greatest  length  of  this  portion,  reckoned  frorn  the  Hyr- 
canian  Sea  to  the  (Eastern)  Ocean  opposite  Imaus,  is  about 
30,000  stadia,^  the  route  being  along  the  mountainous  tract  of 
Taurus  ;  the  breadth  is  less  than  10,000  stadia.^  We  have 
said  before,  that^  from  the  bay  of  Issus  to  the  eastern  sea  along 
the  coast  of  India  is  about  40,000  stadia,  and  to  Issus  from 
the  western  extremities  at  the  pillars  30,000  stadia.  The 
recess  of  the  bay  of  Issus  is  little,  if  at  all,  more  to  the  east 
than  Amisus ;  from  Amisus  to  Hyrcania  is  about  10,000 
stadia  in  a  line  parallel  to  that  which  we  have  described  as 
drawn  from  the  bay  of  Issus  to  India.  There  remains  there- 
fore for  the  portion  now  delineated  the  above-mentioned 
length  towards  the  east,  namely,  30,000  stadia.'* 

'  That  is,  from  the  Caspian  Gates  to  Thince.  Gossellin. 

^  Strabo  does  not  here  determine  either  the  parallel  from  which  we  are 
to  measure,  nor  the  meridian  we  are  to  follow  to  discover  this  greatest 
breadth,  which  according  to  him  is  "  less  than  10,000  stadia."  This 
passage  therefore  seems  to  present  great  difficulties.  The  difficulties 
respecting  the  parallel  can  only  be  perceived  by  an  examination  and 
comparison  of  the  numerous  passages  where  our  author  indicates  the 
direction  of  the  chain  of  mountains  which  form  the  Taurus. 

3  I  do  not  see  where  this  statement  is  to  be  found,  except  implicitly. 
Strabo  seems  to  refer  us  in  general  to  various  passages  where  he  endea- 
vours to  determine  the  greatest  length  of  the  habitable  world,  in  b.  ii. 
Du  Theil 

■*  I  am  unable  to  fix  upon  the  author's  train  of  thought.  For  immedi- 
ately after  having  assigned  to  this  portion  of  the  Habitable  Earth  (whose 
dimensions  he  wishes  to  determine)  30,000  stadia  as  its  "  greatest  length," 
and  10,000  stadia  as  its  "greatest  breadth,"  Strabo  proceeds  to  prove 
what  he  had  just  advanced  respecting  its  greatest  length.  Then  he 
should,  it  seems,  have  endeavoured  to  furnish  us,  in  the  same  manner, 
with  a  proof  that  its  greatest  breadth  is  not  more,  as  he  says,  than  10,000. 
But  in  what  follows  there  is  nothing  advanced  on  this  point ;  all  that  he 
says  is  to  develope  another  proposition,  viz.  that  the  extent  of  the  Hyr- 
canian — Caspian  Sea  is  at  the  utmost  6000  stadia. 

The  arguments  contained  in  this  paragraph  on  the  whole  appear  to  me 
strange;  they  rest  on  a  basis  which  it  is  difficult  to  comprehend;  they 
establish  explicitly  a  proposition  which  disagrees  with  what  the  author 
has  said  elsewhere,  and  lastly  they  present  an  enormous  geographical 

It  will  therefore  be  useful  to  the  reader  to  explain,  as  far  as  I  under- 
stand it,  the  argument  of  our  author. 

1.  The  exact  form  of  the  chlamys  is  unknown  to  us,  but  it  was  such,  that 
its  greatest  breadth  was  to  be  found,  if  not  exactly  in,  at  least  near,  the 
middle  of  its  length.     The  Habitable  Earth  being  of  the  form  of  a 

B.  XI.  c.  XI.  §  7.  NORTHERN  ASIA.  257 

Again,  since  the  breadth  of  the  longest  part  of  the  habitable 
earth,  which  has  the  shape  of  a  chlamys,  (or  a  military  cloak,) 
is  about  30,000  stadia,  this  distance  would  be  near  the  meri- 
dian line  drawn  through  the  Hyrcanian  and  the  Persian 
Seas,  for  the  length  of  the  habitable  earth  is  70,000  stadia. 
If  therefore  from  Hyrcania  to  Artemita^  in  Babylonia  are 
8000  stadia  according  to  Apollodorus  of  Artemita,  and  thence 
to  the  mouth  of  the  Persian  Sea  8000,  and  again  8000,  or  a 
little  short  of  that  number,  to  the  places  on  the  same  parallel 
with  the  extremities  of  Ethiopia,  there  would  remain,  to 
complete  the  breadth  as  I  have  described  it,  of  the  habitable 
earth,  the  number  of  stadia^  which  I  have  mentioned,  reckon- 
ing from  the  recess  of  the  Hyrcanian  Sea  to  its  mouth.  This 
segment  of  the  earth  being  truncated  towards  the  eastern 
parts,  its  figure  would  resemble  a  cook's  knife,  for  the  moun- 
tainous range  being  prolonged  in  a  straight  line,  answers  to 
the  edge,  while  the  shape  of  the  coast  from  the  mouth  of  the 
Hyrcanian  Sea  to  Tamarus  on  the  other  side  terminates  in  a 
circular  truncated  line. 

Chlamys,  its  greatest  breadth  would  be  found  about  the  middle  of  its 
greatest  length. 

2.  The  greatest  length  of  the  Habitable  "World  being  70,000  stadia,  its 
greatest  breadth  ought  to  be  found  at  the  distance  of  35,000  stadia  from 
its  eastern  or  western  extremity,  but  this  greatest  breadth  is  only  30,000 
stadia,  and  it  does  not  extend,  on  the  north,  beyond  the  parallel  of  the 
mouth  of  the  Hyrcanian  Sea.  B.  ii. 

3.  The  meridian  which  passes  at  the  distance  of  35,000  stadia  from  the 
eastern  or  western  extremities  of  the  Habitable  Earth,  is  that  which, 
drawn  from  the  mouth  of  the  Hyrcanian  Sea  to  the  Northern  Ocean,  and 
prolonged  in  another  direction  through  the  mouth  of  the  Persian  Gulf 
to  the  sea  called  Erythraean,  would  pass  through  the  city  Artemita.  Con- 
sequently it  is  on  the  meridian  of  Artemita  that  we  must  look  for  the 
greatest  breadth  of  the  Habitable  Earth. 

4.  On  this  same  meridian,  we  must  reckon  from  the  parallel  of  the 
last  habitable  country  in  the  south  to  the  mouth  of  the  Persian  Gulf, 
about  8000  stadia ;  then  from  the  mouth  of  the  Persian  Gulf  to  Artemita, 
8000  stadia ;  and  from  Artemita  to  the  bottom  of  the  Hyrcanian  Sea, 
8000  stadia :  total  24,000  stadia. 

5.  It  being  established  that  the  breadth  of  the  Habitable  Earth  is 
30,000  stadia,  and  not  to  extend  it  northwards  beyond  the  parallel  of  the 
mouth  of  the  Hyrcanian  Sea,  where  it  communicates  with  the  Northern 
Ocean,  the  distance  to  this  point  from  the  bottom  of  this  same  sea  must 
be  calculated  at  6000  stadia.  Du  Theil. 

'  The  modern  Shirban  is  supposed  to  occupy  its  site. 
^  Namely  6000.  B.  ii.  c.  i.  §  17. 

258  STRABO.  Casatjb.  619. 

8.  We  must  mention  some  of  the  extraordinary  circum- 
stances which  are  related  of  those 'tribes  which  are  perfectly 
barbarous,  living  about  Mount  Caucasus,  and  the  other  moun- 
tainous districts. 

What  Euripides  expresses  in  the  following  lines  is  said  to 
be  a  custom  among  them  ; 

**  they  lament  the  birth  of  the  new-bom  on  account  of  the  many  evils  to 
which  they  are  exposed ;  but  the  dead,  and  one  at  rest  from  his  troubles, 
is  carried  forth  from  his  home  with  joy  and  gratulation." 

Other  tribes  do  not  put  to  death  even  the  greatest  offenders, 
but  only  banish  them  from  their  territories  together  with 
their  children ;  which  is  contrary  to  the  custom  of  the  Der- 
bices,  who  punish  even  slight  offences  with  death.  The  Der- 
bices  worship  the  earth.  They  neither  sacrifice,  nor  eat  the 
female  of  any  animal.  Persons  who  attain  the  age  of  above 
seventy  years  are  put  to  death  by  them,  and  their  nearest  rela- 
tions eat  their  flesh.  Old  women  are  strangled,  and  then 
buried.  Those  who  die  under  seventy  years  of  age  are  not 
eaten,  but  are  only  buried. 

The  Siginni  in  general  practise  Persian  customs.  They 
have  small  horses  with  shaggy  hair,  but  which  are  not  able 
to  carry  a  rider.  Four  of  these  horses  are  harnessed  together, 
driven  by  women,  who  are  trained  to  this  employment  from 
childhood.  The  best  driver  marries  whom  she  pleases.  Some, 
they  say,  make  it  their  study  to  appear  with  heads  as  long  as 
possible,  and  with  foreheads  projecting  over  their  chins. 

The  Tapyrii  have  a  custom  for  the  men  to  dress  in  black, 
and  wear  their  hair  long,  and  the  women  to  dress  in  white, 
and  wear  their  hair  short.  [They  live  between  the  Derbices 
and  Hyrcani.]  ^  He  who  is  esteemed  the  bravest  marries 
whom  he  likes. 

The  Caspii  starve  to  death  those  who  are  above  seventy 
years  old,  by  exposing  them  in  a  desert  place.  The  exposed 
are  observed  at  a  distance  ;  if  they  are  dragged  from  their 
resting-place  by  birds,  they  are  then  pronounced  happy ;  but 
if  by  wild  beasts,  or  dogs,  less  fortunate ;  but  if  by  none  of 
these,  ill-fated. 

*  Introduced  from  the  margin  according  to  Groskurd's  opinion,  sup- 
ported also  by  Kramer. 

B.  XI.  c.  XII.  §  1, 2.  MOUNT  TAURUS.  259 


1.  Since  the  Taurus  constitutes  the  northern  parts  of  Asia, 
which  are  called  also  the  parts  within  the  Taurus,  I  propose 
to  speak  first  of  these. 

They  are  situated  either  entirely,  or  chiefly,  among  the 
mountains.  Those  to  the  east  of  the  Caspian  Gates  admit  of 
a  shorter  description  on  account  of  the  rude  state  of  the  peo- 
ple, nor  is  there  much  difference  whether  they  are  referred  to 
one  climate^  or  the  other.  All  the  western  countries  furnish 
abundant  matter  for  description.  We  must  therefore  proceed 
to  the  places  situated  near  the  Caspian  Gates. 

Media  lies  towards  the  west,  an  extensive  country,  and 
formerly  powerful ;  it  is  situated  in  the  middle  of  Taurus, 
which  here  has  many  branches,  and  contains  large  valleys,  as 
is  the  case  in  Armenia. 

2.  This  mountain  has  its  beginning  in  Caria  and  Lycia, 
but  does  not  exhibit  there  either  considerable  breadth  or 
height.  It  first  appears  to  have  a  great  altitude  opposite  the 
Chelidoneae,^  which  are  islands  situated  in  front  of  the  com- 
mencement of  the  Pamphylian  coast.  It  extends  towards 
the  east,  and  includes  the  long  valleys  of  Cilicia.  Then  on 
one  side  the  Amanus^  is  detached  from  it,  and  on  the  other 
the  Anti-Taurus."*  In  the  latter  is  situated  Comana,^  belong- 
ing to  the  Upper  Cappadocia.  It  terminates  in  Cataonia, 
but  Mount  Amanus  is  continued  as  far  as  the  Euphrates,  and 
Melitene,^  where  Commagene  extends  along  Cappadocia. 
It  receives  the  mountains  beyond  the  Euphrates,  which  are 
continuous  with  those  before  mentioned,  except  the  part  which 
is  intercepted  by  the  river  flowing  through  the  middle  of  them. 

*  i.  e.  To  northern  or  southern  Asia.  B.  ii.  c.  i.  §  20. 

2  There  are  five  islands  off  the  Hiera  Acta,  which  is  now  Cape  Kheli- 
donia.  The  Greeks  still  call  them  Cheledoniae,  of  which  the  Italians 
make  Celidoni ;  and  the  Turks  have  adopted  the  Italian  name,  and  call 
them  Shelidan.     Smith,  art.  Chelidonise  Insulae. 

3  Amanus  descends  from  the  mass  of  Taurus,  and  surrounds  the  Gulf 
of  Issus. 

*  Dudschik  Dagh. 

'  It  is  generally  supposed  that  the  modem  town  Al  Bostan  on  the  Si- 
koon,  Seihun,  or  Sarus,  is  or  is  near  the  site  of  Comana  of  Cappadocia. 
Smith,  art.  Comana.  «  Malatia. 

B  2 

260  STRABO.  Casaub.  621. 

Here  its  height  and  breadth  become  greater,  and  its  branches 
more  numerous.  The  Taurus  extends  the  farthest  distance 
towards  the  south,  where  it  separates  Armenia  from  Meso- 

3.  From  the  south  flow  both  rivers,  the  Euphrates  and 
the  Tigris,  which  encircle  Mesopotamia,  and  approach  close 
to  each  other  at  Babylonia,  and  then  discharge  themselves 
into  the  sea  on  the  coast  of  Persia.  The  Euphrates  is  the 
larger  river,  and  traverses  a  greater  tract  of  country  with  a  tor- 
tuous course,  it  rises  in  the  northern  part  of  Taurus,  and  flows 
toward  the  west  through  Armenia  the  Greater,  as  it  is  called, 
to  Armenia  the  Less,  having  the  latter  on  the  right  and 
Acilisene  on  the  left  hand.  It  then  turns  to  the  south,  and 
at  its  bend  touches  the  boundaries  of  Cappadocia.  It  leaves 
this  and  Commagene  on  the  right  hand  ;  on  the  left  Acili- 
sene and  Sophene,^  belonging  to  the  Greater  Armenia.  It 
proceeds  onwards  to  Syria,  and  again  makes  another  bend  in 
its  way  to  Babylonia  and  the  Persian  Gulf. 

The  Tigris  takes  its  course  from  the  southern  part  of  the 
same  mountains  to  Seleucia,^  approaches  close  to  the  Eu- 
phrates, with  which  it  forms  Mesopotamia.  It  then  empties 
itself  into  the  same  gulf. 

The  sources  of  the  Tigris  and  of  the  Euphrates  are  distant 
from  each  other  about  2500  stadia. 

4.  Towards  the  north  there  are  many  forks  which  branch 
away  from  the  Taurus.  One  of  these  is  called  Anti-Taurus, 
for  there  the  mountain  had  this  name,  and  includes  Sophene 
in  a  valley  situated  between  Anti-Taurus  and  the  Taurus. 

Next  to  the  Anti-Taurus  on  the  other  side  of  the  Euphrates, 
along  the  Lesser  Armenia,  there  stretches  towards  the  north 
a  large  mountain  with  many  branches,  one  of  which  is  called 
Paryadres,^  another  the  Moschic  mountains,  and  others  by 
other  names.  The  Moschic  mountains  comprehend  the  whole 
of  Armenians  as  far  as  the  Iberians  and  Albanians.  Other 
mountains  again  rise  towards  the  east  above  the  Caspian  Sea, 
and  extend  as  far  as  Media  the  Greater,  and  the  Atropatian- 
Media.  They  call  all  these  parts  of  the  mountains  Paracho- 
athras,  as  well  as  those  which  extend  to  the  Caspian  Gates,  and 
those  still  farther  above  towards  the  east,  which  are  contigu- 

•  Dzophok.  '^  Azerbaijan. 

'  The  range  overhanging  Cerasus,  now  Kerasun. 

B.  XI.  c.  XII.  §  5.  MOUNT  TAURUS.  261 

ous  to  Asia.  The  following  are  the  names  of  the  mountains 
towards  the  north. 

The  southern  mountains  on  the  other  side  of  the  Euphrates, 
extending  towards  the  east  from  Cappadocia  and  Commagene,^ 
at  their  commencement  have  the  name  of  Taurus,  which 
separates  Sophene  and  the  rest  of  Armenia  from  Mesopota- 
mia, but  some  writers  call  them  the  Gordyaean  mountains.^ 
Among  these  is  Mount  Masius,^  which  is  situated  above  Nisi- 
bis,*  and  Tigranocerta.^  It  then  becomes  more  elevated,  and 
is  called  Niphates.^  Somewhere  in  this  part  on  the  southern 
side  of  the  mountainous  chain  are  the  sources  of  the  Tigris. 
Then  the  ridge  of  mountains  continuing  to  extend  from  the 
Niphates  forms  the  mountain  Zagrius,  which  separates  Media 
and  Babylonia.  After  the  Zagrius  follows  above  Babylonia 
the  mountainous  range  of  the  Elymaei  and  Paraetaceni,  and 
above  Media  that  of  the  Cossaei. 

In  the  middle  of  these  branches  are  situated  Media  and 
Armenia,  which  comprise  many  mountains,  and  many  moun- 
tain plains,  as  well  as  plains  and  large  valleys.  Numerous 
small  tribes  live  around  among  the  mountains,  who  are  for 
the  most  part  robbers. 

We  thus  place  within  the  Taurus  Armenia  and  Media,  to 
which  belong  the  Caspian  Gates. 

5.  In  our  opinion  these  nations  may  be  considered  as  situ- 
ated to  the  north,  since  they  are  within  the  Taurus.  But 
Eratosthenes,  having  divided  Asia  into  southern  and  northern 
portions,  and  what  he  calls  seals,  (or  sections,)"^  designating 
some  as  northern,  others  as  southern,  makes  the  Caspian 
Gates  the  boundary  of  both  climates.  He  might  without  any 
impropriety  have  represented  the  more  southern  parts  of  the 
Caspian  Gates  as  in  southern  Asia,  among  which  are  Media 
and  Armenia,  and  the  parts  more  to  the  north  than  the  Cas- 
pian Gates  in  northern  Asia,  which  might  be  the  case  accord* 
ing  to  different  descriptions  of  the  country.  But  perhaps 
Eratosthenes  did  not  attend  to  the  circumstance,  that  there 

*  Camasch.  The  country  situated  N.  W.  of  the  Euphrates  in  about 
38°  lat. 

'  The  range  of  Kurdistan  on  the  E.  of  the  Tigris. 
'  The  range  lying  between  the  Euphrates  and  the  Tigris,  between  37*> 
and  38°  lat.  *  Nisibin  or  Netzid. 

*  Meja-Farkin,  by  "  above"  these  cities,  would  appear  to  mean  over- 
hanging them  both,  as  it  is  situated  between  them. 

6  Nepat-Learn.  '  B.  ii.  c.  i.  §  22. 

262  STRABO.  Casaijb.  523. 

is  no  part  of  Armenia  nor  of  Media  towards  the  south  on  the 
other  side  of  the  Taurus. 


1.  Media  is  divided  into  two  parts,  one  of  which  is  called 
the  Greater  Media.  Its  capital  is  Ecbatana,^  a  large  city- 
containing  the  royal  seat  of  the  Median  empire.  This  palace 
the  Parthians  continue  to  occupy  even  at  this  time.  Here 
their  kings  pass  the  summer,  for  the  air  of  Media  is  cool. 
Their  winter  residence  is  at  Seleucia,  on  the  Tigris,  near 

'  The  other  division  is  Atropatian  Media.  It  had  its  name 
from  Atropatus,  a  chief  who  prevented  this  country,  which  is 
a  part  of  Greater  Media,  from  being  subjected  to  the  domin- 
ion of  the  Macedonians.  When  he  was  made  king  he 
established  the  independence  of  this  country  ;  his  successors 
continue  to  the  present  day,  and  have  at  different  times  con- 
tracted marriages  with  the  kings  of  Armenia,  Syria,  and 

2.  Atropatian  Media  borders  upon  Armenia  and  Matiane  ^ 
towards  the  east,  towards  the  west  on  the  Greater  Media,  and 
on  both  towards  the  north  ;  towards  the  south  it  is  contiguous 
to  the  people  living  about  the  recess  of  the  Hyrcanian  Sea, 
and  to  Matiane. 

According  to  Apollonides  its  strength  is  not  inconsiderable,- 
since  it  can  furnish  10,000  cavalry  and  40,000  infantry. 

It  contains  a  lake  called  Spauta,^  (Kapauta,)  in  which  salt 
effloresces,  and  is  consolidated.  The  salt  occasions  itching  and 
pain,  but  oil  is  a  cure  for  both,  and  sweet  water  restores  the 
colour  of  clothes,  which  have  the  appearance  of  being  burnt,"* 
when  they  have  been  immersed  in  the  lake  by  ignorant  per- 
sons for  the  purpose  of  washing  them. 

*  Hamadan. 

^  An  interpolation;  probably  introduced  from  Matiane  below.  Falconer. 

^  Its  ancient  name  according  to  Kramer  was  Kapotan.  Kaputan- 
Dzow,  The  Blue  Lake,  now  the  Lake  Urmiah. 

*  KaTrvpojOelffiv.  Kramer  observes  that  the  meaning  of  the  word  in 
this  passage  is  not  clear.  It  may  possibly  mean  some  colour  to  which  the 
name  of  the  lake  was  given. 

B.  XI.  c.  XIII.  §  3, 4.  MEDIA.  263 

They  have  powerful  neighbours  in  the  Armenians  and 
Parthians,  by  whom  they  are  frequently  plundered  ;  they  re- 
sist however,  and  recover  what  has  been  taken  away,  as  they 
recovered  Symbace  ^  from  the  Armenians,  who  were  defeated 
by  the  Romans,  and  they  themselves  became  the  friends  of 
Caesar.  They  at  the  same  time  endeavour  to  conciliate  the 

3.  The  summer  palace  is  at  Gazaka,  situated  in  a  plain  ; 
the  winter  palace^  is  in  Vera,  a  strong  fortress  which  Antony 
besieged  in  his  expedition  against  the  Parthians.  The  last 
is  distant  from  the  Araxes,  which  separates  Armenia  and 
Atropatene,  2400  stadia,  according  to  Dellius,  the  friend  of 
Antany,  who  wrote  an  account  of  the  expedition  of  Antony 
against  the  Parthians,  which  he  himself  accompanied,  and  in 
which  he  held  a  command. 

The  other  parts  of  this  country  are  fertile,  but  that  towards 
the  north  is  mountainous,  rugged,  and  cold,  the  abode  of  the 
mountain  tribes  of  Cadusii  Amardi,  Tapyri,  Curtii,  and  other 
similar  nations,  who  are  migratory,  and  robbers.  These  peo- 
ple are  scattered  over  the  Zagrus  and  Niphates.  The  Curtii 
in  Persia,  and  Mardi,  (for  so  they  call  the  Amardi,)  and 
those  in  Armenia,  and  who  bear  the  same  name  at  present, 
have  the  same  kind  of  character. 

4.  The  Cadusii  have  an  army  of  foot  soldiers  not  inferior 
in  number  to  that  of  the  Ariani.  They  are  very  expert  in 
throwing  the  javelin.  In  the  rocky  places  the  soldiers  en- 
gage in  battle  on  foot,  instead  of  on  their  horses.  The  ex- 
pedition of  Antony  was  harassing  to  the  army,  not  by  the 
nature  of  the  country,  but  by  the  conduct  of  their  guide, 
Artavasdes,  king  of  the  Armenii,  whom  Antony  rashly  made 
his  adviser,  and  master  of  his  intentions  respecting  the  war, 
when  at  the  same  time  that  prince  was  contriving  a  plan  for 
his  destruction.  Antony  punished  Artavasdes,  but  too  late  ; 
the  latter  had  been  the  cause  of  many  calamities  to  the 
Romans,  in  conjunction  with  another  person ;  he  made  the 
march  from  the  Zeugma  on  the  Euphrates  to  the  borders  of 
Atropatene  to  exceed  8000  stadia,  or  double  the  distance  of 
the  direct  course,  [by  leading  the  army]  over  mountains,  and 
places  where  there  were  no  roads,  and  by  a  circuitous  route. 

'  It  is  uncertain  whether  this  is  a  place,  or  a  district. 
'•*  Adopting  Groskurd's  emendation  x^'^H-'^diov. 

264  STRABO.  Casaub.  524. 

5.  The  Greater  Media  anciently  governed  the  whole  of 
Asia,  after  the  overthrow  of  the  Syrian  empire :  but  after- 
wards, in  the  time  of  Astyages,  the  Medes  were  deprived  of 
this  extensive  sovereignty  by  Cyrus  and  the  Persians,  yet 
they  retained  much  of  their  ancient  importance.  Ecbatana 
was  the  winter  (royal  ?)  residence  ^  of  the  Persian  kings,  as  it 
was  of  the  Macedonian  princes,  who  overthrew  the  Persian 
empire,  and  got  possession  of  Syria.  It  still  continues  to 
serve  the  same  purpose,  and  affords  security  to  the  kings  of 

6.  Media  is  bounded  on  the  east  by  Parthia,  and  by  the 
mountains  of  the  Cossaei,  a  predatory  tribe.  They  once  furn- 
ished the  Elymaei,  whose  allies  they  were  in  the  war  against 
the  Susii  and  Babylonians,  with  13,000  archers.  Nearchus 
says  that  there  were  four  robber  tribes  ;  the  Mardi,  who  were 
contiguous  to  the  Persians ;  the  Uxii  and  Elymaei,  who  were 
on  the  borders  of  the  Persians  and  Susii  ;  and  the  Cossaei,  on 
those  of  the  Medes  ;  that  all  of  them  exacted  tribute  from  the 
kings  ;  that  the  Cossaei  received  presents,  when  the  king,  hav- 
ing passed  his  summer  at  Ecbatana  went  down  to  Babylonia  ; 
that  Alexander  attacked  them  in  the  winter  time,  and  re- 
pressed their  excessive  insolence.  Media  is  bounded  on  the 
east  by  these  nations,  and  by  the  Paraetaceni,  who  are  con- 
tiguous to  the  Persians,  and  are  mountaineers,  and  robbers  ; 
on  the  north  by  the  Cadusii,  who  live  above  the  Hyrcanian 
Sea,  and  by  other  nations,  whom  we  have  just  enumerated ; 
on  the  south  by  the  Apolloniatis,  which  the  ancients  called 
Sitacene,  and  by  the  Zagrus,  along  which  lies  Massabatica, 
which  belongs  to  Media,  but  according  to  others,  to  Elymaea ; 
on  the  west  by  the  Atropatii,  and  by  some  tribes  of  the  Ar- 

There  are  also  Grecian  cities  in  Media,  founded  by  Mace- 
donians, as  Laodiceia,  Apameia,  Heracleia  near  Rhagae,  and 
Rhaga  itself,  founded  by  Nicator,  who  called  it  Europus,  and 
the  Parthians  Arsacia,  situated  about  500  stadia  to  the  south 
of  the  Caspian  Gates,  according  to  Apollodorus  of  Artemita. 

7.  The  greater  part  of  Media  consists  of  high  ground,  and  is 
cold ;  such  are  the  mountains  above  Ecbatana,  and  the  places 
about  Rhagae  and  the  Caspian  Gates,  and  the  northern  parts 
in  general  extending  thence  as  far  as  Matiane  and  Armenia. 

'  In  the  text  xfifta^tov.    Kramer  suggests  the  reading  ^aaiKuov. 

B.  XI.  c.  XIII.  §  8, 9.  MEDIA.  265 

The  country  below  the  Caspian  Gates  consists  of  flat  grounds 
and  valleys.  It  is  very  fertile,  and  produces  everything  except 
the  olive,  or  if  it  grows  anywhere  it  does  not  yield  oil,  and  is 
dry.  The  country  is  peculiarly  adapted,  as  well  as  Armenia, 
for  breeding  horses.  There  is  a  meadow  tract  called  Hippo- 
botus,  which  is  traversed  by  travellers  on  their  way  from 
Persia  and  Babylonia  to  the  Caspian  Gates.  Here,  it  is  said, 
fifty  thousand  mares  were  pastured  in  the  time  of  the  Per- 
sians, and  were  the  king's  stud.  The  Nesaean  horses,  the 
best  and  largest  in  the  king's  province,  were  of  this  breed, 
according  to  some  writers,  but  according  to  others  they  came 
from  Armenia.  Their  shape  is  peculiar,  as  is  that  of  the  Par- 
thian horses,  compared  with  those  of  Greece  and  others  in  our 

The  herbage  which  constitutes  the  chief  food  of  the  horses 
we  call  peculiarly  by  the  name  of  Medic,  from  its  growing  in 
Media  in  great  abundance.  The  country  produces  Silphium,* 
from  which  is  obtained  the  Medic  juice,  much  inferior  to  the 
Cyrenaic,  but  sometimes  it  excels  the  latter,  which  may  be 
accounted  for  by  the  difference  of  places,  or  from  a  change 
the  plant  may  undergo,  or  from  the  mode  of  extracting  and 
preparing  the  juice  so  as  to  continue  good  when  laid  by 
for  use. 

8.  Such  then  is  the  nature  of  the  country  with  respect  to 
magnitude  ;  its  length  and  breadth  are  nearly  equal.  The 
greatest  breadth  (length  P)^  however  seems  to  be  that  reckoned 
from  the  pass  across  the  Zagrus,  which  is  called  the  Median 
Gate,  to  the  Caspian  Gates,  through  the  country  of  ,Sigriana, 
4100  stadia. 

The  account  of  the  tribute  paid  agrees  with  the  extent  and 
wealth  of  the  country.  Cappadocia  paid  to  the  Persians 
yearly,  in  addition  to  a  tribute  in  silver,  1500  horses,  2000 
mules,  and  50,000  sheep,  and  the  Medes  contributed  nearly 
double  this  amount. 

9.  Many  of  their  customs  are  the  same  as  those  of  the  Arme- 
nians, from  the  similarity  of  the  countries  which  they  in- 
habit. The  Medes  however  were  the  first  to  communicate 
them  to  the  Armenians,  and  still  before  that  time  to  the  Per- 
sians, who  were  their  masters,  and  successors  in  the  empire 
of  Asia. 

'  Lucerne?  '  Groskurd  proposes  "  length." 

266  8TRAB0.  Casaub.  626. 

The  Persian  stole,  as  it  is  now  called,  the  pursuit  of  archery 
and  horsemanship,  the  court  paid  to  their  kings,  their  attire, 
and  veneration  fitting  for  gods  paid  by  the  subjects  to  the 
prince, — these  the  Persians  derived  from  the  Medes.  That 
this  is  the  fact  appears  chiefly  from  their  dress.  A  tiara,  a 
citaris,  a  hat,^  tunics  with  sleeves  reaching  to  the  hands,  and 
trowsers,  are  proper  to  be  worn  in  cold  and  northerly  places, 
such  as  those  in  Media,  but  they  are  not  by  any  means  adapt- 
ed to  inhabitants  of  the  south.  The  Persians  had  their 
principal  settlements  on  the  Gulf  of  Persia,  being  situated 
more  to  the  south  than  the  Babylonians  and  the  Susii.  But 
after  the  overthrow  of  the  Medes  they  gained  possession  of 
some  tracts  of  country  contiguous  to  Media.  The  custom 
however  of  the  vanquished  appeared  to  the  conquerors  to  be 
so  noble,  and  appropriate  to  royal  state,  that  instead  of  naked- 
ness or  scanty  clothing,  they  endured  the  use  of  the  feminine 
stole,  and  were  entirely  covered  with  dress  to  the  feet. 

10.  Some  writers  say  that  Medeia,  when  with  Jason  she 
ruled  in  these  countries,  introduced  this  kind  of  dress,  and 
concealed  her  countenance  as  often  as  she  appeared  in  public 
in  place  of  the  king  ;  that  the  memorials  of  Jason  are,  the 
Jasonian  heroa,^  held  in  great  reverence  by  the  Barbarians, 
(besides  a  great  mountain  above  the  Caspian  Gates  on  the 
left  hand,  called  Jasonium,)  and  that  the  memorials  of  Medeia 
are  the  kind  of  dress,  and  the  name  of  the  country.  Medus,  her 
son,  is  said  to  have  been  her  successor  in  the  kingdom,  and 
the  country  to  have  been  called  after  his  name.  In  agreement 
with  this  are  the  Jasonia  in  Armenia,  the  name  of  the  coun- 
try, and  many  other  circumstances  which  we  shall  mention. 

11.  It  is  a  Median  custom  to  elect  the  bravest  person  as 
king,  but  this  does  not  generally  prevail,  being  confined  to 
the  mountain  tribes.  The  custom  for  the  kings  to  have  many 
wives  is  more  general,  it  is  found  among  all  the  mountaineers 
also,  but  they  are  not  permitted  to  have  less  than  five.  In  the 
same  manner  the  women  think  it  honourable  for  husbands  to 
have  as  many  wives  as  possible,  and  esteem  it  a  misfortune  if 
they  have  less  than  five. 

While  the  rest  of  Media  is  very  fertile,  the  northern  and 
mountainous  part  is  barren.     The  people  subsist  upon  tlie 
produce  of  trees.     They  make  cakes  of  apples,  sliced  and 
'  TrlXog.  2  Heroic  monuments  of  Jason. 

B.  XI.  c.  XIV.  §  1,  2.  ARMENIA.  267 

dried,  and  bread  of  roasted  almonds ;  they  express  a  wine 
from  some  kind  of  roots.  They  eat  the  flesh  of  wild  animals, 
and  do  not  breed  any  tame  animals.  So  much  then  respect- 
ing the  Medes.  As  to  the  laws  and  customs  in  common  use 
throughout  the  whole  of  Media,  as  they  are  the  same  as  those 
of  the  Persians  in  consequence  of  the  establishment  of  the 
Persian  empire,  I  shall  speak  of  them  when  I  give  an  ac- 
count of  the  latter  nation. 


1.  The  southern  parts  of  Armenia  lie  in  front  of  the  Tau- 
rus, which  separates  Armenia  from  the  whole  of  the  country 
situated  between  the  Euphrates  and  the  Tigris,  and  which  is 
called  Mesopotamia.  The  eastern  parts  are  contiguous  to 
the  Greater  Media,  and  to  Atropatene.  To  the  north  are  the 
range  of  the  mountains  of  Parachoathras  lying  above  the 
Caspian  Sea,  the  Albanians,  Iberians,  and  the  Caucasus.  The 
Caucasus  encircles  these  nations,  and  approaches  close  to  the 
Armenians,  the  Moschic  and  Colchic  mountains,  and  ex- 
tends as  far  as  the  country  of  the  people  called  Tibareni.  On 
the  west  are  these  nations  and  the  mountains  Paryadres  and 
Scydises,  extending  to  the  Lesser  Armenia,  and  the  country 
on  the  side  of  the  Euphrates,  which  divides  Armenia  from 
Cappadocia  and  Commagene. 

2.  The  Euphrates  rises  in  the  northern  side  of  the  Tau- 
rus, and  flows  at  first  towards  the  west  through  Armenia,  it 
then  makes  a  bend  to  the  south,  and  intersects  the  Taurus 
between  the  Armenians,  Cappadocians,  and  Commageni. 
Then  issuing  outwards  and  entering  Syria,  it  turns  towards 
the  winter  sun-rise  as  far  as  Babylon,  and  forms  Mesopotamia 
with  the  Tigris.  Both  these  rivers  terminate  in  the  Persian 

Such  is  the  nature  of  the  places  around  Armenia,  almost 
all  of  them  mountainous  and  rugged,  except  a  few  tracts 
which  verge  towards  Media. 

To  the  above-mentioned  Taurus,  which  commences  again 
in  the  country  on  the  other  side  of  the  Euphrates,  occupied 

268  STRABO.  Casaub.  527. 

by  the  Commageni,  and  Meliteni  formed  by  the  Euphrates, 
belongs  Mount  Masius,  which  is  situated  on  the  south  above 
the  Mygdones  in  Mesopotamia,  in  whose  territory  is  Nisibis ; 
on  the  northern  parts  is  Sophene,  lying  between  the  Masius 
and  Anti-Taurtis.  Anti-Taurus  begins  from  the  Euphrates  and 
the  Taurus,  and  terminates  at  the  eastern  parts  of  Armenia, 
enclosing  within  it  Sophene.  It  has  on  the  other  side  Acili- 
sene,  which  lies  between  [Anti-] Taurus  and  the  bed  of  the 
Euphrates  before  it  turns  to  the  south.  The  royal  city  of 
Sophene  is  Carcathiocerta.^ 

Above  Mount  Masius  far  to  the  east  along  Gordyene  is  the 
Niphates,  then  the  Abus,^  from  which  flow  both  the  Euphrates 
and  the  Araxes,  the  former  to  the  west,  the  latter  to  the  east ; 
then  the  Nibarus,  which  extends  as  far  as  Media. 

3.  We  have  described  the  course  of  the  Euphrates.  The 
Araxes,  after  running  to  the  east  as  far  as  Atropatene,  makes 
a  bend  towards  the  west  and  north.  It  then  first  flows  beside 
Azara,  then  by  Artaxata,^  a  city  of  the  Armenians ;  afterwards 
it  passes  through  the  plain  of  Araxenus  to  discharge  itself 
into  the  Caspian  Sea. 

4.  There  are  many  mountains  in  Armenia,  and  many 
mountain  plains,  in  which  not  even  the  vine  grows.  There 
are  also  many  valleys,  some  are  moderately  fertile,  others 
are  very  productive,  as  the  Araxenian  plain,  through  which 
the  river  Araxes  flows  to  the  extremities  of  Albania,  and 
empties  itself  into  the  Caspian  Sea.  Next  is  Sacasene, 
which  borders  upon  Albania,  and  the  river  Cyrus  ;  then 
Gogarene.  All  this  district  abounds  with  products  of  the  soil, 
cultivated  fruit  trees  and  evergreens.    It  bears  also  the  olive. 

There  is  Phauene,  (Phanenae,  Phasiana  ?)  a  province  of  Ar- 
menia, Comisene,  and  Orchistene,  which  furnishes  large  bo- 
dies of  cavalry. 

*  Kharput. 

^  An  almost  uniform  tradition  has  pointed  out  an  isolated  peak  of  this 
range  as  the  Ararat  of  Scripture.  It  is  still  called  Ararat  or  Agri-Dagh, 
and  by  the  Persians  Kuh-il-Nuh,  mountain  of  Noah.  Smith. 

3  Formerly  the  mass  of  ruins  called  Takt-Tiridate,  (Throne  of  Tiri- 
dates,)  near  the  junction  of  the  Aras  and  the  Zengue,  were  supposed  to 
represent  the  ancient  Artaxata.  Col.  Monteith  fixes  the  site  at  a  remark- 
able bend  of  the  river  somewhat  lower  down  than  this.  See  Smith,  art. 

».  XI.  c.  XIV.  §  5, 6.  ARMENIA.  269 

Chorzene  ^  and  Cambysene  are  the  most  northerly  countries, 
and  particularly  subject  to  falls  of  snow.  They  are  contigu- 
ous to  the  Caucasian  mountains,  to  Iberia,  and  Colchis. 
Here,  they  say,  on  the  passes  over  mountains,  it  frequently 
happens  that  whole  companies  of  persons  have  been  over- 
whelmed in  violent  snow-storms.  Travellers  are  provided 
against  such  dangerous  accidents  with  poles,  which  they  force 
upwards  to  the  surface  of  the  snow,  for  the  purpose  of  breath- 
ing, and  of  signifying  their  situation  to  other  travellers  who 
may  come  that  way,  so  that  they  may  receive  assistance,  be 
extricated,  and  so  escape  alive. 

They  say  that  hollow  masses  are  consolidated  in  the  snow, 
which  contain  good  water,  enveloped  as  in  a  coat ;  that  ani- 
mals are  bred  in  the  snow,  which  Apollonides  caU  scoleces,^ 
and  Theophanes,  thripes,  and  that  these  hollow  masses  con 
tain  good  water,  which  is  obtained  by  breaking  open  their 
coats  or  coverings.  The  generation  of  these  animals  is  sup- 
posed to  be  similar  to  that  of  the  gnats,  (or  mosquitos,)  from 
flames,  and  the  sparks  in  mines. 

5.  According  to  historians,  Armenia,  which  was  formerly 
a  small  country,  was  enlarged  by  Artaxias  and  Zariadris, 
who  had  been  generals  of  Antiochus  the  Great,  and  at  last, 
after  his  overthrow,  when  they  became  kings,  (the  former 
of  Sophene,  Acisene,  (Amphissene  ?)  Odomantis,  and  some 
other  places,  the  latter  of  the  country  about  Artaxata,)  they 
simultaneously  aggrandized  themselves,  by  taking  away  por- 
tions of  the  territory  of  the  surrounding  nations :  from  the 
Medes  they  took  the  Caspiana,  Phaunitis,  and  Basoropeda  ; 
from  the  Iberians,  the  country  at  the  foot  of  the  Pary- 
adres,  the  Chorzene,  and  Gogarene,  which  is  on  the  other 
side  of  the  Cyrus ;  from  the  Chalybes,  and  the  Mosynceci, 
Carenitis  and  Xerxene,  which  border  upon  the  Lesser  Arme- 
nia, or  are  even  parts  of  it ;  from  the  Cataones,  Acilisene,^ 
and  the  country  about  the  Anti-Taurus ;  from  the  Syrians, 
Taronitis  ;  ^  hence  they  all  speak  the  same  language. 

6.  The  cities  of  Armenia  are  Artaxata,  called  also  Artax- 

*  Kars  is  the  capital  of  this  country. 

2  (TKui\t]KaQ  and  OpliraG,  species  of  worms.     See  Smith,  art.  Chorzene. 

*  Melitene.  Groskurd. 

*  It  corresponds,  Kramer  observes,  with  Taron,  a  province  of  Armenia, 
which  is  called  by  Tacitus,  Ann.  xiv.  24,  Taraunitium  (not  Tarani- 
tium)  regio. 

270  STRABO.  Casatjb.  529. 

iasata,  built  by  Hannibal  for  the  king  Artaxias,  and  Arxata, 
both  situated  on  the  Araxes ;  Arxata  on  the  confines  of 
Atropatia,  and  Artaxata  near  the  Araxenian  plain;  it  is 
well  inhabited,  and  the  seat  of  the  kings  of  the  country.  It 
lies  upon  a  peninsular  elbow  of  land ;  the  river  encircles  the 
walls  except  at  the  isthmus,  which  is  enclosed  by  a  ditch 
and  rampart. 

Not  far  from  the  city  are  the  treasure-storehouses  of  Ti- 
granes  and  Artavasdes,  the  strong  fortresses  Babyrsa,  and 
Olane.  There  were  others  also  upon  the  Euphrates.  Ador, 
(Addon  ?)  the  governor  of  the  fortress,  occasioned  the  revolt 
of  ArtagerjB,  but  the  generals  of  Caesar  retook  it  after  a 
long  siege,  and  destroyed  the  walls. 

7.  There  are  many  rivers  in  the  country.  The  most  cele- 
brated are  the  Phasis  and  Lycus ;  they  empty  themselves 
into  the  Euxine ;  (Eratosthenes  instead  of  the  Lycus  men- 
tions the  Thermodon,  but  erroneously  ;)  the  Cyrus  and  the 
Araxes  into  the  Caspian,  and  the  Euphrates  and  the  Tigris 
into  the  Persian  Gulf. 

8.  There  are  also  large  lakes  in  Armenia ;  one  the  Man- 
tiane,^  which  word  translated  signifies  Cyane,  or  Blue,  the 
largest  salt-water  lake,  it  is  said,  after  the  Palus  Ma^otis,  ex- 
tending as  far  as  (Media-)  Atropatia.  It  has  salt  pans  for 
the  concretion  of  salt. 

The  next  is  Arsene,^  which  is  also  called  Thopitis.  Its 
waters  contain  nitre,  and  are  used  for  cleaning  and  fulling 
clothes.  It  is  unfit  by  these  qualities  for  drinking.  The 
Tigris  passes  through  this  lake^  after  issuing  from  the  moun- 
tainous country  near  the  Niphates,  and  by  its  rapidity  keeps 
its  stream  unmixed  with  the  water  of  the  lake,  whence  it  has 
its  name,  for  the  Medes  call  an  arrow,  Tigris.  This  river 
contains  fish  of  various  kinds,  but  the  lake  one  kind  only. 

^  We  shoTild  read  probably  Matiane.  The  meaning  of  the  word  pro- 
posed by  Strabo  may  easily  be  proved  to  be  incorrect,  by  reference  to 
the  Armenian  language,  in  which  no  such  word  is  to  be  found  bearing 
this  sense.  As  Kapoit  in  the  Armenian  tongue  signifies  "  blue,"  this  ex- 
planation of  Strabo's  appears  to  refer  to  the  lake  Spauta  or  Kapauta, 
above,  c.  xiii.  §  2.     Kramer. 

2  The  lake  Arsissa,  Thospitis  or  Van. 

'  This  is  an  error ;  one  of  the  branches  of  the  Tigris  rises  among  the 
mountains  on  the  S.  W.  of  the  lake  Van,  and  which  form  part  of  the 
range  of  Nepat-Leam  or  Niphates. 

B.  XI.  c.  XIV.  §  9—11.  ARMENIA.  271 

At  the  extremity  of  the  lake  the  river  falls  into  a  deep  cavity 
in  the  earth.  After  pursuing  a  long  course  under-ground,  it 
re-appears  in  the  Chalonitis ;  thence  it  goes  to  Opis,  and  to 
the  wall  of  Semiramis,  as  it  is  called,  leaving  the  Gordysei  ^ 
and  the  whole  of  Mesopotamia  on  the  right  hand.  The  Eu- 
phrates, on  the  contrary,  has  the  same  country  on  the  left. 
Having  approached  one  another,  and  formed  Mesopotamia,  one 
traverses  Seleucia  in  its  course  to  the  Persian  Gulf,  the  other 
Babylon,  as  I  have  said  in  replying  to  Eratosthenes  and 

9.  There  are  mines  of  gold  in  the  Hyspiratis,^  near  Ca- 
balla.  Alexander  sent  Menon  to  the  mines  with  a  body  of 
soldiers,  but  he  was  strangled^  by  the  inhabitants  of  the  coun- 
try. There  are  other  mines,  and  also  a  mine  of  Sandyx  as 
it  is  called,  to  which  is  given  the  name  of  Armenian  colour, 
it  resembles  the  Calche.'^ 

This  country  is  so  well  adapted,  being  nothing  inferior  in  this 
respect  to  Media,  for  breeding  horses,  that  the  race  of  Nestean 
horses,  which  the  kings  of  Persia  used,  is  found  here  also ; 
the  satrap  of  Armenia  used  to  send  annually  to  the  king 
of  Persia  20,000  foals  at  the  time  of  the  festival  of  the  Mi- 
thracina.  Artavasdes,  when  he  accompanied  Antony  in  his 
invasion  of  Media,  exhibited,  besides  other  bodies  of  cavalry, 
6000  horse  covered  with  complete  armour  drawn  up  in  array. 

Not  only  do  the  Medes  and  Armenians,  but  the  Albanians 
also,  admire  this  kind  of  cavalry,  for  the  latter  use  horses 
covered  with  armour. 

10.  Of  the  riches  and  power  of  this  country,  this  is  no 
slight  proof,  that  when  Pompey  imposed  upon  Tigranes,  the 
father  of  Artavasdes,  the  payment  of  6000  talents  of  silver,  he 
immediately  distributed  the  money  among  the  Roman  army, 
to  each  soldier  50  drachmae,  1000  to  a  centurion,  and  a  talent 
to  a  Hipparch  and  a  Chiliarch. 

11.  Theophanes  represents  this  as  the  size  of  the  country  ; 
its  breadth  to  be  100  schoeni,  and  its  length  double  this  num- 
ber, reckoning  the  schoenus  at  40  stadia ;  but  this  comput- 
ation exceeds  the  truth.     It  is  nearer  the  truth  to  take  the 

'  The  Kurds.  2  Groskurd  proposes  Syspiritis. 

2  cnrrjyxGf}-  Meinehe. 

*  It  is  doubtful  whether  this  colour  was  red,  blue,  or  purple. 

272  STRABO  Casaub.  630. 

length  as  he  has  given  it,  and  the  breadth  at  one  half,  or  a 
little  more. 

Such  then  is  the  nature  of  the  country  of  Armenia,  and  its 

12.  There  exists  an  ancient  account  of  the  origin  of  this 
nation  to  the  following  effect.  Armenus  of  Armenium,  a  Thes- 
salian  city,  which  lies  between  Pherse  and  Larisa  on  the  lake 
Boebe,  accompanied  Jason,  as  we  have  already  said,  in  his  ex- 
pedition into  Armenia,  and  from  Armenus  the  country  had 
its  name,  according  to  Cyrsilus  the  Pharsalian  and  Medius 
the  Larisagan,  persons  who  had  accompanied  the  army  of 
Alexander.  Some  of  the  followers  of  Armenus  settled  in 
Acilisene,  which  was  formerly  subject  to  the  Sopheni ;  others 
in  the  Sy spirit! s,  and  spread  as  far  as  Calachene  and  Adia- 
bene,  beyond  the  borders  of  Armenia. 

The  dress  of  the  Armenian  people  is  said  to  be  of  Thessa- 
lian  origin  ;  such  are  the  long  tunics,  which  in  tragedies  are  call- 
ed Thessalian  ;  they  are  fastened  about  the  body  with  a  girdle, 
and  with  a  clasp  on  the  shoulder.  The  tragedians,  for  they 
required  some  additional  decoration  of  this  kind,  imitate  the 
Thessalians  in  their  attire.  The  Thessalians  in  particular, 
from  wearing  a  long  dress,  (probably  because  they  inhabit  the 
most  northerly  and  the  coldest  country  in  all  Greece,)  afford- 
ed the  most  appropriate  subject  of  imitation  to  actors  for  their 
theatrical  representations.  The  passion  for  riding  and  the 
care  of  horses  characterize  the  Thessalians,  and  are  common 
to  Armenians  and  Medes. 

The  Jasonia  are  evidence  of  the  expedition  of  Jason :  some 
of  these  memorials  the  sovereigns  of  the  country  restored,  as 
Parmenio  restored  the  temple  of  Jason  at  Abdera. 

1 3.  It  is  supposed  that  Armenus  and  his  companions  called 
the  Araxes  by  this  name  on  account  of  its  resemblance  to 
the  Peneius,  for  the  Peneius  had  the  name  of  Araxes  from 
bursting  through  Tempe,  and  rending  (aTrapo^at)  Ossa  from 
Olympus.  The  Araxes  also  in  Armenia,  descending  from  the 
mountains,  is  said  to  have  spread  itself  in  ancient  times,  and 
to  have  overflowed  the  plains,  like  a  sea,  having  no  outlet ; 
that  Jason,  in  imitation  of  what  is  to  be  seen  at  Tempe,  made 
the  opening  through  which  the  water  at  present  precipitates 
itself  into  the  Caspian  Sea;  that  upon  this  the  Araxenian 

B.  XI.  c.  XIV.  §  14,  15.  ARMENIA.  273 

plain,  through  which  the  river  flows  to  the  cataract,  became 
uncovered.  This  story  which  is  told  of  the  river  Araxes 
contains  some  probability  ;  that  of  Herodotus  ^  none  whatever. 
For  he  says  that,  after  flowing  out  of  the  country  of  the  Ma- 
tiani,  it  is  divided  into  forty  rivers,  and  separates  the  Scythians 
from  the  Bactrians.     Callisthenes  has  followed  Herodotus. 

14.  Some  tribes  of  jEnianes  are  mentioned,  some  of  whom 
settled  in  Vitia,  others  above  the  Armenians  beyond  the  Abus 
and  the  Nibarus.  These  latter  are  branches  of  Taurus  ;  the 
Abus  is  near  the  road  which  leads  to  Ecbatana  by  the  temple 
of  Baris  (Zaris  ?). 

Some  tribes  of  Thracians,  surnamed  Saraparae,  or  decapi- 
tators,  are  said  to  live  above  Armenia,  near  the  Gouranii  and 
Medes.  They  are  a  savage  people,  intractable  mountaineers, 
and  scalp  and  decapitate  strangers  ;  for  such  is  the  meaning 
of  the  term  Saraparae. 

I  have  spoken  of  Medeia  in  the  account  of  Media,  and  it  is 
conjectured  from  all  the  circumstances  that  the  Medes  and 
Armenians  are  allied  in  some  way  to  the  Thessalians,  de- 
scended from  Jason  and  Medeia. 

15.  This  is  the  ancient  account,  but  the  more  recent,  and 
extending  from  the  time  of  the  Persians  to  our  own  age,  may 
be  given  summarily,  and  in  part  only  (as  follows) ;  Persians 
and  Macedonians  gained  possession  of  Armenia,  next  those 
who  were  masters  of  Syria  and  Media.  The  last  was  Orontes, 
a  descendant  of  Hydarnes,  one  of  the  seven  Persians :  it  was 
then  divided  into  two  portions  by  Artaxias  and  Zariadris, 
generals  of  Antiochus  the  Great,  who  made  war  against  the 
Romans.  These  were  governors  by  permission  of  the  king, 
but  upon  his  overthrow  they  attached  themselves  to  the  Ro- 
mans, were  declared  independent,  and  had  the  title  of  kings. 
Tigranes  was  a  descendant  of  Artaxias,  and  had  Armenia, 
properly  so  called.  This  country  was  contiguous  to  Media, 
to  the  Albani,  and  to  the  Iberes,  and  extended  as  far  as  Col- 
chis, and  Cappadocia  upon  the  Euxine. 

Artanes  the  Sophenian  was  the  descendant  of  Zaria- 
dris, and  had  the  southern  parts  of  Armenia,  which  verge 
rather  to  the  west.  He  was  defeated  by  Tigranes,  who  be- 
came master  of  the  whole  country.  He  had  experienced 
many  vicissitudes  of  fortune.  At  first  he  had  served  as  a 
»  Herod,  i.  202. 

VOL.    II.  T 

274  STRABO.  Casaub.  532. 

hostage  among  the  Parthians  ;  then  by  their  means  he  return- 
ed to  his  country,  in  compensation  for  which  service  they  ob- 
tained seventy  valleys  in  Armenia.  When  he  acquired  power, 
he  recovered  these  valleys,  and  devastated  the  country  of  the 
Parthians,  the  territory  about  Ninus,  and  that  about  Arbela.* 
He  subjected  to  his  authority  the  Atropatenians,  and  the 
Gordyaeans  ;  by  force  of  arms  he  obtained  possession  also  of 
the  rest  of  Mesopotamia,  and,  after  crossing  the  Euphrates,  of 
Syria  and  Phoenicia.  Having  attained  this  height  of  pros- 
perity, he  even  founded  near  Iberia,^  between  this  country 
and  the  Zeugma  on  the  Euphrates,  a  city,  which  he  named 
Tigranocerta,  and  collected  inhabitants  out  of  twelve  Grecian 
cities,  which  he  had  depopulated.  But  Lucullus,  who  had 
commanded  in  the  war  against  Mithridates,  surprised  him, 
thus  engaged,  and  dismissed  the  inhabitants  to  their  respect- 
ive homes.  The  buildings  which  were  half  finished  he  de- 
molished, and  left  a  small  village  remaining.  He  drove  Ti- 
granes  both  out  of  Syria  and  Phoenicia. 

Artavasdes,  his  successor,  prospered  as  long  as  he  con- 
tinued a  friend  of  the  Romans.  But  having  betrayed  An- 
tony to  the  Parthians  in  the  war  with  that  people,  he  suffered 
punishment  for  his  treachery.  He  was  carried  in  chains  to 
Alexandria,  by  order  of  Antony,  led  in  procession  through 
the  city,  and  kept  in  prison  for  a  time.  On  the  breaking 
out  of  the  Actiac  war  he  was  then  put  to  death.  Many 
kings  reigned  after  Artavasdes,  who  were  dependent  upon 
Caesar  and  the  Romans.  ■  The  country  is  still  governed  in 
the  same  manner. 

16.  Both  the  Modes  and  Armenians  have  adopted  all  the 
sacred  rites  of  the  Persians,  but  the  Armenians  pay  particu- 
lar reverence  to  Anai'tis,  and  have  built  temples  to  her  hon- 
our in  several  places,  especially  in  Acilisene.  They  dedicate 
there  to  her  service  male  and  female  slaves  ;  in  this  there 
is  nothing  remarkable,  but  it  is  surprising  that  persons  of  the 
highest  rank  in  the  nation  consecrate  their  virgin  daughters 
to  the  goddess.    It  is  customary  for  these  women,  after  being 

'  Arbil. 

'  That  this  is  an  error  is  manifest.  Falconer  proposes  Armenia;  Gros- 
kurd,  Assyria  ;  but  what  name  is  to  be  supplied  is  altogether  uncertain. 
The  name  of  the  city  is  also  wanting,  according  to  Kramer,  who  proposes 

B.  XI.  c.  XIV.  §  16.  ARMENIA.  275 

prostituted  a  long  period  at  the  temple  of  AnaTtis,  to  be  dis- 
posed of  in  marriage,  no  one  disdaining  a  connexion  with 
such  persons.  Herodotus  mentions  something  similar  re- 
specting the  Lydian  women,  all  of  whom  prostitute  them- 
selves. But  they  treat  their  paramours  with  much  kindness, 
they  entertain  them  hospitably,  and  frequently  make  a  return 
of  more  presents  than  they  receive,  being  amply  supplied 
with  means  derived  from  their  wealthy  connexions.  They 
do  not  admit  into  their  dwellings  accidental  strangers,  but 
prefer  those  of  a  rank  equal  to  their  own. 

T  2 


The  Twelfth  Book  contains  the  remainder  of  Pontus,  viz.  Cappadocia,  Gala 
tia,  Bithynia,  Mysia,  Phrygia,  and  Maeonia :  the  cities,  Sinope  in  Pontus, 
Heracleia,  and  Amaseia,  and  likewise  Isauria,  Lycia,  Pamphylia,  and 
Cilicia,  with  the  islands  lying  along  the  coast ;  the  mountains  and  rivers. 


1.  *  Cappadocia  consists  of  mauy  parts,  and  has  expe- 
rienced frequent  changes. 

The  nations  speaking  the  same  language  are  chiefly  those 
who  are  bounded  on  the  south  by  the  Cilician  Taurus,^  as  it 
is  called  ;  on  the  east  by  Armenia,  Colchis,  and  by  the  inter- 
vening nations  who  speak  different  languages  ;  on  the  north 
by  the  Euxine,  as  far  as  the  mouth  of  the  Halys  ;^  on  the  west 
by  the  Paphlagonians,  and  by  the  Galatians,  who  migrated 
into  Phrygia,  and  spread  themselves  as  far  as  Lycaonia,  and 
the  Cilicians,  who  occupy  Cilicia  Tracheia  (Cilicia  the  moun- 

2.  Among  the  nations  that  speak  the  same  language,  the 
ancients  placed  the  Cataonians  by  themselves,  contra-dis- 
tinguishing them  from  the  Cappadocians,  whom  they  con- 
sidered as  a  different  people.  In  the  enumeration  of  the  nations 
they  placed  Cataonia  after  Cappadocia,  then  the  Euphrates, 
and  the  nations  on  the  other  side  of  that  river,  so  as  to 
include  even  Melitene  in  Cataonia,  although  Melitene  lies 
between  Cataonia  and  the  Euphrates,  approaches  close  to 
Commagene,  and  constitutes  a  tenth  portion  of  Cappadocia, 

'  The  beginning  is  wanting,  according  to  the  opinion  of  critics,  Xy- 
lander,  Casaubon,  and  others. 

2  The  range  of  mountains  to  the  S.  of  Caramania. 

3  Kizil-Irmak.  "  Itsch-Ili. 

B.  XII.  c.  I.  §  3, 4.  CAPPADOCIA.  277 

according  to  the  division  of  the  country  into  ten  provinces. 
For  the  kings  in  our  times  who  preceded  Archelaus^  usually 
divided  the  kingdom  of  Cappadocia  in  this  manner. 

Cataonia  is  a  tenth  portion  of  Cappadocia.  In  our  time 
each  province  had  its  own  governor,  and  since  no  difference 
appears  in  the  language  of  the  Cataonians  compared  with 
that  of  the  other  Cappadocians,  nor  any  difference  in  their 
customs,  it  is  surprising  how  entirely  the  characteristic  marks 
of  a  foreign  nation  have  disappeared,  yet  they  were  distinct 
nations  ;  Ariarathes,  the  first  who  bore  the  title  of  king  of 
the  Cappadocians,  annexed  the  Cataonians  to  Cappadocia. 

3.  This  country  composes  the  isthmus,  as  it  were,  of  a 
large  peninsula  formed  by  two  seas  ;  by  the  bay  of  Issus,  ex- 
tending to  Cilicia  Tracheia,  and  by  the  Euxine  lying  between 
Sinope  and  the  coast  of  the  Tibareni. 

The  isthmus  cuts  off  what  we  call  the  peninsula  ;  the  whole 
tract  lying  to  the  west  of  the  Cappadocians,  to  which  Hero- 
dotus ^  gives  the  name  of  the  country  within  the  Halys.  This 
is  the  country  the  whole  of  which  was  the  kingdom  of  Croesus. 
Herodotus  calls  him  king  of  the  nations  on  this  side  the  river 
Halys.  But  writers  of  the  present  time  give  the  name  of 
Asia,  which  is  the  appellation  of  the  whole  continent,  to  the 
country  within  the  Taurus. 

This  Asia  comprises,  first,  the  nations  on  the  east,  Paphla- 
gonians,  Phrygians,  and  Lycaonians ;  then  Bithynians,  My- 
sians,  and  the  Epictetus  ;  besides  these,  Troas,  and  Helles- 
pontia ;  next  to  these,  and  situated  on  the  sea,  are  the  jEolians 
and  lonians,  who  are  Greeks  ;  the  inhabitants  of  the  remain- 
ing portions  are  Carians  and  Lycians,  and  in  the  inland  parts 
are  Lydians. 

We  shall  speak  hereafter  of  the  other  nations. 

4.  The  Macedonians  obtained  possession  of  Cappadocia 
after  it  had  been  divided  by  the  Persians  into  two  satrapies, 
and  permitted,  partly  with  and  partly  without  the  consent  of 
the  people,  the  satrapies  to  be  altered  to  two  kingdoms,  one 
of  which  they  called  Cappadocia  Proper,  and   Cappadocia 

'  Archelaus  received  from  Augustus  (b.  c.  20)  some  parts  of  Cilicia 
on  the  coast  and  the  Lesser  Armenia.  In  a.  d.  15  Tiberius  treacherously- 
invited  him  to  Rome,  and  kept  him  there.  He  died,  probably  about 
A.  D.  17,  and  his  kingdom  was  made  a  Roman  province. 

2  Herod,  i.  6,  28. 

278  STRABO.  Casaub.  534. 

near  the  Taurus,  or  Cappadocia  the  Great ;  the  other  they 
called  Pontus,  but  according  to  other  writers,  Cappadocia  on 

We  are  ignorant  at  present  how  Cappadocia  the  Great 
was  at  first  distributed  ;  upon  the  death  of  Archelaus  the 
king,  Caesar  and  the  senate  decreed  that  it  should  be  a  Ro- 
man province.  But  when  the  country  was  divided  in  the 
time  of  Archelaus  and  of  preceding  kings  into  ten  pro- 
vinces, they  reckoned  five  near  the  Taurus,  Melitene,  Cataonia, 
Cilicia,  Tyanltis,  and  Garsauritis ;  the  remaining  five  were 
Laviansene,  Sargarausene,  Saravene,  Chamanene,  Morimene. 
The  Romans  afterwards  assigned  to  the  predecessors  of  Ar- 
chelaus an  eleventh  province  formed  out  of  Cilicia,  consist- 
ing of  the  country  about  Castabala  and  Cybistra,'  extending 
to  Derbe,  belonging  to  Antipater,  the  robber.  Cilicia  Tra- 
chea about  Elaeussa  was  assigned  to  Archelaus,  and  all  the 
country  which  served  as  the  haunts  of  pirates. 


1.  Melitene  resembles  Commagene,  for  the  whole  of  it  is 
planted  with  fruit-trees,  and  is  the  only  part  of  all  Cappadocia 
which  is  planted  in  this  manner.  It  produces  oil,  and  the 
wine  Monarites,  which  vies  vsdth  the  wines  of  Greece.  It  is 
situated  opposite  to  Sophene,  having  the  river  Euphrates 
flowing  between  it  and  Commagene,  which  borders  upon  it. 
In  the  country  on  the  other  side  of  the  river  is  Tomisa,  a 
considerable  fortress  of  the  Cappadocians.  It  was  sold  to  the 
prince  of  Sophene  for  a  hundred  talents.  Lucullus  presented 
it  afterwards  as  a  reward  of  valour  to  the  Cappadocian  prince 
for  his  services  in  the  war  against  Mithridates. 

2.  Cataonia  is  a  plain,  wide  and  hollow,^  and  produces 
everything  except  evergreen  trees.  It  is  surrounded  by 
mountains,  and  among  others  by  the  Amanus  on  the  side  to- 
wards the  south,  a  mass  separated  from  the  Cilician  Taurus, 
and  also  by  the  Anti-Taurus,^  a  mass  rent  off  in  a  contrary 

*  Eregli  near  the  lake  Al-gol. 

*  That  is,  surrounded  by  mountains,  as  below. 

'  The  range  on  the  west  of  the  river  Sarus,  Seichun,  now  bearing  vari- 
ous names. 

B.  XII.  c.  II.  §  3, 4.  CATAONIA.  279 

direction.  The  Amanus  extends  from  Cataonia  to  Cilicia,  and 
the  Syrian  sea  towards  the  west  and  south.  In  this  intervening 
space  it  comprises  the  whole  of  the  gulf  of  Issus,  and  the 
plains  of  the  Cilicians  which  lie  towards  the  Taurus.  But 
the  Anti-Taurus  inclines  to  the  north,  and  a  little  also  to  the 
east,  and  then  terminates  in  the  interior  of  the  country. 

3.  In  the  Anti-Taurus  are  deep  and  narrow  valleys,  in 
which  is  situated  Comana,^  and  the  temple  of  Enyus  (Bellona), 
which  they  call  Ma.  It  is  a  considerable  city.  It  contains 
a  very  great  multitude  of  persons  who  at  times  are  actuated 
by  divine  impulse,  and  of  servants  of  the  temple.  It  is  in- 
habited by  Cataonians,  who  are  chiefly  under  the  command  of 
the  priest,  but  in  other  respects  subject  to  the  king.  The 
former  presides  over  the  temple,  and  has  authority  over  the 
servants  belonging  to  it,  who,  at  the  time  that  I  was  there, 
exceeded  in  number  six  thousand  persons,  including  men  and 
women.  A  large  tract  of  land  adjoins  the  temple,  the  revenue 
of  which  the  priest  enjoys.  He  is  second  in  rank  in  Cappa- 
docia  after  the  king,  and,  in  general,  the  priests  are  descended 
from  the  same  family  as  the  kings.  Orestes,  when  he  came 
hither  with  his  sister  Iphigenia  from  Tauric  Scythia,^  is 
thought  to  have  introduced  the  sacred  rites  performed  in 
honour  of  Diana  Tauropolus,  and  to  have  deposited  here  the 
tresses  (Coman,  Ko^rjv)  of  mourning,  from  which  the  city  had 
the  name  of  Comana. 

The  river  Sarus  flows  through  this  city,  and  passes  out 
through  the  valleys  of  the  Taurus  to  the  plains  of  Cilicia,  and 
to  the  sea  lying  below  them. 

4.  The  Pyramus,^  which  has  its  source  in  the  middle  of  the 
plain,  is  navigable  throughout  Cataonia.  There  is  a  large  sub- 
terraneous channel,  through  which  the  water  flows  underground 
to  a  great  distance,  and  then  may  be  seen  springing  up  again  to 
the  surface.  If  an  arrow  is  let  down  into  the  pit  from  above,  the 
resistance  of  the  water  is  so  great  that  it  is  scarcely  immersed. 
Although  it  pursues  its  course  with  great '^  depth  and  breadth, 
it  undergoes  an  extraordinary  contraction  of  its  size  by  the 
time  it  has  reached  the  Taurus.  There  is  also  an  extra- 
ordinary fissure  in  the  mountain,  through  which  the  stream  is 
carried.     For,  as  in  rocks  which  have  burst  and  split  in  two 

^  Supposed  to  be  Al-Bostan.  ^  The  Crimea. 

•  Dschehan-Tschai.  ♦  The  text  is  here  corrupt. 

280  STRABO.  Casaub.  636. 

parts,  the  projections  in  one  correspond  so  exactly  with  the 
hollows  in  the  other  that  they  might  even  be  fitted  together, 
so  here  I  have  seen  the  rocks  at  the  distance  of  two  or  three 
plethra,  overhanging  the  river  on  each  side,  and  nearly  reach- 
ing to  the  summit  of  the  mountain,  with  hollows  on  one  side 
answering  to  projections  on  the  other.  The  bed  between  (the 
mountains)  is  entirely  rock ;  it  has  a  deep  and  very  narrow 
fissure  through  the  middle,  so  that  a  dog  and  a  hare  might 
leap  across  it.  This  is  the  channel  of  the  river ;  it  is  full  to 
the  margin,  and  in  breadth  resembles  a  canal. ^  But  on  ac- 
count of  the  winding  of  its  course,  the  great  contraction  of 
the  stream,  and  the  depth  of  the  ravine,  a  noise,  like  that  of 
thunder,  strikes  at  a  distance  on  the  ears  of  those  who  ap- 
proach it.  In  passing  out  through  the  mountains,  it  brings 
down  from  Cataonia,  and  from  the  Cilician  plains,  so  great  a 
quantity  of  alluvial  soil  to  the  sea,  that  an  oracle  to  the  follow- 
ing effect  is  reported  to  have  been  uttered  respecting  it : 

"  The  time  will  come,  when  Pyramus,  with  its  deep  whirlpools,  by  ad- 
vancing on  the  sea-shore,  will  reach  the  sacred  Cyprus." 

Something  similar  to  this  takes  place  in  Egypt.  The  Nile 
is  continually  converting  the  sea  into  continent  by  an  accu- 
mulation of  earth  ;  accordingly  Herodotus  calls  Egypt  a  gift 
of  the  river,  and  Homer  says,  that  the  Pharos  was  formerly 
out  at  sea,  not  as  it  is  at  present  connected  with  the  main- 
land of  Egypt. 

5.  [The  third 2  in  rank  is  the  Dacian  priesthood  of  Jupiter, 
inferior  to  this,  but  still  of  importance.]  There  is  at  this 
place  a  body  of  salt  water,  having  the  circumference  of  a  con- 
siderable lake.  It  is  shut  in  by  lofty  and  perpendicular  hills, 
so  that  the  descent  is  by  steps.  The  water  it  is  said  does  not 
increase  in  quantity,  nor  has  it  anywhere  an  apparent  outlet. 

6.  Neither  the  plain  of  the  Cataonians  nor  Melitene  have 
any  city,  but  strongholds  upon  the  mountains,  as  Azamora,  and 
Dastarcum,  round  which  runs  the  river  Carmalas.^-  There 
is  also  the  temple  of  the  Cataonian  Apollo,  which  is  vener- 

»  The  reading  is  doubtful. 

'  The  passage  is  corrupt.  Groskurd  proposes  Asbamean  in  place  of 
Dacian,  mention  being  made  of  a  temple  of  Asbamean  Jove  in  Amm. 
Marcell.  xxiii.  6.  Kramer  also  suggests  the  transposition  of  this  sentence 
to  the  end  of  §  6. 

^  Probably  the  Kermel-su,  a  branch  of  the  Pyramus. 

B.  xii.  c.  II.  §  7.  CAPPADOCIA.  281 

ated  throughout  the  whole  of  Cappadocia,  and  which  the 
Cappadocians  have  taken  as  a  model  of  their  own  temples. 
Nor  have  the  other  provinces,  except  two,  any  cities.  Of  the 
rest,  Sargarausene  has  a  small  town  Herpa,  and  a  river  Car- 
malas,  which  also  discharges  itself  into  the  Cilician  sea.^  In 
the  other  provinces  is  Argos,  a  lofty  fortress  near  the  Taurus, 
and  Nora,  now  called  Neroassus,  in  which  Eumenes  sustained 
a  long  siege.  In  our  time  it  was  a  treasure-hold  of  Sisinus, 
who  attempted  to  take  possession  of  the  kingdom  of  Cappa- 
docia. To  him  belonged  Cadena,  a  royal  seat,  built  after  the 
form  of  a  city.  Situated  upon  the  borders  of  Lycaonia  is 
Garsauira,  a  village  town,  said  to  have  been  formerly  the 
capital  of  the  country. 

In  Morimene,  among  the  Venasii,  is  a  temple  of  Jupiter, 
with  buildings  capable  of  receiving  nearly  three  thousand  ser- 
vants of  the  temple.  It  has  a  tract  of  sacred  land  attached  to 
it,  very  fertile,  and  affording  to  the  priest  a  yearly  revenue  of 
fifteen  talents.  The  priest  is  appointed  for  life  like  the  priest 
at  Comana,  and  is  next  to  him  in  rank. 

7.  Two  provinces  only  have  cities.  In  the  Tyanitis  is 
Tyana,^  lying  at  the  foot  of  the  Taurus  at  the  Cilician  Gates,' 
where  are  the  easiest  and  the  most  frequented  passes  into 
Cilicia  and  Syria.  It  is  called,  "Eusebeia  at  the  Taurus." 
Tyanitis  is  fertile,  and  the  greatest  part  of  it  consists  of 
plains.  Tyana  is  built  upon  the  mound  of  Semiramis,  which 
is  fortified  with  good  walls.  At  a  little  distance  from  this 
city  are  Castabala  and  Cybistra,  towns  which  approach  still 
nearer  to  the  mountain.  At  Castabala  is  a  temple  of  Diana 
Perasia,  where,  it  is  said,  the  priestesses  walk  with  naked 
feet  unhurt  upon  burning  coals.  To  this  place  some  persons 
apply  the  story  respecting  Orestes  and  Diana  Tauropolus,  and 
say  that  the  goddess  was  called  Perasia,  because  she  was  con- 
veyed from  beyond  (Tripadev)  sea. 

In  Tyanitis,  one  of  the  ten  provinces  above  mentioned,  is 
the  city  Tyana.  But  with  these  I  do  not  reckon  the  cities 
that  were  afterwards  added,  Castabala,  and  Cybistra,  and 
those  in  Cilicia  Tracheia,  to  which  belongs  Elaeussa,  a  small 

1  There  is  some  confusion  in  this  statement. 

'  Kara-Hissar. 

^  Between  the  mountains  Bulghar-Dagh  and  Allah-Dagh. 

282  STRABO.  Casaub.  538. 

fertile  island,  which  Archelaus  furnished  with  excellent 
buildings,  where  he  passed  the  greater  part  of  his  time. 

In  the  Cilician  province,  as  it  is  called,  is  Mazaca,^  the 
capital  of  the  nation.  It  is  also  called  "  Eusebeia,"  with  the 
addition  "  at  the  Argasus,"  for  it  is  situated  at  the  foot  of  the 
Argaeus,'-^  the  highest  mountain  in  that  district ;  its  summit  is 
always  covered  with  snow.  Persons  who  ascend  it  (but 
they  are  not  many)  say  that  both  the  Euxine  and  the  sea  of 
Issus  may  be  seen  from  thence  in  clear  weather. 

Mazaca  is  not  adapted  in  other  respects  by  nature  for  the 
settlement  of  a  city,  for  it  is  without  water,  and  unfortified. 
Through  the  neglect  of  the  governors,  it  is  without  walls,  per- 
haps intentionally,  lest,  trusting  to  the  wall  as  to  a  fortification, 
the  inhabitants  of  a  plain,  which  has  hills  situated  above  it,  and 
not  exposed  to  the  attacks  of  missile  weapons,  should  addict 
themselves  to  robbery.  The  country  about,  although  it  con- 
sists of  plains,  is  entirely  barren  and  uncultivated,  for  the  soil 
is  sandy,  and  rocky  underneath.  At  a  little  distance  further 
there  are  burning  plains,  and  pits  full  of  fire  to  an  extent  of 
many  stadia,  so  that  the  necessaries  of  life  are  brought  from  a 
distance.  What  seems  to  be  a  peculiar  advantage  (abundance 
of  wood)  is  a  source  of  danger.  For  though  nearly  the  whole 
of  Cappadocia  is  without  timber,  the  Argaeus  is  surrounded 
by  a  forest,  so  that  wood  may  be  procured  near  at  hand,  yet 
even  the  region  lying  below  the  forest  contains  fire  in  many 
parts,  and  springs  of  cold  water  ;  but  as  neither  the  fire  nor 
the  water  break  out  upon  the  surface,  the  greatest  part  of  the 
country  is  covered  with  herbage.  In  some  parts  the  bottom 
is  marshy,  and  flames  burst  out  from  the  ground  by  night. 
Those  acquainted  with  the  country  collect  wood  with  caution  ; 
but  there  is  danger  to  others,  and  particularly  to  cattle,  which 
fall  into  these  hidden  pits  of  fire. 

8.  In  the  plain  in  front  of  the  city,  and  about  40  stadia 
from  it,  is  a  river  of  the  name  of  Melas,^  whose  source  is  in 
ground  lower  than  the  level  of  the  city.     It  is  useless  to  the 

*  Kaisarieh. 

^  Edsehise-Dagh,  the  highest  peak,  has  been  estimated  at  13,000  feet 
above  the  sea. 

'  Tlie  Kara-su,  the  black  river,  a  branch  of  the  Kizil-Irmak.  The 
modern  name  appears  common  to  many  rivers. 

B.  XII.  c.  11.  §  9.  CAPPADOCIA.  283 

inhabitants,  because  it  does  not  flow  from  an  elevated  situation. 
It  spreads  abroad  in  marshes  and  lakes,  and  in  the  summer- 
time corrupts  the  air  round  the  city.  A  valuable  stone 
quarry  is  rendered  almost  useless  by  it.  For  there  are  ex- 
tensive beds  of  stone,  from  which  the  Mazaceni  obtain  an 
abundant  supply  of  materials  for  building,  but  the  slabs,  be- 
ing covered  with  water,  are  not  easily  detached  by  the  work- 
men. These  are  the  marshes  which  in  every  part  are  subject 
to  take  fire. 

Ariarathes  the  king  filled  in  some  narrow  channels  by 
which  the  Melas  entered  the  Halys,  and  converted  the  neigh- 
bouring plain  into  a  wide  lake.  There  he  selected  some  small 
islands  like  the  Cyclades,  where  he  passed  his  time  in  boyish 
and  frivolous  diversions.  The  barrier,  however,  was  broken 
down  all  at  once,  and  the  waters  again  flowed  abroad  and 
swelled  the  Halys,  which  swept  away  a  large  part  of  the  Cap- 
padocian  territory,  and  destroyed  many  buildings  and  planta- 
tions ;  it  also  damaged  a  considerable  part  of  the  country  of 
the  Galatians,  who  occupy  Phrygia.  In  compensation  for 
this  injury  he  paid  a  fine  of  three  hundred  talents  to  the  in- 
habitants, who  had  referred  the  matter  to  the  decision  of  the 
Romans.  The  same  was  the  case  at  Herpa ;  for  he  there 
obstructed  the  stream  of  the  Carmalas,  and,  on  the  bursting 
of  the  dyke,  the  water  damaged  some  of  the  places  in  the 
Cilician  territories  about  Mallus  ;  he  was  obliged  to  make 
compensation  to  those  who  had  sustained  injury. 

9.  Although  the  territory  of  the  Mazaceni  is  destitute  in 
many  respects  of  natural  advantages,  it  seems  to  have  been 
preferred  by  the  kings  as  a  place  of  residence,  because  it  was 
nearest  the  centre  of  those  districts  which  supplied  timber, 
stone  for  building,  and  fodder,  of  which  a  very  large  quantity 
was  required  for  the  subsistence  of  their  cattle.  Their  city 
was  almost  a  camp.  The  security  of  their  persons  and  trea- 
sure^ depended  upon  the  protection  afforded  by  numerous 
fortresses,  some  of  which  belonged  to  the  king,  others  to  their 

Mazaca  is  distant  from  Pontus  ^  about  800  stadia  to  the 
south,  and  from  the  Euphrates  a  little  less  than  double  that 
distance ;  from  the  Cilician  Gates  and  the  camp  of  Cyrus,  a 

'  XptjfioLTbJv,  the  reading  proposed  by  Kramer. 
2  i.  e.  the  kingdom  of  Pontus. 

284  STRABO.-  '  Casaub.  539. 

journey  of  six  days  by  way  of  Tyana,^  which  is  situated  about 
the  middle  of  the  route,  and  is  distant  from  Cybistra  300 
stadia.  The  Mazaceni  adopt  the  laws  of  Charondas,  and  elect 
a  Nomodist,  (or  Chanter  of  the  Laws,)  who,  like  the  Juris- 
consults of  the  Romans,  is  the  interpreter  of  their  laws.  Ti- 
granes  the  Armenian,  when  he  overran  Cappadocia,  treated 
them  with  great  severity.  He  forced  them  to  abandon  their 
settlements,  and  go  into  Mesopotamia ;  they  peopled  Tigrano- 
certa,  chiefly  by  their  numbers.  Afterwards,  upon  the  cap- 
ture of  Tigranocerta,  those  who  were  able  returned  to  their 
own  country. 

10.  The  breadth  of  the  country  from  Pontus  to  the  Taurus  is 
about  1800  stadia  ;  the  length  from  Lycaonia  and  Phrygia,  as 
far  as  the  Euphrates  to  the  east,  and  Armenia,  is  about  3000 
stadia.  The  soil  is  fertile,  and  abounds  with  fruits  of  the 
earth,  particularly  corn,  and  with  cattle  of  all  kinds.  Although 
it  lies  more  to  the  south  than  Pontus,  it  is  colder.  Bagadania, 
although  a  plain  country,  and  situated  more  towards  the  south 
than  any  district  in  Cappadocia,  (for  it  lies  at  the  foot  of  the 
Taurus,)  produces  scarcely  any  fruit-bearing  trees.  It  affords 
pasture  for  wild  asses,  as  does  a  large  portion  of  the  other 
parts  of  the  country,  particularly  that  about  Garsauira,  Ly- 
caonia, and  Morimene. 

In  Cappadocia  is  found  the  red  earth  called  the  Sinopic, 
which  is  better  than  that  of  any  other  country.  The  Spanish 
only  can  rival  it.  It  had  the  name  of  Sinopic,  because  the 
merchants  used  to  bring  it  down  from  Sinope,  before  the  traffic 
of  the  Ephesians  extended  as  far  as  the  people  of  Cappadocia. 
It  is  said  that  even  plates  of  crystal  and  of  the  onyx  stone  were 
discovered  by  the  miners  of  Archelaus  near  the  country  of  the 
Galatians.  There  was  a  place  where  was  found  a  white  stone 
of  the  colour  of  ivory  in  pieces  of  the  size  of  small  whetstones, 
from  which  were  made  handles  for  small  swords.  Another 
place  produced  large  masses  of  transparent  stone  for  windows, 
which  were  exported. 

The  boundary  of  Pontus  and  Cappadocia  is  a  mountainous 
range  parallel  to  the  Taurus,  commencing  from  the  western 
extremities  of  Chammanene,  (where  stands  Dasmenda,  a  fortress 
built  upon  a  precipice,)  and  extending  to  the  eastern  parts  of 

I  Kara-Hissar. 

B.  xir.  c.  HI.  §  1.  PONTUS.  285 

Laviansene.  Both  Chammanene  and  Laviansene  are  pro- 
vinces of  Cappadocia. 

11.  When  the  Romans,  after  the  defeat  of  Antiochus,  first 
governed  Asia,  they  made  treaties  of  friendship  and  alliance 
both  with  the  nations  and  with  the  kings.  This  honour  was 
conferred  upon  the  other  kings  separately  and  independently, 
but  upon  the  king  of  Cappadocia  in  common  with  the  nation. 
On  the  extinction  of  the  royal  race,  the  Romans  admitted  the 
independence  of  the  Cappadocians  according  to  the  treaty  of 
friendship  and  alliance  which  they  had  made  with  the  nation. 
The  deputies  excused  themselves  from  accepting  the  liberty 
which  was  ofiered  to  them,  declaring  that  they  were  unable  to 
bear  it,  and  requested  that  a  king  might  be  appointed.  The 
Romans  were  surprised  that  any  people  should  be  unwilling 
to  enjoy  liberty,  but  permitted  ^  them  to  elect  by  suffrage  any 
one  they  pleased  from  among  themselves.  They  elected 
Ariobarzanes.  The  race  became  extinct  in  the  third  gener- 
ation. Archelaus,  who  was  not  connected  with  the  nation, 
was  appointed  king  by  Antony. 

So  much  respecting  the  Greater  Cappadocia. 

With  regard  to  Cilicia  Tracheia,  which  was  annexed  to 
the  Greater  Cappadocia,  it  will  be  better  to  describe  it  when 
we  give  an  account  of  the  whole  of  Cilicia. 


1.  MiTHRiDATES  Eupator  was  appointed  King  of  Pontus. 
His  kingdom  consisted  of  the  country  bounded  by  the  Halys,^ 
extending  to  the  Tibareni,^  to  Armenia,  to  the  territory 
within  the  Halys,  extending  as  far  as  Amastris,'*  and  to  some 
parts  of  Paphlagonia.  He  annexed  to  (the  kingdom  of)  Pontus 
the  sea-coast  towards  the  west  as  far  as  Heracleia,^  the  birth- 
place of  Heracleides  the  Platonic  philosopher,  and  towards 

'  Du  Theil  quotes  Justin,  38,  c,  2,  where  it  is  stated  that  Ariobarzanes 
was  appointed  king  by  the  Romans.  Probably  the  election  was  con- 
firmed by  the  Senate. 

2  Kizii-Irmak. 

'  Who  lived  on  the  west  of  the  river  Sidenus  (Siddin). 

*  Amassera.  ^  Erekli,  or  Benderegli. 

286  STRABO.  Casaub.  541. 

the  east,  the  country  extending  to  Colchis,  and  the  Lesser 
Armenia.  Pompey,  after  the  overthrow  of  Mithridates,  found 
the  kingdom  comprised  within  these  boundaries.  He  dis- 
tributed the  country  towards  Armenia  and  towards  Colchis 
among  the  princes  who  had  assisted  him  in  the  war ;  the  re- 
mainder he  divided  into  eleven  governments,  and  annexed 
them  to  Bithynia,  so  that  out  of  both  there  was  formed  one 
province.  Some  people  in  the  inland  parts  he  subjected  to  the 
kings  descended  from  Pylaemenes,  in  the  same  manner  as  he 
delivered  over  the  Galatians  to  be  governed  by  tetrarchs  of 
that  nation. 

In  later  times  the  Roman  emperors  made  different  divisions 
of  tlje  same  country,  appointing  kings  and  rulers,  making 
some  cities  free,  and  subjecting  others  to  the  authority  of  rulers, 
others  again  were  left  under  the  dominion  of  the  Roman  people. 

As  we- proceed  in  our  description  according  to  the  present 
state  of  things,  we  shall  touch  slightly  on  their  former  con- 
dition, whenever  it  may  be  useful. 

I  shall  begin  from  Heracleia,^  which  is  the  most  westerly 
of  these  places. 

2.  In  sailing  out  of  the  Propontiji  into  the  Euxine  Sea,  on 
the  left  hand  are  the  parts  adjoining  to  Byzantium,  (Con- 
stantinople,) and  these  belong  to  the  Thracians.  The  parts 
on  the  left  of  the  Pontus  are  called  Aristera  (or  left)  of  Pon- 
tus ;  the  parts  on  the  right  are  contiguous  to  Chalcedon.  Of 
these  the  first  tract  of  country  belongs  to  the  Biihynians,  the 
next  to  the  Mariandyni,  or,  as  some  say,  to  the  Caucones  ;  next 
is  that  of  the  Paphlagonians,  extending  to  the  Halys,  then  that 
of  the  Cappadocians  near  the  Pontus,  and  then  a  district 
reaching  to  Colchis.^  All  this  country  has  the  name  of  the 
Dexia  (or  right)  of  Pontus.  This  whole  coast,  from  Col- 
chis to  Heracleia,  was  subject  to  Mithridates  Eupator.  But 
the  parts  on  the  other  side  to  the  mouth  of  the  Euxine  and 
Chalcedon,  remained  under  the  government  of  the  king  of 
Bithynia.  After  the  overthrow  of  the  kings  the  Romans  pre- 
served the  same  boundaries  of  the  kingdoms ;  Heracleia  was 

'  Erekli. 

*  The  Bithynians,  or  rather  Thyni,  occupied  the  sea-coast  from  the 
Bosphorus  to  tlie  river  Sagaris  (Sakaria).  The  Mariandyni  extended  to 
Heracleia  (Erekli);  and  the  Caucones  to  the  east  as  far  as  the  river 
Parthenius  (Tschati-su) . 

B.  XII.  c.  III.  §  3—5.  PONTUS.  287 

annexed  to  Pontus,  and  the  country  beyond  assigned  to  the 

3.  It  is  generally  acknowledged  by  writers,  that  the  Bithy- 
nians, who  were  formerly  Mysians,  received  this  name  from 
Bithynians  and  Thyni,  Thracian  people,  who  came  and  settled 
among  them.  They  advance  as  a  proof  of  their  statement, 
first  as  regards  the  Bithynians,  that  there  still  exists  in  Thrace 
a  people  called  Bithynians,  and  then,  as  regards  the  Thyni, 
that  the  sea-shore,  near  Apollonia  ^  and  Salmydessus,^  is  called 
Thynias.  The  Bebryces,  who  preceded  them  as  settlers  in 
Mysia,  were,  as  I  conjecture,  Thracians.  We  have  said^  that 
the  Mysians  themselves  were  a  colony  of  those  Thracians  who 
are  now  called  Msesi. 

Such  is  the  account  given  of  these  people. 

4.  There  is  not,  however,  the  same  agreement  among  writers 
with  regard  to  the  Mariandyni,  and  the  Caucones.  For  they 
say  that  Heracleia  is  situated  among  the  Mariandyni,  and  was 
founded  by  Milesians."*  But  who  they  are,  or  whence  they 
came,  nothing  is  said.  There  is  no  difference  in  language, 
nor  any  other  apparent  national  distinction  between  them  and 
the  Bithynians,  whom  they  resemble  in  all  respects.  It  is 
probable  therefore  the  Mariandyni  were  a  Thracian  tribe. 

Theopompus  says  that  Mariandynus,  who  governed  a  part 
of  Paphlagonia,  which  was  subject  to  many  masters,  invaded 
and  obtained  possession  of  the  country  of  the  Bebryces,  and 
that  he  gave  his  own  name  to  the  territory  which  he  had  be- 
fore occupied.  It  is  also  said  that  the  Milesians  who  first 
founded  Heracleia,  compelled  the  Mariandyni,  the  former  pos- 
sessors of  the  place,  to  serve  as  Helots,  and  even  sold  them, 
but  not  beyond  the  boundaries  of  their  country.  For  they 
were  sold  on  the  same  conditions  as  the  class  of  persons  called 
Mnoans,  who  were  slaves  to  the  Cretans,  and  the  Penestae,^ 
who  were  slaves  of  the  Thessalians. 

5.  The  Caucones,  who,  according  to  history,  inhabited  the 
line  of  sea-coast  which  extends  from  the  Mariandyni  as  far  as 
the  river  Parthenius,  and  to  whom  belonged  the  city  Tieium,^ 

*  Sizeboli,  south  of  the  Gulf  of  Butgas.  *  Midjeh. 
^  B.  vii.  c.  iii.  §  2. 

*  Kramer  is  of  opinion  that  Strabo  is  mistaken  in  this  account  of  the 
origin  of  Heracleia. 

*  Athenaeus,  b.  vi.  c.  85,  vol.  i.  p.  414,  Bohn's  Class.  Library.      6  Tilijos, 

288  STRABO.  Casaub.  542. 

are  said  bj  some  writers  to  be  Scythians,  by  others  a  tribe  of 
Macedonians,  and  by  others  a  tribe  of  Pelasgi.  We  have 
already  spoken  of  these  people  elsewhere.^  Callisthenes  in 
his  comment  upon  the  enumeration  of  the  ships  inserts  after 
this  verse, 

"Cromna,  iEgialus,  and  the  lofty  Erythini,"* 
these  lines, 

"  The  brave  son  of  Polycles  led  the  Caucones, 
Who  inhabited  the  well-known  dwellings  about  the  river  Parthenius," 

for  the  territory  extends  from  Heracleia,  and  the  Mariandyni 
as  far  as  the  Leucosyri,  whom  we  call  Cappadocians.  But 
the  tribe  of  the  Caucones  about  Tieium  extends  to  the  Par- 
thenius ;  that  of  the  Heneti,  who  occupy  Cytorum,^  imme- 
diately follows  the  Parthenius,  and  even  at  present  some 
Caucones  are  living  about  the  Parthenius. 

6.  Heracleia  is  a  city  with  a  good  harbour,  and  of  import- 
ance in  other  respects.  It  has  sent  out  colonies,  among  which 
are  the  Cherronesus,'*  and  the  Callatis.^  It  was  once  inde- 
pendent, afterwards  for  some  time  it  was  under  the  power  of 
tyrants ;  it  again  recovered  its  freedom ;  but  at  last,  when 
subject  to  the  Romans,  it  was  governed  by  kings.  It  re- 
ceived a  colony  of  Romans,  which  was  settled  in  a  portion  of 
the  city,  and  of  its  territory.  A  little  before  the  battle  of  Ac- 
tium,  Adiatorix,  the  son  of  Domnecleius  the  tetrarch  of  Gala- 
tia,  who  had  received  from  Antony  that  portion  of  the  city  of 
which  the  Heracleiotae  were  in  possession,  attacked  the  Ro- 
mans by  night,  and  put  t^iem  to  death  by  the  command,  as  he 
said,  of  Antony ;  but  after  the  victory  at  Actium,  he  was  led 
in  triumph,  and  put  to  death  together  with  his  son.  The  city 
belongs  to  the  province  of  Pontus,  which  was  annexed  to 

7.  Between  Chalcedon  and  Heracleia  are  several  rivers,  as 
the  Psillis,^  the  Calpas,  and  the  Sangarius,  of  which  last  the 
poet  makes  mention.^  It  has  its  source  at  the  village  Sangias, 
at  the  distance  of  150  stadia  from  Pessinus.    It  flows  through 

'  B.  viii.  c.  iii.  §  17.  ^  ^  jj  §55.  ^  Kidros. 

♦  On  the  bay  of  the  modem  Sebastopol,  b.  vii.  c.  iv.  §  2. 

*  Mangalia. 

«  Some  of  the  smaller  mountain  streams  which  descend  from  the  range 
of  hills  extending  from  Scutari  to  the  Sangaria.  According  to  Gossellin 
the  Psillis  may  be  the  river  near  Tschileh,  and  the  Calpas  the  river  near 
Kerpeh.  '  II.  xvi.  719. 

B.  xir.  c.  in.  §  8.  PONTUS  289 

the  greater  part  of  Phrygia  Epictetus,  and  a  part  also  of 
Bithynia,  so  that  it  is  distant  from  Nicomedia  a  little  more 
than  300  stadia,  where  the  river  Gallus  unites  with  it.  The 
latter  river  has  its  source  at  Modra  in  Phrygia  on  the  Helles- 
pont, which  is  the  same  country  as  the  Epictetus,  and  was 
formerly  occupied  by  the  Bithynians. 

The  Sangarius  thus  increased  in  bulk,  and  navigable,  al- 
though not  so  formerly,  is  the  boundary  of  Bithynia  at  the  part 
of  the  coast  where  it  discharges  itself.  In  front  of  this  coast 
is  the  island  Thynia. 

In  the  territory  of  Heracleia  grows  the  aconite. 

This  city  is  distant  from  the  temple  at  Chalcedon  about 
1500,  and  from  the  Sangarius  500,  stadia. 

8.  Tieium  is  now  a  small  town  and  has  nothing  remarkable 
belonging  to  it,  except  that  it  was  the  birth-place  of  Philetaerus, 
the  founder  of  the  family  of  the  Attalic  kings. 

Next  is  the  river  Parthenius,  flowing  through  a  country 
abounding  with  flowers;  from  these  it  obtained  its  name.^ 
Its  source  is  in  Paphlagonia.  Then  succeeded  Paphlagonia, 
and  the  Heneti.  It  is  a  question  what  Heneti  the  poet 
means,  when  he  says, 

"  the  brave  Pylaemenes  led  the  Paphlagonians  out  of  the  country  of  the 
Heneti,  where  they  have  a  race  of  wild  mules ; "  ^ 

for  at  present,  they  say,  no  Heneti  are  to  be  found  in  Paphla- 
gonia. Others  say  that  it  is  a  village  on  the  shore  distant 
ten  schoeni  from  Amastris.  But  Zenodotus  writes  the  verse 
in  this  manner,  "  From  Heneta,"  and  says  that  it  means  the 
present  Amisus.  According  to  others  it  was  a  tribe  border- 
ing upon  the  Cappadocians,  which  engaged  in  an  expedition 
with  the  Cimmerians,  and  were  afterwards  driven  away  into 
Adria.  But  the  account  most  generally  received  is,  that  the 
Heneti  were  the  most  considerable  tribe  of  the  Paphlagonians ; 
that  Pylaemenes  was  descended  from  it ;  that  a  large  body  of 
this  people  accompanied  him  to  the  Trojan  war ;  that  when 
they  had  lost  their  leader  they  passed  over  to  Thrace  upon 
the  capture  of  Troy ;  and  in  the  course  of  their  wanderings 
arrived  at  the  present  Henetic  territory. 

Some  writers  say  that  both  Antenor  and  his  sons  partici- 
pated in  this  expedition,  and  settled  at  the  inner  recess  of  the 

^  The  virgin  river,  from  its  flowers  and  tranquil  course.        ^  II.  ii.  851. 

VOL.   II.  u 

290  STRABO.  *  Casaub.  544. 

gulf  of  Adria,  as  we  have  said  in  the  description  of  Italy. ^  It 
is  probable  that  this  was  the  cause  of  the  extinction  of  the 
Heneti,  and  that  they  were  no  longer  to  be  found  in  Paphla- 

9.  The  boundary  of  the  Paphlagonians  to  the  east  is  the 
river  Halys,  which  flows  from  the  south  between  the  Syrians 
and  the  Paphlagonians ;  and  according  to  Herodotus,^  (who 
means  Cappadocians,  when  he  is  speaking  of  Syrians,)  dis- 
charges itself  into  the  Euxine  Sea.  Even  at  present  they  are 
called  Leuco- Syrians,  (or  White  Syrians,)  while  those  without 
the  Taurus  are  called  Syrians.  In  comparison  with  the  peo- 
ple within  the  Taurus,  the  latter  have  a  burnt  complexion ; 
but  the  former,  not  having  it,  received  the  appellation  of  Leuco- 
Syrians  (or  White  Syrians).     Pindar  says  that 

"  the  Amazons  commanded  a  Syrian  band,  armed  with  spears  with  broad 
iron  heads;" 

thus  designating  the  people  that  lived  at  Themiscyra.^  The- 
miscyra  belongs  to  the  Amiseni,^  and  the  district  of  the 
Amiseni  to  the  Leuco- Syrians  settled  beyond  the  Halys. 

The  river  Halys  forms  the  boundary  of  the  Paphlagonians 
to  the  east  ;  Phrygians  and  the  Galatians  settled  among  that 
people,  on  the  south ;  and  on  the  west  Bithynians  and  Marian- 
dyni  (for  the  race  of  the  Caucones  has  everywhere  entirely 
disappeared) ;  on  the  north  the  Euxine.  This  country  is 
divided  into  two  parts,  the  inland,  and  the  maritime,  extend- 
ing from  the  Halys  as  far  as  Bithynia.  Mithridates  Eupator 
possessed  the  maritime  part  as  far  as  Heracleia,  and  of  the 
inland  country  he  had  the  district  nearest  to  Heracleia,  some 
parts  of  which  extended  even  beyond  the  Halys.  These  are 
also  the  limits  of  the  Roman  province  of  Pontus.  The  re- 
mainder was  subject  to  chiefs,  even  after  the  overthrow  of 

We  shall  afterwards  speak  of  those  Paphlagonians  in  the 
inland  parts,  who  were  not  subject  to  Mithridates  ;  we  propose 
at  present  to  describe  the  country  which  he  governed,  called 

10.  After  the  river  Parthenius  is  Amastris,  bearing  the 
same  name  as  the  princess  by  whom  it  was  founded.     It  is 

'  B.  V.  c.  i.  §  4.  2  Herod,  i.  6. 

^  About  the  Thermodon,  now  Termeh. 
*  The  country  about  Samsoun. 

B.  XII.  c.  III.  §  11.  PONTUS.     SINOPE.  291 

situated  upon  a  peninsula,  with  harbours  on  each  side  of  the 
isthmus.  Amastris  was  the  wife  of  Dionysius,  the  tyrant  of 
Heracleia,  and  daughter  of  Oxyathres,  the  brother  of  the 
Darius  who  fought  against  Alexander.  She  formed  the  set- 
tlement out  of  four  cities,  Sesamus,  Cytorum,  Cromna,  (men- 
tioned by  Homer  in  his  recital  of  the  Paphlagonian  forces/) 
and  Tieium,  which  city  however  soon  separated  from  the 
others,  but  the  rest  continued  united.  Of  these,  Sesamus  is 
called  the  citadel  of  Amastris.  Cytorum  was  formerly  a  mart 
of  the  people  of  Sinope.  It  had  its  name  from  Cytorus,  the 
son  of  Phrixus,  according  to  Ephorus.  Box-wood  of  the  best 
quality  grows  in  great  abundance  in  the  territory  of  Amastris, 
and  particularly  about  Cytorum. 

^gialus  is  a  line  of  sea-coast,  in  length  more  than  100  stadia. 
On  it  is  a  village  of  the  same  name,^  which  the  poet  mentions 
in  these  lines, 

"  Cromna,  and  ^gialus,  and  the  lofty  Erythini  ;"^ 

but  some  authors  write, 

"  Cromna  and  Cobialus." 

The  Erythini  are  said  to  be  the  present  Erythrini,  and  to  have 
their  name  from  their  (red)  colour.     They  are  two  rocks.* 

Next  to  ^gialus  is  Carambis,  a  large  promontory  stretching 
towards  the  north,  and  the  Scythian  Chersonesus.  We  have 
frequently  mentioned  this  promontory,  and  the  Criu-metopon 
opposite  it,  which  divides  the  Euxine  into  two  seas.^ 

Next  to  Carambis  is  Cinolis,^  and  Anti-Cinolis,  and  Aboni- 
teichos,'  a  small  city,  and  Armene,^  which  gave  rise  to  the 
common  proverb  ; 

"  He  who  had  nothing  to  do  built  a  wall  about  Armene." 
It  is  a  village  of  the  Sinopenses,  with  a  harbour. 

11.  Next  is  Sinope  itself,  distant  from  Armene  50  stadia, 
the  most  considerable  of  all  the  cities  in  that  quarter.  It  was 
founded  by  Milesians,  and  when  the  inhabitants  had  estab- 
lished a  naval  force  they  commanded  the  sea  within  the  Cya- 

'  II.  u.  853.  '  Kara-Aghatsch.  »  II.  i.  855. 

*  Between  C.  Tchakras  and  Delike-Tschili. 

'  B.  vii.  c.  iv.  §  3.  «  Kinoli. 

'  Ineboli,  near  the  mouth  of  the  Daurikan-Irmak. 

*  Ak-Liman. 

u  2 

292  STRABO.  Casaub.  54o. 

nean  rocks,  and  were  allies  of  the  Greeks  in  many  naval  battles 
beyond  these  limits.  Although  this  city  was  independent  for 
a  long  period,  it  did  not  preserve  its  liberty  to  the  last^  but 
was  taken  by  siege,  and  became  subject  first  to  Pharnaces, 
then  to  his  successors,  to  the  time  when  the  Romans  put  an 
end  to  the  power  of  Mithridates  Eupator.  This  prince  was 
born  and  brought  up  in  this  city,  on  which  he  conferred  dis- 
tinguished honour,  and  made  it  a  capital  of  the  kingdom.  It 
has  received  advantages  from  nature  which  have  been  im- 
proved by  art.  It  is  built  upon  the  neck  of  a  peninsula ;  on 
each  side  of  the  isthmus  are  harbours,  stations  for  vessels,  and 
fisheries  worthy  of  admiration  for  the  capture  of  the  pela- 
mydes.  Of  these  fisheries  we  have  said^  that  the  people  of 
Sinope  have  the  second,  and  the  Byzantines  the  third,  in 
point  of  excellence. 

The  peninsula  projects  in  a  circular  form ;  the  shores  are 
surrounded  by  a  chain  of  rocks,  and  in  some  parts  there  are 
cavities,  like  rocky  pits,  which  are  called  Choenicides.  These 
are  filled  when  the  sea  is  high.  For  the  above  reason,  the 
place  is  not  easily  approached  ;  besides  which,  along  the  whole 
surface  of  rock  the  road  is  covered  with  sharp-pointed  stones, 
and  persons  cannot  walk  upon  it  with  naked  feet.  The  lands 
in  the  higher  parts  and  above  the  city  have  a  good  soil,  and 
are  adorned  with  fields  dressed  as  gardens,  and  this  is  the  case 
in  a  still  greater  degree  in  the  suburbs.  The  city  itself  is 
well  secured  with  walls,  and  magnificently  ornamented  with 
a  gymnasium,  forum,  and  porticos.  Notwithstanding  these 
advantages  for  defence,  it  was  twice  taken ;  first  by  Phar- 
naces, who  attacked  it  unexpectedly ;  afterwards  by  Lucullus, 
who  besieged  it  while  it  was  harassed  by  an  insidious  tyrant 
within  the  walls.  For  Bacchides,^  who  was  appointed  by  the 
king  commander  of  the  garrison,  being  always  suspicious  of 
treachery  on  the  part  of  those  within  the  city,  had  disgraced 
and  put  many  to  death.  He  thus  prevented  the  citizens  both 
from  defending  themselves  with  bravery,  although  capable  of 
making  a  gallant  defence,  and  from  offering  terms  for  a  capitul- 
ation.    The  city  was  therefore  captured.     Lucullus  took  away 

*  B.  vii.  c.  vi.  §  2, 

2  The  eunuch  Bacchides,  or  Bacchus,  according  to  others,  whom  Mi- 
thridates, after  despairing  of  success,  commissioned  with  the  order  for  his 
women  to  die.     Plutarch,  Life  of  Lticulhcs. 

B.  XII.  c.  III.  §  12.  PONTUS.     SINOPE.  293 

the  Sphere  of  Billarus,^  and  the  Autolycus,^  the  workmanship 
of  Sthenis,  whom  the  citizens  regarded  as  a  founder,  and 
honoured  as  a  god  ;  he  left  the  other  ornaments  of  the  city- 
untouched.  There  was  there  an  oracle  of  Sthenis.  He  seems 
to  have  been  one  of  the  companions  of  Jason  in  his  voyage, 
and  to  have  got  possession  of  this  place.  In  after  times  the 
Milesians,  observing  the  natural  advantages  of  the  city,  and  the 
weakness  of  the  inhabitants,  appropriated  it  as  their  own,  and 
sent  out  colonists.  It  has  at  present  a  Roman  colony,  and  a  part 
of  the  city  and  of  the  territory  belongs  to  the  Romans.  It  is 
distant  from  Hieron^  3500,  from  Heracleia  2000,  and  from 
Carambis  700,  stadia.  It  has  produced  men  distinguished 
among  philosophers,  Diogenes  the  Cynic,  and  Timotheus  sur- 
named  Patrion  ;  among  poets,  Diphilus,  the  writer  of  comedy  ; 
among  historians.  Baton,'*  who  wrote  the  history  of  Persia. 

12.  Proceeding  thence,  next  in  order  is  the  mouth  of  the 
river  Halys.  It  has  its  name  from  the  hales,  or  salt  mines,^ 
near  which  it  flows.  It  has  its  source  in  the  Greater  Cap- 
padocia,  near  the  territory  of  Pontus,  in  Camisene.  It  flows 
in  a  large  stream  towards  the  west,  then  turning  to  the  north 
through  the  country  of  the  Galatians  and  Paphlagonians,  forms 
the  boundary  of  their  territory,  and  of  that  of  the  Leuco- Syrians. 
The  tract  of  land  belonging  to  Sinope  and  all  the  mountainous 
country  as  far  as  Bithynia,  situated  above  the  sea-coast,  which 
has  been  described,  furnishes  timber  of  excellent  quality  for 
ship-building,  and  is  easily  conveyed  away.     The  territory  of 

'  Probably  a  celestial  globe  constructed  by  Billarus,  or  on  the  prin- 
ciples of  Billarus,  a  person  otherwise  unknown.  Strabo  mentions,  b.  ii. 
c.  V.  §  10,  the  Sphere  of  Crates,  Cicero  the  Sphere  of  Archimedes  and  of 
Posidonius.  History  speaks  of  several  of  these  spheres,  among  others 
of  that  of  Ptolemy  and  Aratus.  Leontinus,  a  mechanician  of  the  sixth 
century,  explains  the  manner  in  which  this  last  was  constructed. 

'^  Lucullus,  upon  his  entry  into  Sinope,  put  to  death  8000  Cilicians 
whom  he  found  there.  The  rest  of  the  inhabitants,  after  having  set  fire 
to  the  town,  carried  with  them  the  statue  of  Autolycus,  the  founder  of 
Sinope,  the  work  of  Sthenis ;  but  not  having  time  to  put  it  on  board  ship, 
it  was  left  on  the  sea-shore.  Autolycus  was  one  of  the  companions  of 
Hercules  in  his  expedition  against  the  Amazons.  Sthenis,  as  well  as  his 
brother  Lysistratus,  was  a  celebrated  statuary;  he  was  a  native  of  Olyn- 
thus  and  a  contemporary  of  Alexander  the  Great. 

'  The  temple  of  Jupiter  Urius  near  Chalcedon. 

*  He  was  also  the  author  of  a  History  of  the  Tyrants  of  Ephesus. 
Athenceus,  b.  vi.  c.  59,  p.  395,  Bohn's  Class.  Library. 

*  airb  tGjv  aXCjv. 

294  STRABO.  Casaub.  546. 

Sinope  produces  the  maple,  and  the  mountain  nut  tree,  from 
which  wood  for  tables  is  cut.  The  whole  country  is  plant- 
ed with  the  olive,  and  cultivation  begins  a  little  above  the  sea- 

13.  Next  to  the  mouth  of  the  Halys  is  Gadilonitis,  extending 
as  far  as  the  Saramene  ;  it  is  a  fertile  country,  wholly  con- 
sisting of  plains,  and  produces  every  kind  of  fruit.  It  affords 
also  pasture  for  flocks  of  sheep  which  are  covered  ^  with  skins, 
and  produce  a  soft  wool ;  very  little  of  this  wool  is  to  be  found 
throughout  Cappadocia  and  Pontus.  There  are  also  deer,^ 
which  are  rare  in  other  parts. 

The  Amiseni  possess  one  part  of  this  country.  Pompey 
gave  another  to  Deiotarus,  as  well  as  the  tract  about  Phar- 
nacia  and  Trapezus  as  far  as  Colchis  and  the  Lesser  Armenia. 
Pompey  appointed  him  king  of  these  people  and  countries  :  he 
had  already  inherited  the  tetrarchy  of  the  Galatians,  called  the 
Tolistobogii.  Upon  his  death  various  persons  succeeded  to 
the  different  parts  of  his  kingdom. 

14.  Next  to  Gadilon^are  the  Saramene,'*  and  Amisus,  a 
considerable  city  distant  from  Sinope  about  900  stadia.  Theo- 
pompus  says  that  the  Milesians  were  the  first  founders,         * 

*****  5  [then  by]  a  chief  of  the 

Cappadocians  ; .  in  the  third  place  it  received  a  colony  of 
Athenians  under  the  conduct  of  Athenocles,  and  its  name  was 
changed  to  Piraseus. 

This  city  also  was  in  the  possession  of  the  kings.  Mithri- 
dates  Eupator  embellished  it  with  temples,  and  added  a  part 
to  it.  Lucullus,  and  afterwards  Pharnaces,  who  came  from 
across  the  Bosporus,  besieged  it.  Antony  surrendered  it  to 
the  kings  of  Pontus,  after  it  had  been  declared  free  by  Divus 
Caesar.  Then  the  Tyrant  Strato  oppressed  the  inhabitants, 
who  again  recovered  their  liberty  under  Caesar  Augustus  after 
the  battle  of  Actium.  They  are  now  in  a  prosperous  condi- 
tion. Among  other  fertile  spots  is  Themiscyra,^  the  abode  of 
the  Amazons,  and  Sidene."^ 

*  B.  iv.  c.  iv.  §  3.  '  ZopKBQ.  3  Wesir  Kopti. 

*  The  district  between  the  Halys  (Kizil  Irmak)  and  the  Iris  (Jeschil 

'  Some  words  of  the  text  are  lost. 

®  The  tract  of  country  between  the  Iris  and  the  Therm odon. 

'  The  territory  on  the  east  of  the  Thermodon  (Termeh). 

B.  XII.  c.  III.  §  15,  16.  PONTUS.  295 

15.  Themiscyra  is  a  plain,  partly  washed  by  the  sea,  and 
distant  about  60  stadia  from  the  city  (Amisus)  ;  and  partly 
situated  at  the  foot  of  a  mountainous  country,  which  is  well 
wooded,  and  intersected  with  rivers,  which  have  their  source 
among  the  mountains.  A  river,  named  Thermodon,  which 
receives  the  water  of  all  these  rivers,  traverses  the  plain. 

Another  river  very  similar  to  this,  of  the  name  of  Iris,^ 
flowing  from  a  place  called  Phanaroea,^  traverses  the  same  plain. 
It  has  its  sources  in  Pontus.  Flowing  westward  through  the 
city  of  Pontic  Comana,^  and  through  Dazimonitis,*  a  fertile 
plain,  it  then  turns  to  the  north  beside  Gaziura,'^  an  ancient 
seat  of  the  kings,  but  now  deserted  ;  it  then  again  returns  to 
the  east,  where,  uniting  with  the  Scylax^  and  other  rivers, 
and  taking  its  course  beside  the  walls  of  my  native  place, 
Amaseia,'  a  very  strongly  fortified  city,  proceeds  to  Phanaroea. 
There  when  joined  by  the  Lycus,^  which  rises  in  Armenia,  it 
becomes  the  Iris.  It  then  enters  Themiscyra,  and  dis- 
charges itself  into  the  Euxine.  This  plain,  therefore,  is  well 
watered  with  dews,  is  constantly  covered  with  herbage,  and 
is  capable  of  affording  food  to  herds  of  cattle  as  well  as  to 
horses.  The  largest  crops  there  consist  of  panic  and  millet, 
or  rather  they  never  fail,  for  the  supply  of  water  more  than 
counteracts  the  effect  of  all  drought ;  these  people,  therefore, 
never  on  any  occasion  experience  a  famine.  The  country  at 
the  foot  of  the  mountains  produces  so  large  an  autumnal  crop 
of  spontaneous-grown  wild  fruits,  of  the  vine,  the  pear,  the 
apple,  and  hazel,  that,  in  all  seasons  of  the  year,  persons  who 
go  into  the  woods  to  cut  timber  gather  them  in  large  quan- 
tities ;  the  fruit  is  found  either  yet  hanging  upon  the  trees  or 
lyjng  beneath  a  deep  covering  of  fallen  leaves  thickly  strewed 
upon  the  ground.  Wild  animals  of  all  kinds,  which  resort 
here  on  account  of  the  abundance  of  food,  are  frequently 

16.  Next  to  Themiscyra  is  Sidene,  a  fertile  plain,  but  not 
watered  in  the  same  manner  by  rivers  as  Themiscyra.  It  has 
strongholds  on  the  sea-coast,  as  Side,^  from  which  Sidene  has 

*  Jeschil  Irmak.         ^  Tasch  Owa.         •''  Gumenek.        *  Kas  Owa. 
'  Turchal.  '  Tschoterlek  Irmak.  '  Amasija. 

^  Germeili  Tschai. 

*  At  the  mouth  of  the  river  Puleman. 

296  STRABO. 

Casaub.  548. 

its  name,  Chabaca  and  Phabda  (Phauda).i     Amisene  extends 
as  far  as  this  place. 

Among  the  natives  of  Amisus^  distinguished  for  their  learn- 
ing were  the  mathematicians  Demetrius,  the  son  of  Rathenus, 
and  Dionysodorus,  of  the  same  name  as  the  Ionian  (Milesian  ?) 
geometrician,  and  Tyrannion  the  grammarian,  whose  lessons 
I  attended. 

17.  Next  to  Sidene  is  Pharnacia^  a  small  fortified  city,  and 
then  follows  Trapezus,'*  a  Greek  city,  to  which  from  Amisus 
is  a  voyage  of  about  2200  stadia;  thence  to  the  Phasis 
about  1400  stadia,  so  that  the  sum  total  of  stadia  from  the 
Hieron^  to  the  Phasis  is  about  8000  stadia,  either  more  or  less. 

In  sailing  along  this  coast  from  Amisus  we  first  come  to 
the  Heracleian  promontory  ;^  then  succeeds  another  promon- 
tory, Jasonium,'^  and  the  Genetes  ;®  then  Cytorus  (Cotyorus)  a 
small  city,^  from  which  Pharnacia  received  a  colony ;  then 
Ischopolis,  which  is  in  ruins.  Next  is  a  bay  on  which  are 
situated  Cerasus,  and  Hermonassa,^^  small  settlements.  Near 
Hermonassa  is  Trapezus,  then  Colchis.  Somewhere  about 
this  place  is  a  settlement  called  Zygopolis. 

I  have  already  spoken  of  Colchis,  and  of  the  sea-coast  be- 
yond. ^^ 

18.  Above  Trapezus  and  Pharnacia  are  situated  Tibareni, 
Chald£ei,  Sanni,  (who  were  formerly  called  Macrones,i'^)  and 
the  Lesser  Armenia.  The  Appaitae  also,  formerly  called 
Cercitae,  are  not  far  from  these  places.  Through  the  country  be- 
longing to  these  people  stretches  the  Scydises,^^  a  very  rugged 
mountain,  contiguous  to  the  Moschic  mountains^'*  above  Colchis. 
The  heights  of  the  Scy discs  are  occupied  by  the  Heptacometas.^''' 
This  country  is  likewise  traversed  by  the  Paryadres,^^  which 
extends  from  the  neighbourhood  of  Sidene  and  Themiscyra  to 
the  Lesser  Armenia,  and  forms  the  eastern  side  of  the  Pontus. 

*  Fatsa  ?  2  Samsun. 

*  According  to  Arrian,  Pharnacia  in  his  time  was  the  name  of  Cerasns 

*  Trebisond.  *  The  temple  of  Jupiter  near  Chalcedon. 

^  To  the  west  of  the  mouth  of  the  Termeh.         ^  Jasun.        ^  C  Vona. 

9  Ordu.  10  Platana.  "  B.  xi.  c.  ii.  §  12. 

'-  Probably  the  same  as  the  Macropogones  and  Macrocephali. 

'^  Aggi-dagh.  "  The  mountains  above  Erzeroum. 

'*  The  inhabitants  of  the  Seven  Villages.  *«  lildiz-dagh. 

B.  XII.  c.  III.  §  19, 20.  PONTUS.  297 

All  the  inhabitants  of  these  mountains  are  quite  savage, 
but  the  Heptacometae  are  more  so  than  all  the  others.  Some 
of  them  live  among  trees,  or  in  small  towers,  whence  the 
ancients  called  them  Mosynceci,^  because  the  towers  were 
called  mosynes.  Their  food  consists  of  the  flesh  of  wild  ani- 
mals and  the  fruits  of  trees.  They  attack  travellers,  leaping 
down  from  the  floors  of  their  dwellings  among  the  trees.  The 
Heptacoraetas  cut  off  three  of  Pompey's  cohorts,  as  they  were 
passing  through  the  mountains,  by  placing  on  their  road 
vessels  filled  with  maddening  honey,  which  is  procured  from 
the  branches  of  trees.  The  men  who  had  tasted  the  honey 
and  lost  their  senses  were  attacked  and  easily  despatched. 
Some  of  these  barbarians  were  called  Byzeres. 

19.  The  present  Chaldaei  were  anciently  called  Chalybes. 
It  is  in  their  territory  chiefly  that  Pharnacia  is  situated.  On 
the  sea-coast  it  has  natural  advantages  for  the  capture  of  the 
pelamydes.  For  this  fish  is  first  caught  at  this  place.  On 
the  mainland  there  are  at  present  mines  of  iron ;  formerly 
there  were  also  mines  of  silver.  The  sea-shore  along  all  these 
places  is  very  narrow,  for  directly  above  it  are  hills,  which 
abound  with  mines  and  forests ;  much,  however,  of  the  country 
is  not  cultivated.  The  miners  derive  their  subsistence  from 
the  mines,  and  the  fishermen  from  the  fisheries,  especially 
from  the  capture  of  pelamydes  and  dolphins.  The  dolphins 
pursue  shoals  of  fish,  the  cordyla,  the  tunny,  and  even  the 
pelamys ;  they  grow  fat  on  them,  and  as  they  approach  the 
land  incautiously,  are  easily  taken.  They  are  caught  with  a 
bait  and  then  cut  into  pieces ;  large  quantities  of  the  fat  are 
used  for  all  purposes. 

20.  These  I  suppose  are  the  people  who  are  called  by 
Homer  Halizoni,  who  in  his  Catalogue  follow  the  Paphlago- 

"But  Odius  and  Epistrophus  led  the  Halizoni 
Far  from  Alybe,  where  there  are  silver  mines ;  "' 

whether  the  writing  was  changed  from  "  far  from  Chalybe," 
or  whether  the  people  were  formerly  called  Alybes  instead  of 
Chalybes.  We  cannot  at  present  say  that  it  is  possible  that 
Chaldaei  should  be  read  for  Chalybes,  but  it  cannot  be  maintain- 
ed that  formerly  Chalybes  could  not  be  read  for  Alybes,  espe- 

'  Dwellers  in  towers.  *  II.  ii.  856. 

298  STRABO.  Casaub.  549. 

cially  when  we  know  that  names  are  subject  to  many  changes, 
more  especially  among  barbarians.  For  example,  a  tribe  of 
Thracians  were  called  Sinties,  then  Sinti,  then  Saii,  in  whose 
country  Archilochus  is  said  to  have  thrown  away  his  shield : 

"  one  of  the  Saii  exults  in  having  a  shield,  which,  without  blame,  I  invo- 
luntarily left  behind  in  a  thicket." 

This  same  people  have  now  the  name  of  Sapaei.  For  all 
these  people  were  settled  about  Abdera,  they  also  held  Lem- 
nos  and  the  islands  about  Lemnos.  Thus  also  Brygi,  Briges, 
and  Phryges  are  the  same  people;  and  Mysi,  Maeones,  and 
Meones  are  the  same  people.  But  it  is  unnecessary  to  multi- 
ply instances  of  this  kind. 

The  Seepsian  (Demetrius)  throws  some  doubt  on  the  alter- 
ation of  the  name  from  Alybes  to  Chalybes,  but  not  under- 
standing what  follows,  nor  what  accords  with  it,  nor,  in  par- 
ticular, why  the  poet  calls  the  Chalybes  Alizoni,  he  rejects 
the  opinion  that  there  has  been  an  alteration  of  name.  In 
comparing  his  opinion  with  my  own  I  shall  consider  also  the 
hypotheses  entertained  by  others. 

21.  Some  persons  alter  the  word  to  Alazones,  others  to 
Amazons,  and  "  Alybe "  to  "  Alope,"  or  "  Alobe,"  calling 
the  Scythians  above  the  Borysthenes  Alazones  and  Callipida3, 
and  by  other  names,  about  which  Hellanicus,  Herodotus,  and 
Eudoxus  have  talked  very  absurdly ;  some  say  that  the  Ama- 
zons were  situated  between  Mysia,  Caria,  and  Lydia  near 
Cyme,  which  is  the  opinion  also  of  Ephorus,  who  was  a  native 
of  the  latter  place.  And  this  opinion  may  not  be  unreason- 
able, for  he  may  mean  the  country  which  in  later  times  was 
inhabited  by  the  JEolians  and  lonians,  but  formerly  by  Ama- 
zons. There  are  some  cities,  it  is  said,  which  have  their 
names  from  the  Amazons ;  as  Ephesus,  Smyrna,  Cyme,  and 
Myrina.  But  would  any  one  think  of  inquiring  in  these 
places  after  Alybe,  or,  according  to  some  writers,  Alope,  or 
Alobe ;  what  would  be  the  meaning  of  "  from  afar,"  or  where 
is  the  silver  mine  ? 

22.  These  objections  he  solves  by  an  alteration  in  the  text, 
for  he  writes  the  verses  in  this  manner, 

"  But  Odius  and  Epistrophus  led  the  Amazons, 

Who  came  from  Alope,  whence  the  tribe  of  the  Amazonides." 

But  by  this  solution  he  has  invented  another  fiction.      For 

B.  XII.  c.  III.  §  22.  PONTUS.  299 

Alope  is  nowhere  to  be  found  in  that  situation,  and  the  alter- 
ation in  the  text,  itself  a  great  change,  and  contrary  to  the 
authority  of  ancient  copies,  looks  like  an  adaptation  formed 
for  the  occasion. 

The  Scepsian  (Demetrius)  does  not  adopt  the  opinion  of 
Ephorus,  nor  does  he  agree  with  those  who  suppose  them  to 
be  the  Halizoni  about  Pallene,  whom  we  mentioned  in  the  de- 
scription of  Macedonia.  He  is  at  a  loss  also  to  understand 
how  any  one  could  suppose  that  auxiliaries  could  come  to  the 
Trojans  from  the  Nomades  situated  above  the  Borysthenes. 
He  much  approves  of  the  opinion  of  Hecataeus  the  Milesian, 
and  of  Menecrates  of  Elea,  disciples  of  Xenocrates,  and  that 
of  Palnephatus.  The  first  of  these  says  in  his  work  entitled 
'•  the  Circuit  of  the  Earth,"  "  near  the  city  Alazia  is  the  river 
Odrysses,  which  after  flowing  through  the  plain  of  Mygdonia 
from  the  west,  out  of  the  lake  Dascylitis,  empties  itself  into 
the  Rhyndacus."  He  further  relates  that  Alazia  is  now  de- 
serted, but  that  many  villages  of  the  Alazones  through  which 
the  Odrysses  flows  are  inhabited.  In  these  villages  Apollo 
is  worsihpped  with  peculiar  honours,  and  especially  on  the 
confines  of  the  Cyziceni. 

Menecrates,  in  his  work  "  the  Circuit  of  the  Hellespont," 
says  that  above  the  places  near  Myrleia  there  is  a  continuous 
mountain  tract  occupied  by  the  nation  of  the  Halizoni.  The 
name,  he  says,  ought  to  be  written  with  two  I's,  Hallizoni, 
but  the  poet  uses  one  only  on  account  of  the  metre. 

Palsephatus  says  that  Odius  and  Epistrophus  levied  their 
army  from  among  the  Amazons  then  living  in  Alope,  but  at 
present  in  Zeleia.^ 

Do  the  opinions  of  these  persons  deserve  approbation  ?  For 
besides  their  alteration  of  the  ancient  text,  and  the  position  of 
this  people,  they  neither  point  out  the  silver  mines,  nor  where 
in  Myrleatis  Alope  is  situated,  nor  how  they,  who  came 
thence  to  Troy,  came  "from  afar,"  although  it  should  be 
granted  that  there  existed  an  Alope,  or  an  Alazia.  For  these 
are  much  nearer  Troy  than  the  places  about  Ephesus.  Those, 
however,  are  triflers,  in  the  opinion  of  Demetrius,  who  speak  of 
the  existence  of  Amazons  near  Pygela,  between  Ephesus, 
Magnesia,  and  Priene,  for  the  words  "from  afar"  do  not 
agree  with  the  spot ;  much  less  will  they  agree  with  a  situa- 
tion about  Mysia,  and  Tenth rania. 
*  Sarakoi. 

300  STRABO.  Casaub.  551. 

23.  This  may  be  true,  says  he,  but  some  expressions  are  to 
be  understood  as  loosely  applied,  such  as  these, 

"  Far  from  Ascania,"  ^ 

"  His  name  was  Arnaeus,  given  to  him  by  his  honoured  mother,"  ' 

"  Penelope  seized  the  well-turned  key  with  her  firm  hand."' 

But  admitting  this,  the  other  assertions  are  not  to  be  allowed 
to  which  Demetrius  is  disposed  to  attend ;  nor  has  he  refuted 
in  a  convincing  manner  those  persons  who  maintain  that  we 
ought  to  read  "  far  from  Chalybe."  For  having  conceded 
that,  although  at  present  there  are  not  silver  mines  among  the 
Chalybes,  they  might  formerly  have  existed,  he  does  not 
grant  that  they  were  far-famed,  and  worthy  of  notice,  like 
the  iron  mines.  But  some  one  may  say,  what  should  prevent 
them  from  being  as  famous  as  the  iron  mines,  or  does  an 
abundance  of  iron  make  a  place  celebrated,  and  not  an  abund- 
ance of  silver?  Again,  if  the  silver  mines  had  obtained 
celebrity  in  the  age  of  Homer,  but  not  in  the  heroic  times,  can 
any  one  blame  the  poet's  representation  ?  How  did  their  fame 
reach  him  ?  How  did  the  fame  of  the  copper  mines  at  Temesa 
in  Italy,  or  of  the  wealth  of  Thebes  in  Egypt,  reach  his  ears, 
although  Egyptian  Thebes  was  situated  almost  at  double  the 
distance  of  the  Chaldsei. 

But  Demetrius  does  not  altogether  agree  with  those  whose 
opinions  he  espouses.  For  when  he  is  describing  the  neigh- 
bourhood of  Scepsis  his  own  birth-place,  he  mentions  Enea,  a 
village,  Argyria,  and  Alazonia,  as  near  Scepsis,  and  the  ^sepus  ;* 
but  if  these  places  exist  at  all,  they  must  be  near  the  sources  of 
the  ^sepus.  Hecateeus  places  them  beyond  the  mouths  of  that 
river.  Palsephatus,  who  says  that  the  Amazons  formerly  oc- 
cupied Alope,  and  at  present  Zeleia,  does  not  advance  any- 
thing in  agreement  with  these  statements.  But  if  Menecrates 
agrees  with  Demetrius,  neither  does  Menecrates  say  what  this 
Alope,  or  Alobe,  is,  (or,  in  whatever  manner  they  please  to 
write  the  name,)  nor  yet  does  Demetrius  himself. 

24.  With  regard  to  Apollodorus,  who  mentions  these  places 
in  his  discourse  on  the  array  of  the  Trojan  forces,  we  have 

'  II.  ii.  863.  '^  Od.  xviii.  5.  3  Od.  xxi.  6. 

*  In  Kiepert's  map  it  is  without  a  name.  Leake  calls  it  Boklu.  It 
falls  into  the  sea  to  the  west  of  Cyzicus. 

B.  xir.  c.  III.  §  25.  PONTUS.  301 

said  much  before  in  reply  to  him,  and  we  must  now  speak  of 
him  again. ^  He  is  of  opinion  that  we  ought  not  to  understand 
the  Halizoni  without  the  Halys,  for  no  auxiliaries  came  to 
Troy  from  the  country  on  the  other  side  of  the  Halys. 
First,  then,  we  will  inquire  of  him  who  are  the  Halizoni 
within  the  Halys,  and  situated 

"  far  from  Alybe,  where  are  silver  mines  ?  " 

He  will  not  he  able  to  reply.  Next  we  will  ask  the  reason 
why  he  does  not  admit  that  some  auxiliaries  came  from  the 
country  on  the  other  side  of  the  Halys.  For  if  it  was  the 
case,  that  all  the  rest  were  living  on  this  side  the  Halys,  ex- 
cept the  Thracians,  nothing  prevented  this  one  body  of  allies 
from  coming  from  afar,  from  the  country  beyond  the  Leuco- 
Syrians  ?  Or,  was  it  possible  for  the  persons  immediately 
engaged  in  the  war  to  pass  over  from  those  places,  and  from 
the  country  beyond  them,  as  the  Amazons,  Treres,  and  Cim- 
merians, but  impossible  for  allies  to  do  so  ? 

The  Amazons  were  not  allies,  because  Priam  had  fought  in 
alliance  with  the  Phrygians  against  them  : 

"  at  that  time,  says  Priam,  I  was  among  their  auxiliaries  on  that  day, 
when  the  Amazons  came  to  attack  them."^ 

The  people  also  who  were  living  on  the  borders  of  the 
country  of  the  Amazons  were  not  situated  at  so  great  a  dis- 
tance that  it  was  difficult  to  send  for  them  from  thence,  nor 
did  any  animosity  exist,  I  suppose,  at  that  time  to  prevent 
them  from  affording  assistance. 

25.  Nor  is  there  any  foundation  for  the  opinion,  that  all  the 
ancients  agree  that  no  people  from  the  country  beyond  the 
Halys  took  part  in  the  Trojan  war.  Testimony  may  be 
found  to  the  contrary.  Maeandrius  at  least  says  that  Heneti 
came  from  the  country  of  the  Leuco-Syrians  to  assist  the  Tro- 
jans in  the  war  ;  that  they  set  sail  thence  with  the  Thracians, 
and  settled  about  the  recess  of  the  Adriatic ;  and  that  the 
Heneti,  who  had  no  place  in  the  expedition,  were  Cappadocians. 
This  account  seems  to  agree  with  the  circumstance,  that  the 
people  inhabiting  the  whole  of  that  part  of  Cappadocia  near  the 
Halys,  which  extends  along  Paphlagonia,  speak  two  dialects, 
and  that  their  language  abounds  with  Paphlagonian  names,  as 

»  B.  vii.  c.  iii.  §  6.    B.  i.  c.  ii.  §  23.  =  II.  iu.  189. 

302  STRABO.  Casaub.  553. 

Bagas,  Biasas,  JEniates,  Rhatotes,  Zardoces,  Tibius,  Gasys, 
Oligasys,  and  Maries.  For  these  names  are  frequently  to  be 
found  in  the  Bamonitis,  the  Pimolitis,  the  Gazaluitis,  and 
Gazacene,  and  in  most  of  the  other  districts.  Apollodorus 
himself  quotes  the  words  of  Homer,  altered  by  Zenodotus  ; 

"  from  Henete,  whence  comes  a  race  of  wild  mules," 
and  says,  that  Hecatasus  the  Milesian  understands  Henete  to 
mean  Amisus.     But  we  have  shown  that  Amisus  belongs  to 
the  Leuco- Syrians,  and  is  situated  beyond  the  Halys. 

26.  He  also  somewhere  says  that  the  poet  obtained  his 
knowledge  of  the  Paphlagonians,  situated  in  the  interior,  from 
persons  who  had  travelled  through  the  country  on  foot,  but 
that  he  was  not  acquainted  with  the  sea-coast  any  more  than 
with  the  rest  of  the  territory  of  Pontus;  for  otherwise  he 
would  have  mentioned  it  by  name.  We  may,  on  the  con- 
trary, after  the  description  which  has  just  been  given  of  the 
country,  retort  and  say  that  he  has  traversed  the  whole  of  the 
sea-coast,  and  has  omitted  nothing  worthy  of  record  which 
existed  at  that  time.  It  is  not  surprising  that  he  does  not 
mention  Heracleia,  Amastris,  or  Sinope,  for  they  were  not 
founded ;  nor  is  it  strange  that  he  should  omit  to  speak  of 
the  interior  of  the  country;  nor  is  it  a  proof  of  ignorance 
not  to  specify  by  name  many  places  which  were  well  known, 
as  we  have  shown  in  a  preceding  part  of  this  work. 

He  says  that  Homer  was  ignorant  of  much  that  was  re- 
markable in  Pontus,  as  rivers  and  nations,  otherwise  he  would 
have  mentioned  their  names.  This  may  be  admitted  with 
respect  to  some  very  remarkable  nations  and  rivers,  as  the 
Scythians,  the  Palus  Mseotis,  and  the  Danube.  For  he  would 
not  have  described  the  Nomades,  by  characteristic  signs,  as 
living  on  milk,  Abii,  a  people  without  certain  means  of  sub- 
sistence, "most  just"  and  "renowned  Hippemolgi,"  (milkers 
of  mares,)  and  not  distinguished  them  as  Scythians,  or  Sauro- 
matse,  or  Sarmatas,  if,  indeed,  they  had  these  names  among 
the  Greeks  (at  that  time).  Nor  in  mentioning  the  Thracians 
and  Mysians,  who  live  near  the  Danube,  would  he  have 
passed  over  in  silence  the  Danube  itself,  one  of  the  largest 
rivers,  particularly  as,  in  other  instances,  he  is  inclined  to 
mark  the  boundaries  of  places  by  rivers ;  nor  in  speaking  of 
the  Cimmerians  would  he  have  omitted  the  Bosporus,  or  the 

B.  XII.  c.  III.  §  27.  PONTUS.  303 

27.  With  respect  then  to  places  not  so  remarkable,  or  not 
famous  at  that  time,  or  not  illustrating  the  subject  of  his  poem, 
who  can  blame  the  poet  for  omitting  them  ?  As,  for  example, 
omitting  to  mention  the  Don,  famed  only  as  it  is  for  being  the 
boundary  of  Asia  and  Europe.  The  persons  however  of  that 
time  were  not  accustomed  to  use  the  name  either  of  Asia  or 
Europe,  nor  was  the  habitable  earth  divided  into  three  conti- 
nents ;  otherwise  he  would  have  mentioned  them  by  name  on 
account  of  their  strong  characteristic  marks,  as  he  mentioned 
by  name  Libya  (Africa),  and  the  Libs  (the  south-west  wind), 
blowing  from  the  western  parts  of  Africa.  But  as  the  conti- 
nents were  not  yet  distinguished,  it  was  not  necessary  that  he 
should  mention  the  Don.  There  were  many  things  worthy  of 
record,  which  did  not  occur  to  him.  For  both  in  actions  and 
in  discourse  much  is  done  and  said  without  any  cause  or  motive, 
by  merely  spontaneously  presenting  itself  to  the  mind. 

It  is  evident  from  all  these  circumstances  that  every  person 
who  concludes  that  because  a  certain  thing  is  not  mentioned 
by  the  poet  he  was  therefore  ignorant  of  it,  uses  a  bad  argu- 
ment ;  and  we  must  prove  by  several  examples  that  it  is  bad, 
for  many  persons  employ  this  kind  of  evidence  to  a  great 
extent.  We  must  refute  them  therefore  by  producing  such 
instances  as  these  which  follow,  although  we  shall  repeat  what 
has  been  already  said. 

If  any  one  should  maintain  that  the  poet  was  not  acquainted 
with  a  river  which  he  has  not  mentioned,  we  should  say  that 
his  argument  is  absurd,  for  he  has  not  mentioned  by  name  even 
the  river  Meles,  which  runs  by  Smyrna,  his  birth-place  ac- 
cording to  many  writers,  while  he  has  mentioned  the  rivers 
Hermusand  Hyllus  byname,  but  yet  not  the  Pactolus,^  which 
discharges  itself  into  the  same  channel  as  these  rivers,  and 
rises  in  the  mountain  Tmolus.^  He  does  not  mention  either 
Smyrna  itself,  or  the  other  cities  of  the  lonians,  or  most  of  those 
of  the  ^olians,  although  he  specifies  Miletus,  Samos,  Lesbos, 
and  Tenedos.  He  does  not  mention  the  Lethaeus,  which  flows 
beside  Magnesia,^  nor  the  Marsyas,  which  rivers  empty  them- 
selves into  the  Maeander,'*  which  he  mentions  by  name,  as  well  as 

*  B.  xiii.  c.  iv.  §  5,  it  joins  the  Hyllus,  called  Phrygius  in  the  time  of 
Strabo.  The  Phrygius  takes  its  rise  in  the  mountains  north  of  Thyatira, 
(Ak  Hissar,)  and  falls  into  the  Hermus  (Gedis  Tschai). 

*  Bos  Dagh.  ^  Manisa.  ■•  Bojuk  Meinder. 

304  STRABO.  Casaub.  554. 

"  the  Rhesus,  Heptapoius,  Caresus,  and  Rhodius,"^ 
and  others,  many  of  which  are  not  more  than  small  streams. 
While  he  specifies  by  name  many  countries  and  cities,  some- 
times he  makes  an  enumeration  of  rivers  and  mountains, 
sometimes  he  does  not  do  so.  He  does  not  mention  the  rivers 
in  JEtolia  and  Attica,  nor  many  others.  And  if,  in  mentioning 
people  that  live  afar  off,  he  does  not  mention  those  who  are 
very  near,  it  is  certainly  not  through  ignorance  of  them,  for 
they  were  well  known  to  other  writers.  With  respect  to  peo- 
ple who  were  all  equally  near,  he  does  not  observe  one  rule, 
for  some  he  mentions,  and  not  others,  as  for  instance  he  mentions 
the  Lycii,  and  Solymi,  but  not  the  Milyae,  nor  Pamphylians, 
nor  Pisidians  ;  the  Paphlagonians,  Phrygians,  and  Mysians, 
but  not  the  Mariandyni,  nor  Thyni,  nor  Bithynians,  nor  Be- 
bryces  ;  the  Amazons,  but  not  the  Leuco- Syrians,  nor  Syrians, 
nor  Cappadocians,  nor  Lycaonians,  while  he  frequently  speaks 
of  the  Phcenicians,  -Egyptians,  and  Ethiopians.  He  men- 
tions the  Aleian  plain,  and  the  Arimi  mountains,  but  not  the 
nation  among  which  these  are  situated. 

The  argument  drawn  from  this  is  false ;  the  true  argument 
would  have  been  to  show  that  the  poet  has  asserted  what  is 
not  true.  Apollodorus  has  not  succeeded  in  this  attempt,  and 
he  has  more  particularly  failed  when  he  ventures  to  call  by  the 
name  of  fiction  "  the  renowned  Hippemolgi  and  Galactophagi." 
So  much  then  in  reply  to  Apollodorus.  I  now  return  to  the 
part  of  my  description  which  follows  next  in  order. 

28.  Above  the  places  about  Pharnacia  and  Trapezus  are 
the  Tibareni,  and  Chaldgei,  extending  as  far  as  the  Lesser 

The  Lesser  Armenia  is  sufficiently  fertile.  Like  Sophene 
it  was  always  governed  by  princes  who  were  sometimes  in 
alliance  with  the  other  Armenians,  and  sometimes  acting  inde- 
pendently. They  held  in  subjection  the  Chaldaei  and  Tibareni. 
Their  dominion  extended  as  far  as  Trapezus  and  Pharnacia. 
When  Mithri dates  Eupator  became  powerful,  he  made  himself 
master  of  Colchis,  and  of  all  those  places  which  were  ceded  to 
him  by  Antipater  the  son  of  Sisis.  He  bestowed  however  so 
much  care  upon  them,  that  he  built  seventy-five  strongholds, 
in  which  he  deposited  the  greatest  part  of  his  treasure.  The 
most  considerable  of  these  were  Hydara,  Basgoedariza,  and 
»  II.  xii.  20.  ^  B.  vii.  c.  iii.  §  6. 

B.  XII.  c.  III.  §  29,  30.  PONTUS.  305 

Sinoria,  a  fortress  situated  on  the  borders  of  the  Greater  Ar- 
menia, whence  Theophanes  parodied  the  name,  and  called  it 

All  the  mountainous  range  of  the  Paryadres  has  many  such 
convenient  situations  for  fortresses,  being  well  supplied  with 
water  and  timber,  it  is  intersected  in  many  places  by  abrupt 
ravines  and  precipices.  Here  he  built  most  of  the  strongholds 
for  keeping  his  treasure.  At  last  on  the  invasion  of  the 
country  by  Pompey  he  took  refuge  in  these  extreme  parts  of 
the  kingdom  of  Pontus,  and  occupied  a  mountain  near  Das- 
teira  in  Acilisene,  which  was  well  supplied  with  water.  The 
Euphrates  also  was  near,  which  is  the  boundary  between  Acili- 
sene and  the  Lesser  Armenia.  Mithridates  remained  there 
till  he  was  besieged  and  compelled  to  fly  across  the  mountains 
into  Colchis,  and  thence  to  Bosporus.  Pompey  built  near  this 
same  place  in  the  Lesser  Armenia  Nicopolis,  a  city  which  yet- 
subsists,  and  is  well  inhabited. 

29.  The  Lesser  Armenia,  which  was  in  the  possession  of 
different  persons  at  different  times,  according  to  the  pleasure 
of  the  Romans,  was  at  last  subject  to  Archelaus.  The  Tiba- 
reni,  however,  and  Chaldsei,  extending  as  far  as  Colchis,  Phar- 
nacia,  and  Trapezus,  are  under  the  government  of  Pythodoris, 
a  prudent  woman,  and  capable  of  presiding  over  the  manage- 
ment of  public  affairs.  She  is  the  daughter  of  Pythodorus  of 
Tralles.  She  was  the  wife  of  Polemo,  and  reigned  con- 
jointly with  him  for  some  time.  She  succeeded,  after  his 
death,  to  the  throne.  He  died  in  the  country  of  the  Aspur- 
giani,  a  tribe  of  barbarians  living  about  Sindica.  She  had 
two  sons  by  Polemo,  and  a  daughter  who  was  married  to 
Cotys  the  Sapsean.  He  was  treacherously  murdered,  and  she 
became  a  widow.  She  had  children  by  him,  the  eldest  of  whom 
is  now  king.  Of  the  sons  of  Pythodoris,  one  as  a  private 
person,  administers,  together  with  his  mother,  the  affairs  of 
the  kingdom,  the  other  has  been  lately  made  king  of  the 
Greater  Armenia.  Pythodoris  however  married  Archelaus, 
and  remained  with  him  till  his  death.  At  present  she  is  a 
widow,  and  in  possession  of  the  countries  before  mentioned, 
and  of  others  still  more  beautiful,  of  which  we  shall  next  speak. 

30.  Sidene,  and  Themiscyra  are  contiguous  to  Pharnacia. 
Above  these  countries  is  situated  Phanaroea,  containing  the 
best  portion  of  the  Pontus,  for  it  produces  excellent  oil  and 

306  STRABO.  Casaub.  556. 

wine,  and  possesses  every  other  property  of  a  good  soil.  On 
the  eastern  side  it  lies  in  front  of  the  Paryadres  which 
runs  parallel  to  it  ;  on  the  western  side  it  has  the  Lithrus, 
and  the  Ophlimus.  It  forms  a  valley  of  considerable  length 
and  breadth.  The  Lycus,  coming  out  of  Armenia,  flows 
through  this  valley,  and  the  Iris,  which  issues  from  the  passes 
near  Amaseia.  Both  these  rivers  unite  about  the  middle 
of  the  valley.  A  city  stands  at  their  confluence  which  the 
first  founder  called  Eupatoria,  after  his  own  name.  Pompey 
found  it  half-finished,  and  added  to  it  a  territory,  furnished 
it  with  inhabitants,  and  called  it  Magnopolis.  It  lies  in  the 
middle  of  the  plain.  Close  to  the  foot  of  the  Paryadres  is 
situated  Cabeira,  about  150  stadia  further  to  the  south  than 
Magnopolis,  about  which  distance  likewise,  but  towards  the 
west,  is  Amaseia.  At  Cabeira  was  the  palace  of  Mithridates, 
the  water-mill,  the  park  for  keeping  wild  animals,  the  hunting- 
ground  in  the  neighbourhood,  and  the  mines. 

31.  There  also  is  the  Cainochorion,  (New  Castle,)  as  it  is 
called,  a  fortified  and  precipitous  rock,  distant  from  Cabeira 
less  than  200  stadia.  On  its  summit  is  a  spring,  which  throws 
up  abundance  of  water,  and  at  its  foot  a  river,  and  a  deep  ravine. 
The  ridge  of  rocks  on  which  it  stands  is  of  very  great  height, 
so  that  it  cannot  be  taken  by  siege.  It  is  enclosed  with  an  ex- 
cellent wall,  except  the  part  where  it  has  been  demolished  by 
the  Romans.  The  whole  country  around  is  so  covered  with 
wood,  so  mountainous,  and  destitute  of  water,  that  an  enemy 
cannot  encamp  within  the  distance  of  120  stadia.  There 
Mithridates  had  deposited  his  most  valuable  effects,  which  are 
now  in  the  Capitol,  as  offerings  dedicated  by  Pompey. 

Pythodoris  is  in  possession  of  all  this  country ;  (for  it  is  con- 
tiguous to  that  of  the  barbarians,  which  she  holds  as  a  con- 
quered country  ;)  shealso  holds  the  Zelitis  and  the  Megalopolitis. 
After  Pompey  had  raised  Cabeira  to  the  rank  of  a  city,  and 
called  it  Diospolis,  Pythodoris  improved  it  still  more,  changed 
its  name  to  Sebaste,  (or  Augusta,)  and  considers  it  a  royal  city. 

She  has  also  the  temple  of  Men  surnamed  of  Pharnaces,  at 
Araeria,  a  village  city,  inhabited  by  a  large  body  of  sacred 
menials,  and  having  annexed  to  it  a  sacred  territory,  the  pro- 
duce of  which  is  always  enjoyed  by  the  priest.  The  kings 
held  this  temple  in  such  exceeding  veneration,  that  this  was 
the  Royal  oath,  "  by  the  fortune  of  the  king,  and  by  Men  of 

B.  xii.  c.  III.  §  32,  33.  PONTUS.  307 

Pharnaces."  This  is  also  the  temple  of  the  moon,  like  that 
among  the  Albani,  and  those  in  Phrygia,  namely  the  temple  of 
Men  in  a  place  of  the  same  name,  the  temple  of  Ascaeus  at 
Antioch  in  Pisidia,  and  another  in  the  territory  of  Antioch. 

32.  Above  Phanaroea  is  Comana^  in  Pontus,  of  the  same 
name  as  that  in  the  Greater  Cappadocia,  and  dedicated  to  the 
same  goddess.  The  temple  is  a  copy  of  that  in  Cappadocia, 
and  nearly  the  same  course  of  religious  rites  is  practised  there  ; 
the  mode  of  delivering  the  oracles  is  the  same  ;  the  same  respect 
is  paid  to  the  priests,  as  was  more  particularly  the  case  in  the 
time  of  the  first  kings,  when  twice  a  year,  at  what  is  called  the 
Exodi  of  the  goddess,  (when  her  image  is  carried  in  procession,) 
the  priest  wore  the  diadem  of  the  goddess  and  received  the 
chief  honours  after  the  king. 

33.  We  have  formerly  mentioned  Dorylaus  the  Tactician, 
who  was  my  mother's  great  grandfather ;  and  another  Dorylaus, 
who  was  the  nephew  of  the  former,  and  the  son  of  Philetserus  ; 
I  said  that,  although  he  had  obtained  from  Mithridates  the 
highest  dignities  and  even  the  priesthood  of  Comana,  he  was 
detected  in  the  fact  of  attempting  the  revolt  of  the  kingdom 
to  the  Romans.  Upon  his  fall  the  family  also  was  disgraced. 
At  a  later  period  however  Moaphernes,  my  mother's  uncle,  rose 
to  distinction  near  upon  the  dissolution  of  the  kingdom.  But  a 
second  time  he  and  his  friends  shared  in  the  misfortunes  of 
the  king,  except  those  persons  who  had  anticipated  the  ca- 
lamity and  deserted  him  early.  This  was  the  case  with  my 
maternal  grandfather,  who,  perceiving  the  unfortunate  progress 
of  the  affairs  of  the  king  in  the  war  with  Lucullus,  and  at  the 
same  time  being  alienated  from  him  by  resentment  for  having 
lately  put  to  death  his  nephew  Tibius,  and  his  son  Theophilus, 
undertook  to  avenge  their  wrongs  and  his  own.  He  obtained 
pledges  of  security  from  Lucullus,  and  caused  fifteen  fortresses 
to  revolt ;  in  return  he  received  magnificent  promises.  On 
the  arrival  of  Pompey,  who  succeeded  Lucullus  in  the  conduct 
of  the  war,  he  regarded  as  enemies  (in  consequence  of  the 
enmity  which  subsisted  between  himself  and  that  general)  all 
those  persons  who  had  performed  any  services  that  were  ac- 
ceptable to  Lucullus.  On  his  return  home  at  the  conclusion 
of  the  war  he  prevailed  upon  the  senate  not  to  confirm  those 
honours  which  Lucullus  had  promised   to  some  persons  of 

'  Gumeiiek. 
X  2 

308  STRABO.  Casaub.  558. 

Pontus,  maintaining  it  to  be  unjust  towards  a  general  who  had 
brought  the  war  to  a  successful  issue,  that  the  rewards  and  dis- 
tribution of  honours  should  be  placed  in  the  hands  of  another. 

34.  The  affairs  of  Comana  were  administered  as  has  been 
described  in  the  time  of  the  kings.  Pompey,  when  he  had  ob- 
tained the  power,  appointed  Archelaus  priest,  and  assigned  to 
him  a  district  of  two  schoeni,  or  60  stadia  in  circuit,  in  addi- 
tion to  the  sacred  territory,  and  gave  orders  to  the  inhabitants 
to  obey  Archelaus.  He  was  their  governor,  and  master  of  the 
sacred  slaves  who  inhabited  the  city,  but  had  not  the  power  of 
selling  them.  The  slaves  amounted  to  no  less  than  six  thou- 

This  Archelaus  was  the  son  of  that  Archelaus  who  received 
honours  from  Sylla  and  the  senate  ;  he  was  the  friend  of 
Gabinius,  a  person  of  consular  rank.  When  the  former  was 
sent  into  Syria,  he  came  with  the  expectation  of  accompanying 
him,  when  he  was  making  preparations  for  the  Parthian  war, 
but  the  senate  would  not  permit  him  to  do  so,  and  he  abandoned 
this,  and  conceived  a  greater  design. 

Ptolemy,  the  father  of  Cleopatra,  happened  at  this  time  to  be 
ejected  from  his  kingdom  by  the  Egyptians.  His  daughter 
however,  the  elder  sister  of  Cleopatra,  was  in  possession  of  the 
throne.  When  inquiries  were  making  in  order  to  marry  her  to 
a  husband  of  royal  descent,  Archelaus  presented  himself  to 
those  who  were  negotiating  the  affair,  and  pretended  to  be 
the  son  of  Mithridates  Eupator.  He  was  accepted,  but  reigned 
only  six  months.  He  was  killed  by  Gabinius  in  a  pitched 
battle,  in  his  attempt  to  restore  Ptolemy. 

35.  His  son  however  succeeded  to  the  priesthood,  and  Ly- 
comedes  succeeded  him,  to  whom  was  assigned  an  additional 
district  of  four  schoeni  (or  120  stadia)  in  extent.  When  Ly- 
comedes  was  dispossessed  he  was  succeeded  by  Dyteutus,  the 
son  of  Adiatorix,  who  still  occupies  the  post,  and  appears  to 
have  obtained  this  honour  from  Csesar  Augustus  on  account  of 
his  good  conduct  on  the  following  occasion. 

Caesar,  after  leading  in  triumph  Adiatorix,  with  his  wife  and 
children,  had  resolved  to  put  him  to  death  together  with  the 
eldest  of  his  sons.  Dyteutus  was  the  eldest ;  but  when  the 
second  of  his  brothers  told  the  soldiers  who  were  leading  them 
away  to  execution  that  he  was  the  eldest,  there  was  a  contest 
between  the  two  brothers,  which  continued  for  some  time,  tiU 

B.  xii.  c.  ni.  §  36, 37,  PONTUS.  309 

the  parents  prevailed  upon  Dyteutus  to  yield  to  the  younger, 
assigning  as  a  reason,  that  the  eldest  would  be  a  better  person 
to  protect  his  mother  and  his  remaining  brother.  The  younger 
was  put  to  death  together  with  his  father  ;  the  elder  was  saved, 
and  obtained  this  office.  When  Caesar  was  informed  of  the 
execution  of  these  persons,  he  regretted  it,  and,  considering 
the  survivors  worthy  of  his  favour  and  protection,  bestowed 
upon  them  this  honourable  appointment. 

36.  Comana  is  populous,  and  is  a  considerable  mart,  fre- 
quented by  persons  coming  from  Armenia.  Men  and  women 
assemble  there  from  all  quarters  from  the  cities  and  the  country 
to  celebrate  the  festival  at  the  time  of  the  exodi  or  processions 
of  the  goddess.  Some  persons  under  the  obligation  of  a  vow 
are  always  residing  there,  and  perform  sacrifices  in  honour 
of  the  goddess. 

The  inhabitants  are  voluptuous  in  their  mode  of  life.  All 
their  property  is  planted  with  vines,  and  there  is  a  multitude 
of  women,  who  make  a  gain  of  their  persons,  most  of  whom 
are  dedicated  to  the  goddess.  The  city  is  almost  a  little 
Corinth.  On  account  of  the  multitude  of  harlots  at  Corinth, 
who  are  dedicated  to  Venus,  and  attracted  by  the  festivities  of 
the  place,  strangers  resorted  thither  in  great  numbers.  Mer- 
chants and  soldiers  were  quite  ruined,  so  that  hence  the  pro- 
verb originated, 

"  every  man  cannot  go  to  Corinth." 
Such  is  the  character  of  Comana. 

37.  All  the  country  around  is  subject  to  Pythodoris,  and 
she  possesses  also  Phanaroea,  the  Zelitis,  and  the  Megalopolitis. 

We  have  already  spoken  of  Phanaroea. 

In  the  district  Zelitis  is  the  city  Zela,^  built  upon  the  mound 
of  Semiramis.  It  contains  the  temple  of  Anaitis,  whom  the 
Armenians  also  worship.  Sacrifices  are  performed  with  more 
pomp  than  in  other  places,  and  all  the  people  of  Pontus  take 
oaths  here  in  affairs  of  highest  concern.  The  multitude 
of  the  sacred  menials,  and  the  honours  conferred  upon  the 
priests,  were  in  the  time  of  the  kings,  upon  the  plan  which  I 
have  before  described.  At  present,  however,  everything  is 
under  the  power  of  Pythodoris,  but  many  persons  had  previ- 
ously reduced  the  number  of  the  sacred  attendants,  injured 
the  property  and  diminished  the  revenue  belonging  to  the 
'  Zileh. 

310  STRABO.  Casaub.  660. 

temple.  The  adjacent  district  of  Zelitis,  (in  which  is  the 
city  Zela,  on  the  mound  of  Semiramis,)  was  reduced  by  being 
divided  into  several  governments.  Anciently,  the  kings  did 
not  govern  Zela  as  a  city,  but  regarded  it  as  a  temple  of  the 
Persian  gods ;  the  priest  was  the  director  of  everything  re- 
lating to  its  administration.  It  was  inhabited  by  a  multitude 
of  sacred  menials,  by  the  priest,  who  possessed  great  wealth, 
and  by  his  numerous  attendants ;  the  sacred  territory  was 
under  the  authority  of  the  priest,  and  it  was  his  own  property. 
Pompey  added  many  provinces  to  Zelitis,  and  gave  the  name 
of  city  to  Zela,  as  well  as  to  Megalopolis.  He  formed  Zelitis, 
Culupene,  and  Camisene,  into  one  district.  The  two  latter 
bordered  upon  the  Lesser  Armenia,  and  upon  Laviansene. 
Fossile  salt  was  found  in  them,  and  there  was  an  ancient 
fortress  called  Camisa,  at  present  in  ruins.  The  Roman  go- 
vernors who  next  succeeded  assigned  one  portion  of  these  two 
governments  to  the  priests  of  Comana,  another  to  the  priest  of 
Zela,  and  another  to  Ateporix,  a  chief  of  the  family  of  the 
tetrarchs  of  Galatia  ;  upon  his  death,  this  portion,  which  was 
not  large,  became  subject  to  the  Romans  under  the  name  of  a 
province.  This  little  state  is  a  political  body  of  itself,  Carana^ 
being  united  with  it  as  a  colony,  and  hence  the  district  has  the 
name  of  Caranitis.  The  other  parts  are  in  the  possession  of 
Pythodoris,  and  Dyteutus. 

38.  There  remain  to  be  described  the  parts  of  Pontus, 
situated  between  this  country  and  the  districts  of  Amisus,  and 
Sinope,  extending  towards  Cappadocia,  the  Galatians,  and  the 

Next  to  the  territory  of  the  Amiseni  is  Phazemonitis,^ 

*  This  district  is  at  the  foot  of  the  mountains  which  separated  the 
Roman  from  the  Persian  Armenia.  Carana  (now  Erzum,  Erzerum,  or 
Garen)  was  the  capital  of  this  district.  It  was  afterwards  called  Theo- 
dosiopolis,  which  name  was  given  to  it  in  honour  of  the  Emperor  Theo- 
dosius  the  Younger  by  Anatolius  his  general  in  the  East,  a.  d.  416.  It 
was  for  a  long  time  subject  to  the  Byzantine  emperors,  who  considered  it 
the  most  important  fortress  of  Armenia.  About  the  middle  of  the  11th 
century  it  received  the  name  of  Arze-el-Rum,  contracted  into  Arzrum  or 
Erzrum.  It  owed  its  name  to  the  circumstance,  that  when  Arzek  was 
taken  by  the  Seljuk  Turks,  a.  d.  1049,  the  inhabitants  of  that  place,  which 
from  its  long  subjection  to  the  Romans  had  received  the  epithet  of  Rum, 
retired  to  Theodosiopolis,  and  gave  it  the  name  of  their  former  abode. 

»  On  the  S.  W.  of  the  ridge  of  Tauschan  Dagh. 

B.  XII.  C.  III. 

PONTUS.  311 

which  extends  as  ftir  as  the  Halys,  and  which  Pompey  called 
Neapolitis.  He  raised  the  village  Phazemon  to  the  rank  of  a 
city,  and  increasing  its  extent  gave  to  it  the  name  of  Nea- 
polis.^  The  northern  side  of  this  tract  is  bounded  by  the  Ga- 
zelonitis,  and  by  the  country  of  the  Amiseni ;  the  western  side 
by  the  Halys  ;  the  eastern  by  Phanaroea ;  the  remainder  by 
the  territory  of  Amasis,  my  native  country,  which  surpasses  all 
the  rest  in  extent  and  fertility. 

The  part  of  Phazemonitis  towards  Phanaroea  is  occupied  by 
a  lake,  sea-like  in  magnitude,  called  Stiphane,^  which  abounds 
with  fish,  and  has  around  it  a  large  range  of  pasture  adapted 
to  all  kinds  of  animals.  Close  upon  it  is  a  strong  fortress, 
Cizari,  [Icizari,]  at  present  deserted,  and  near  it  a  royal  seat 
in  ruins.  The  rest  of  the  country  in  general  is  bare,  but  pro- 
duces corn. 

Above  the  district  of  Amasis  are  the  hot  springs  ^  of  the 
Phazemonit^e,  highly  salubrious,  and  the  Sagylium,'^  a  strong- 
hold situated  on  a  lofty  perpendicular  hill,  stretching  upwards 
and  terminating  in  a  sharp  peak.  In  this  fortress  is  a  reser- 
voir well  supplied  with  water,  which  is  at  present  neglected, 
but  was  useful,  on  many  occasions,  to  the  kings.  Here  the 
sons  of  Pharnaces  the  king  captured  and  put  to  death  Arsaces, 
who  was  governing  without  the  authority  of  the  Roman  ge- 
nerals, and  endeavouring  to  produce  a  revolution  in  the  state. 
The  fortress  was  taken  by  Polemo  and  Lycomedes,  both  of 
them  kings,  by  famine  and  not  by  storm.  Arsaces,  being  pre- 
vented from  escaping  into  the  plains,  fled  to  the  mountains  ^ 
without  provisions.  There  he  found  the  wells  choked  up  with 
large  pieces  of  rock.  This  had  been  done  by  order  of  Pompey, 
who  had  directed  the  fortresses  to  be  demolished,  and  to  leave 
nothing  in  them  that  could  be  serviceable  to  robbers,  who 
might  use  them  as  places  of  refuge.  Such  was  the  settlement 
of  the  Phazemonitis  made  by  Pompey.  Those  who  came  af- 
terwards divided  this  district  among  various  kings. 

39.  My  native  city,  Amaseia,  lies  in  a  deep  and  extensive 
valley,  through  which  runs  the  river  Iris.^  It  is  indebted  to 
nature  and  art  for  its  admirable  position  and  construction.     It 

^  Mersivan.     The  text  is  corrupt.     Groskurd's  emendation  is  followed 
in  the  translation. 
2  Ladik-Gol.  '  Kawsa.  *  Ijan  (Tauschan)  Kalessi. 

*  Tusanlu-su,  a  branch  of  the  leschil  Irmak. 

312  STRABO.  Casaub.  561. 

answers  the  double  purpose  of  a  city  and  a  fortress.  It  is  a 
high  rock,  precipitous  on  all  sides,  descending  rapidly  down 
to  the  river  :  on  the  margin  of  the  river,  where  the  city  stands, 
is  a  wall,  and  a  wall  also  which  ascends  on  each  side  of  the 
city  to  the  peaks,  of  which  there  are  two,  united  by  nature,  and 
completely  fortified  with  towers.  In  this  circuit  of  the  wall 
are  the  palace,  and  the  monuments  of  the  kings.  The  peaks 
are  connected  together  by  a  very  narrow  ridge,  in  height  five 
or  six  stadia  on  each  side,  as  you  ascend  from  the  banks 
of  the  river,  and  from  the  suburbs.  From  the  ridge  to  the 
peaks  there  remains  another  sharp  ascent  of  a  stadium  in  length, 
which  defies  the  attacks  of  an  enemy.  Within  the  rock  are 
reservoirs  of  water,  the  supply  from  which  the  inhabitants 
cannot  be  deprived  of,  as  two  channels  are  cut,  one  in  the 
direction  of  the  river,  the  other  of  the  ridge.  Two  bridges 
are  built  over  the  river,  one  leading  from  the  city  to  the  sub- 
urbs, the  other  from  the  suburbs  to  the  country  beyond  ;  for 
near  this  bridge  the  mountain,  which  overhangs  the  rock,  ter- 

A  valley  extends  from  the  river  ;  it  is  not  very  wide  at  its 
commencement,  but  afterwards  increases  in  breadth,  and  forms 
the  plain  called  the  Chiliocomon  (The  Thousand  Villages). 
Next  is  the  Diacopene,  and  the  Pimolisene,  the  whole  of  which 
is  a  fertile  district  extending  to  the  Halys. 

These  are  the  northern  parts  of  the  country  of  the  Ama- 
senses,  and  are  in  length  about  500  stadia.  Then  follows  the 
remainder,  which  is  much  longer,  extending  as  far  as  Baba- 
nomus,  and  the  Ximene,^  which  itself  reaches  to  the  Halys. 
The  breadth  is  reckoned  from  north  to  south,  to  the  Zelitis 
and  the  Greater  Cappadocia,  as  far  as  the  Trocmi.^  In 
Ximene  there  is  found  fossile  salt,  (aXec,  Hales,)  from  which 
it  is  supposed  the  river  had  the  name  of  Halys.  There  are 
many  ruined  fortresses  in  my  native  country,  and  large  tracts 
of  land  made  a  desert  by  the  Mithridatic  war.  The  whole  of 
it,  however,  abounds  with  trees.  It  aiFords  pasture  for  horses, 
and  is  adapted  to  the  subsistence  of  other  animals ;  the  whole 
of  it  is  very  habitable.  Amaseia  was  given  to  the  kings,  but 
at  present  it  is  a  (Roman)  province. 

'  West  of  Koseh  Dagh. 

^  Situated  between  the  Kizil  Irraak  and  the  river  Delidsche  Irmak,  a 
tributary  of  the  former. 

B.  XII.  c.  III.  9  40, 41.  PONTUS.  313 

40.  There  remains  to  be  described  the  country  within  the 
Halys,  belonging  to  the  province  of  Pontus,  and  situated  about 
the  Olgassys,^  and  contiguous  to  the  Sinopic  district.  The  01- 
gassys  is  a  very  lofty  mountain,  and  difficult  to  be  passed.  The 
Paphlagonians  have  erected  temples  in  every  part  of  this 
mountain.  The  country  around,  the  Blaene,  and  the  Doma- 
nltis,  through  which  the  river  Amnias'^  runs,  is  sufficiently 
fertile.  Here  it  was  that  Mithridates  Eupator  entirely  de- 
stroyed^ the  army  of  Nicomedes  the  Bithynian,  not  in  person, 
for  he  himself  happened  to  be  absent,  but  by  his  generals. 
Nicomedes  fled  with  a  few  followers,  and  escaped  into  his  own 
country,  and  thence  sailed  to  Italy.  Mithridates  pursued  him, 
and  made  himself  master  of  Bithynia  as  soon  as  he  entered  it, 
and  obtained  possession  of  Asia  as  far  as  Caria  and  Lycia. 
Here  is  situated  Pompeiopolis,^  in  which  city  is  the  San- 
daracurgium,^  (or  Sandaraca  works,)  it  is  not  far  distant 
from  Pimolisa,  a  royal  fortress  in  ruins,  from  which  the  coun- 
try on  each  side  of  the  river  is  called  Piraolisene.  The  San- 
daracurgium  is  a  mountain  hollowed  out  by  large  trenches 
made  by  workmen  in  the  process  of  mining.  The  work  is  al- 
ways carried  on  at  the  public  charge,  and  slaves  were  em- 
ployed in  the  mine  who  had  been  sold  on  account  of  their  crimes. 
Besides  the  great  labour  of  the  employment,  the  air  is  said  to 
be  destructive  of  life,  and  scarcely  endurable  in  consequence  of 
the  strong  odour  issuing  from  the  masses  of  mineral  ;  hence 
the  slaves  are  short-lived.  The  mining  is  frequently  suspended 
from  its  becoming  unprofitable,  for  great  expense  is  incurred 
by  the  employment  of  more  than  two  hundred  workmen,  whose 
number  is  continually  diminishing  by  disease  and  fatal  ac- 

So  much  respecting  Pontus. 

41.  Next  to  Pompeiopolis  is  the  remainder  of  the  inland 
parts  of  Paphlagonia  as  far  as  Bithynia  towards  the  west. 
This  tract,  although  small  in  extent,  was  governed,  a  little  be- 
fore our  time,  by  several  princes,  but  their  race  is  extinct  ;  at 
present  it  is  in  possession  of  the  Romans.  The  parts  border- 
ing upon  Bithynia  are  called  Timonitis ;  the  country  of  Geza- 

1  Alkas-Dagh. 

^  Gok-Irmak,  or  Kostambul  Tschai,  flowing  between  the  mountain 
ridges.     Jeralagoz-Dagh  and  Sarikawak-Dagh. 

3  B.  c.  88.  *  Tasch-Kopri.  «  Pliny,  xxxiv.  c.  18. 

•314  STRABO.  Casaub.  562. 

torix,  Marmolitis,  Sanisene,  and  Potamia.  There  was  also  a 
Cimiatene,  in  which  was  Cimiata,  a  strong  fortress  situated 
at  the  foot  of  the  mountainous  range  of  the  Olgassys.  Mi- 
thridates,  surnamed  Ctistes,  (or  the  Founder,)  made  it  his 
head-quarters  when  engaged  in  the  conquest  of  Pontus,  and 
his  successors  kept  possession  of  it  to  the  time  of  Mithridates 
Eupator.  The  last  king  of  Paphlagonia  was  Deiotarus/  son 
of  Castor,  and  surnamed  Philadelphus,  who  possessed  Gangra,^ 
containing  the  palace  of  Morzeus,  a  small  town,  and  a  fortress. 

42.  Eudoxus,  without  defining  the  spot,  says,  that  fossil 
fish  3  are  found  in  Paphlagonia  in  dry  ground,  and  in  marshy 
ground  also  about  the  lake  Ascanius,''  which  is  below  Cius, 
but  he  gives  no  clear  information  on  the  subject. 

We  have  described  Paphlagonia  bordering  upon  Pontus; 
and  as  the  Bithynians  border  upon  the  Paphlagonians  to- 
wards the  west,  we  shall  endeavour  to  describe  this  region 
also.  We  shall  then  set  out  again  from  the  Bithynians  and 
the  Paphlagonians,  and  describe  the  parts  of  the  country  next 
to  these  nations  lying  towards  the  south ;  they  extend  as  far 
as  the  Taurus,  and  are  parallel  to  Pontus  and  Cappadocia ; 
for  some  order  and  division  of  this  kind  are  suggested  by  the 
nature  of  the  places. 


1.  BiTHYNiA  is  bounded  on  the  east  by  the  Paphlagonians* 
Mariandyni,  and  by  some  tribes  of  the  Epicteti  ;  on  the  north 
by  the  line  of  the  sea-coast  of  the  Euxine,  extending  from  the 
mouth  of  the  Sangarius^  to  the  straits  at  Byzantium  and  Chal- 
cedon  ;  on  the  west  by  the  Propontis ;  on  the  south  by  Mysia 
and  Phrygia  Epictetus,  as  it  is  called,  which  has  the  name  also 
of  Hellespontic  Phrygia. 

^  Great-grandson  of  Dei'otarus  I. 

*  According  to  Alexander  Polyhistor,  the  town  was  built  by  a  goatherd, 
who  had  found  one  of  his  goats  straying  there,  but  this  is  probably  a  mere 
philological  speculation,  gangra  signifying  "  a  goat"  in  the  Paphlagonian 
language.  In  ecclesiastical  writers  it  is  often  mentioned  as  the  metro- 
politan see  of  Paphlagonia.  The  orchards  of  this  town  were  celebrated 
for  their  apples.     Athen.  iii.—  Smith. 

'  Book  iv.  c.  i.  §  6.     Athen.  b.  viii.  "»  Isnik  Gol. 

*  Sakaria. 

B.  xii.  c.  IV.  §  3.  BITHYNIA.  315 

2.  Here  upon  the  mouth  of  the  Pontus  is  situated  Clial- 
cedon,  founded  by  the  Megareans,'  the  village  Chrysopolis,  and 
the  Chalcedonian  temple.  In  the  country  a  little  above  the 
sea-coast  is  a  fountain,  Azaritia,  (Azaretia?)  which  breeds 
small  crocodiles. 

Next  follows  the  coast  of  the  Chalcedonians,  the  bay  of 
Astacus,^  as  it  is  called,  which  is  a  part  of  the  Propontis. 

Here  Nicomedia^  is  situated,  bearing  the  name  of  one  of 
the  Bithynian  kings  by  whom  it  was  founded.  Many  kings 
however  have  taken  the  same  name,  as  the  Ptolemies,  on  ac- 
count of  the  fame  of  the  first  person  who  bore  it. 

On  the  same  bay  was  Astacus  a  city  founded  by  Megareans 
and  Athenians ;  it  was  afterwards  again  colonized  by  Doedal- 
sus.  The  bay  had  its  name  from  the  city.  It  w^as  razed  by 
Lysimachus.  The  founder  of  Nicomedia  transferred  its  in- 
habitants to  the  latter  city. 

3.  There  is  another  bay'*  continuous  with  that  of  Astacus, 
which  advances  further  towards  the  east,  and  where  is  situ- 
ated Prusias,^  formerly  called  Cius.  Philip,  the  son  of  De- 
metrius, and  father  of  Perseus,  gave  it  to  Prusias,  son  of 
Zelas,  who  had  assisted  him  in  destroying  both  this  and 
Myrleia,^  a  neighbouring  city,  and  also  situated  near  Prusa. 
He  rebuilt  them  from  their  ruins,  and  called  the  city  Cius 
Prusias,  after  his  own  name,  and  Myrleia  he  called  Apameia, 
after  that  of  his  wife.  This  is  the  Prusias  who  received 
Hannibal,  (who  took  refuge  with  him  hither  after  the  de- 
feat of  Antiochus,)  and  retired  from  Phrygia'  on  the  Hel- 
lespont, according  to  agreement  with  the  Attalici.^  This 
country  was  formerly  called  Lesser  Phrygia,  but  by  the  Atta- 
lici  Phrygia  Epictetus.^  Above  Prusias  is  a  mountain  which 
is  called  Arganthonius.^^  Here  is  the  scene  of  the  fable  of 
Hylas,  one  of  the  companions  of  Hercules  in  the  ship  Argo, 
who,  having  disembarked  in  order  to  obtain  water  for  the 
vessel,  was  carried  away  by  nymphs.  Cius,  as  the  story 
goes,  was  a  friend  and  companion  of  Hercules ;  on  his  return 
from  Colchis,  he  settled  there  and  founded  the  city  which 
bears  his  name.     At  the  present  time  a  festival  called  Orei- 

^  B.  vii.  c.  vi.  §  2.  '  G.  of  Ismid.  '  Ismid  or  Iskimid. 

*  B.  of  Gemlik.  «  Brusa.  «  Mudania. 

^  Livy,  xxxviii.  39.      *  The  kings  of  Pergamus.  "  The  Acquired. 

^0  The  ridge  of  Katerlu  Dagh  and  Samanlu  Dagh. 

316  STRABO.  Casaub.564. 

basia,  is  celebrated  by  the  Prusienses,  who  wander  about  the 
mountains  and  woods,  a  rebel  rout,  calling  on  Hylas  by  name, 
as  though  in  search  of  him. 

The  Prusienses  having  shown  a  friendly  disposition  towards 
the  Romans  in  their  administration  of  public  affairs,  obtained 
their  freedom.  But  the  Apamies  were  obliged  to  admit  a 
Roman  colony. 

Prusa,  situated  below  the  Mysian  Olympus,  on  the  borders 
of  the  Phrygians  and  the  Mysians,  is  a  well-governed  city ; 
it  was  founded  by  Cyrus,  ^  who  made  war  against  Croesus. 

4.  It  is  difficult  to  define  the  boundaries  of  the  Bithynians, 
Mysians,  Phrygians,  of  the  Doliones  about  Cyzicus,  and  of  the  _ 
Mygdones  and  Troes  ;  it  is  generally  admitted  that  each  of 
these  tribes  ought  to  be  placed  apart  from  the  other.     A  pro- 
verbial saying  is  applied  to  the  Phrygians  and  Mysians, 

"  The  boundaries  of  the  Mysi  and  Phryges  are  apart  from  one  another," 
but  it  is  difficult  to  define  them  respectively.  The  reason  is 
this  ;  strangers  who  came  into  the  country  were  soldiers  and 
barbarians ;  they  had  no  fixed  settlement  in  the  country  of 
which  they  obtained  possession,  but  were,  for  the  most  part, 
wanderers,  expelling  others  from  their  territory,  and  being  ex- 
pelled themselves.  All  these  nations  might  be  supposed  to  be 
Thracians,  because  Thracians  occupy  the  country  on  the  other 
side,  and  because  they  do  not  differ  much  from  one  another. 

5.  But  as  far  as  we  are  able  to  conjecture,  we  may  place 
Mysia  between  Bithynia  and  the  mouth  of  the  ^sepus,  con- 
tiguous to  the  sea,  and  nearly  along  the  whole  of  Olympus. 
Around  it,  in  the  interior,  is  the  Epictetus,  nowhere  reaching 
the  sea,  and  extending  as  far  as  the  eastern  parts  of  the  Asca- 
nian  lake  and  district,  for  both  bear  the  same  name.  Part  of 
this  territory  was  Phrygian,  and  part  Mysian  ;  the  Phrygian 
was  further  distant  from  Troy ;  and  so  we  must  understand 
the  words  of  the  poet^,  when  he  says, 

"  Phorcys,  and  the  god-like  Ascanius,  were  the  leaders  of  the  Phryges 
far  from  Ascania," 

that  is,  the  Phrygian  Ascania  ;  for  the  other,  the  Mysian 
Ascania,  was  nearer  to  the  present  Nicasa,  which  he  mentions, 
when  he  says, 

1  In  the  text,  Prusias.  The  translation  follows  the  suggestion  of 

2  II.  ii.  862. 

B.  XII.  c.  IV.  §  6,  7.  BITHYNIA.  317 

"  Palmys,  Ascanius,  and  Morys,  sons  of  Hippotion,  the  leader  of  the 
Mysi,  fighting  in  close  combat,  who  came  from  the  fertile  soil  of  Ascania, 
as  auxiliaries."* 

It  is  not  then  surprising  that  he  should  speak  of  an  Asca- 
nius, a  leader  of  the  Phrygians,  who  came  from  Ascania,  and 
of  an  Ascanius,  a  leader  of  the  Mysians,  coming  also  from 
Ascania,  for  there  is  much  repetition  of  names  derived  from 
rivers,  lakes,  and  places. 

6.  The  poet  himself  assigns  the  ^sepus  as  the  boundary  of 
the  Mysians,  for  after  having  described  the  country  above 
Ilium,  and  lying  along  the  foot  of  the  mountains  subject  to 
^neas,  and  which  he  calls  Dardania,  he  places  next  towards 
the  north  Lycia,  which  was  subject  to  Pandarus,  and  where 
Zeleia  ^  was  situated  ;  he  says, 

"  They  who  inhabited  Zeleia,  at  the  very  foot  of  Ida,  Aphneii  Trojans, 
who  drink  of  the  dark  stream  of  ^sepus  ;  "  ^ 

below  Zeleia,  towards  the  sea,  on  this  side"of  -^sepus,  lies  the 
plain  of  Adrasteia,  and  Tereia,  Pitya,  and  in  general  the  pre- 
sent district  of  Cyzicene  near  Priapus,^  which  he  afterwards 
describes.  He  then  returns  again  to  the  parts  towards  the  east, 
and  to  those  lying  above,  by  which  he  shows  that  he  con- 
sidered the  country  as  far  as  the  jEsepus  the  northern  and 
eastern  boundary  of  the  Troad.  Next  to  the  Troad  are  My- 
sia  and  Olympus.^  Ancient  tradition  then  suggests  some 
such  disposition  of  these  nations.  But  the  present  changes 
have  produced  many  differences  in  consequence  of  the  con- 
tinual succession  of  governors  of  the  country,  who  confound- 
ed together  people  and  districts,  and  separated  others.  The 
Phrygians  and  Mysians  were  masters  of  the  country  after  the 
capture  of  Troy  ;  afterwards  the  Lydians ;  then  the  ^olians 
and  lonians  ;  next,  the  Persians  and  Macedonians ;  lastly,  the 
Romans,  under  whose  government  most  of  the  tribes  have  lost 
even  their  languages  and  names,  in  consequence  of  a  new 
partition  of  the  country  having  been  made.  It  will  be  proper 
to  take  this  into  consideration  when  we  describe  its  present 
state,  at  the  same  time  showing  a  due  regard  to  antiquity. 

7.  In  the  inland  parts  of  Bithynia  is  Bithynium,^  situated 
above  Tieium,'  and  to  which  belongs  the  country  about  Salon, 

1  II.  xiii.  792.  2  Sarakoi.  '  II.  ii.  824. 

*  Karabogha.  .  *  Keschisch-Dagh. 

*  Claudiopolis,  now  Boli.  '  Tilijos. 

318  STRABO.  Casaub.  665. 

affording  the  best  pasturage  for  cattle,  whence  comes  the  cheese 
of  Salon.  Nicsea,^  the  capital  of  Bithynia,  is  situated  on  the 
Ascanian  lake.  It  is  surrounded  by  a  very  large  and  very 
fertile  plain,  which  in  the  summer  is  not  very  healthy.  Its 
first  founder  was  Antigonus,  the  son  of  PhiHp,  who  called  it 
Antigonia.  It  was  then  rebuilt  by  Lysiraachus,  who  changed 
its  name  to  that  of  his  wife  Nicaea.  She  was  the  daughter  of 
Antipater.  The  city  is  situated  in  a  plain.  Its  shape  is 
quadrangular,  eleven  stadia  in  circuit.  It  has  four  gates.  Its 
streets  are  divided  at  right  angles,  so  that  the  four  gates  may 
be  seen  from  a  single  stone,  set  up  in  the  middle  of  the  Gym- 
nasium. A  little  above  the  Ascanian  lake  is  Otrcea,  a  small 
town  situated  just  on  the  borders  of  Bithynia  towards  the  east. 
It  is  conjectured  that  Otroea  was  so  called  from  Otreus. 

8.  That  Bithynia  was  a  colony  of  the  Mysians,  first  Scylax 
of  Caryanda  will  testify,  who  says  that  Phrygians  and  My- 
sians dwell  around  the  Ascanian  lake.  The  next  witness  is 
Dionysius,  who  composed  a  work  on  "  the  foundation  of  cities." 
He  says  that  the  straits  at  Chalcedon,  and  Byzantium,  which 
are  now  called  the  Thracian,  were  formerly  called  the  Mysian 
Bosporus.  Some  person  might  allege  this  as  a  proof  that  the 
Mysians  were  Thracians  ;  and  Euphorio  says, 

"by  the  waters  of  the  Mysian  Ascanius ;" 

and  thus  also  Alexander  the  ^tolian, 

"  who  have  their  dwellings  near  the  Ascanian  waters,  on  the  margin  of  the 
Ascanian  lake,  where  Dolion  dwelt,  the  son  of  Silenus  and  of  Melia." 

These  authors  testify  the  same  thing,  because  the  Ascanian 
lake  is  found  in  no  other  siuation  but  this. 

9.  Men  distinguished  for  their  learning,  natives  of  Bithynia, 
were  Xenocrates  the  philosopher,  Dionysius  the  dialectician, 
Hipparchus,  Theodosius  and  his  sons  the  mathematicians, 
Cleophanes  the  rhetorician  of  Myrleia,  and  Asclepiades  the 
physician  of  Prusa.^ 

'  Isnik.  The  Turkish  name  is  a  contraction  of  elg  Ni/catav,  as  Ismir, 
Smyrna,  is  a  contraction  of  tig  'Sfivpvtjv,  Istambol,  Constantinople,  of  eic 
rfjv  iroXiv,  Stance,  Cos,  of  dg  rr/v  Kw. 

'^  Xenocrates,  one  of  the  most  distinguished  disciples  of  Plato,  was  of 
Chalcedon.  Dionysius  the  dialectician  is  probably  the  same  as  Dionysius 
of  Heracleia,  who  abandoned  the  Stoics  to  join  the  sect  of  Epicurus. 
Hipparchus,  the  first  and  greatest  of  Greek  astronomers,  (b.  c.  160 — 145,) 
was  of  Nicaea.     So  also  was  Diophanes,  quoted  by  Varro  and  Columella, 

B.  xii.  c.  V.  ^  1.  GALATIA.  3 1 9 

10.  To  the  south  of  the  Bithynians  are  the  Mysians  about 
Olympus  (whom  some  writers  call  Bithyni  Olympeni,  and 
others  Hellespontii)  and  Phrygia  upon  the  Hellespont.  To  the 
south  of  the  Paphlagonians  are  the  Galatians,  and  still  further 
to  the  south  of  both  these  nations  are  the  Greater  Phrygia, 
and  Lycaonia,  extending  as  far  as  the  Cilician  and  Pisidian 
Taurus.  But  since  the  parts  continuous  with  Paphlagonia  ad- 
join Pontus,  Cappadocia,  and  the  nations  which  we  have  just 
described,  it  may  be  proper  first  to  give  an  account  of  the 
parts  in  the  neighbourhood  of  these  nations,  and  then  proceed 
to  a  description  of  the  places  next  in  order. 


1.  To  the  south  of  the  Paphlagonians  are  the  Galatians,  of 
whom  there  are  three  tribes  ;  two  of  them,  the  Trocmi  and 
the  Tolistobogii,  have  their  names  from  their  chiefs  ;  the  third, 
the  Tectosages,  from  the  tribe  of  that  name  in  Celtica.  The 
Galatians  took  possession  of  this  country  after  wandering  about 
for  a  long  period,  and  overrunning  the  country  subject  to  the 
Attalic  and  the  Bithynian  kings,  until  they  received  by  a 
voluntary  cession  the  present  Galatia,  or  Gallo-Graecia,  as  it  is 
called.  Leonnorius  seems  to  have  been  the  chief  leader  of  these 
people  when  they  passed  over  into  Asia.  There  were  three 
nations  that  spoke  the  same  language,  and  in  no  respect  differ- 
ed from  one  another.  Each  of  them  was  divided  into  four 
portions  called  tetrarchies,  and  had  its  own  tetrarch,  its  own 
judge,  and  one  superintendent  of  the  army,  all  of  whom  were 
under  the  control  of  the  tetrarch,  and  two  subordinate  super- 

as  the  abbreviator  of  the  twenty  books  on  Agriculture  by  Mago,  in  the 
Punic  language.  Suidas  speaks  of  Theodosius,  a  distinguished  mathe- 
matician, who,  according  to  Vossius,  may  be  here  meant.  A  treatise  of  his 
"  on  Spherics  "  still  exists,  and  was  printed  in  Paris  in  1558.  Of  Cleo- 
phanes  of  Myrleia  little  is  known,  Strabo  mentions  also  a  grammarian, 
Asclepiades  of  Myrleia,  in  b.  iii.  c.  iv.  §  19.  To  these  great  names  may  be 
added  as  of  Bithynian  origin,  but  subsequent  to  the  time  of  Strabo,  Dion 
Chrysostom,  one  of  the  most  eminent  among  Greek  rhetoricians  and 
sophists;  he  was  born  at  Nicomedia,  and  died  about  a.  d.  117.  Arrian, 
the  author  of  "  India,"  and  the  "Anabasis"  (the  Asiatic  expedition)  "  of 
Alexander,"  was  also  born  at  Nicomedia  towards  the  end  of  a.  d.  100. 


STRABO.  Casaub.  567. 

intendents  of  the  army.  The  Council  of  the  twelve  Tetrarchs 
consisted  of  three  hundred  persons,  who  assembled  at  a  place 
called  the  Dry  ne  me  turn.'  The  council  determined  causes  rela- 
tive to  murder,  the  others  were  decided  by  the  tetrarchs  and 
the  judges.  Such,  anciently,  was  the  political  constitution  of 
Galatia  ;  but,  in  our  time,  the  government  was  in  the  hands  of 
three  chiefs,  then  of  two,  and  at  last  it  was  administered  by 
Deiotarus,  who  was  succeeded  by  Amyntas.  At  present,  the 
Romans  possess  this  as  well  as  all  the  country  which  was  sub- 
ject to  Amyntas,  and  have  reduced  it  into  one  province. 

2.  The  Trocmi  occupy  the  parts  near  Pontus  and  Cappa- 
docia,  which  are  the  best  which  the  Galatians  possess.  They 
have  three  walled  fortresses,  Tavium,  a  mart  for  the  people  in 
that  quarter,  where  there  is  a  colossal  statue  of  Jupiter  in  brass, 
and  a  grove,  which  is  used  as  a  place  of  refuge  ;  Mithridatium, 
which  Pompey  gave  to  Bogodiatarus,  (Deiotarus?)  having 
separated  it  from  the  kingdom  of  Pontus  ;  and  thirdly,  Danala^ 
where  Pompey,  when  he  was  about  to  leave  the  country  to 
celebrate  his  triumph,  met  LucuUus  and  delivered  over  to  him 
as  his  successor  the  command  of  the  war. 

This  is  the  country  which  the  Trocmi  possess. 

The  Tectosages  occupy  the  parts  towards  the  greater 
Phrygia  near  Pessinus,^  and  the  Orcaorci.  They  had  the 
fortress  Ancyra,^  of  the  same  name  as  the  small  Phrygian 
city  towards  Lydia  near  Blaudus.'*  The  Tolistobogii  border 
upon  the  Bithynians,  and  Phrygia  Epictetus,  as  it  is  called. 
They  possess  the  fortresses  Blucium,  (Luceium,)  which  was  the 
royal  seat  of  Deiotarus,  and  Peium,  which  was  his  treasure-hold. 

3.  Pessinus  is  the  largest  mart  of  any  in  that  quarter.  It 
contains  a  temple  of  the  Mother  of  the  Gods,  held  in  the 
highest  veneration.  The  goddess  is  called  Agdistis.  The 
priests  anciently  were  a  sort  of  sovereigns,  and  derived  a  large 
revenue  from  their  office.  At  present  their  consequence  is 
much  diminished,  but  the  mart  still  subsists.  The  sacred 
enclosure  was  adorned  with  fitting  magnificence  by  the  Attalic 
kings,^  with  a  temple,  and  porticos  of  marble.     The  Romans 

*  Probably  a  grove. 

'  Bala  Hissar,  to  the  south  of  Siwri-Hissar;  between  these  two  places 
is  Mt.  Dindymus,  Gunescth-Dagh. 

^  On  the  west  of  the  lake  Simau.  *  Suleimanli, 

5  The  kings  of  Pergamus. 

B.  XII.  c.  VI.  §  1.  LYCAONIA.  321 

gave  importance  to  the  temple  by  sending  for  the  statue  of  the 
goddess  from  thence  according  to  the  oracle  of  the  Sibyl,  as 
they  had  sent  for  that  of  Asclepius  from  Epidaurus. 

The  mountain  Dindymus  is  situated  above  the  city;  from 
Dindymus  comes  Dindymene,  as  from  Cybela,  Cybele.  Near 
it  runs  the  river  Sangarius,  and  on  its  banks  are  the  ancient 
dwellings  of  the  Phrygians,  of  Midas,  and  of  Gordius  before 
his  time,  and  of  some  others,  which  do  not  preserve  the 
vestiges  of  cities,  but  are  villages  a  little  larger  than  the  rest. 
Such  is  Gordium,^  and  Gorbeus  (Gordeus),  the  royal  seat 
of  Castor,  son  of  Saocondarius,  (Saocondarus  ?)  in  which  he 
was  put  to  death  by  his  father-in-law,  Deiotarus,  who  there 
also  murdered  his  own  daughter.  Deiotarus  razed  the  fortress, 
and  destroyed  tlie  greater  part  of  the  settlement. 

4.  Next  to  Galatia  towards  the  south  is  the  lake  Tatta,^ 
lying  parallel  to  that  part  of  the  Greater  Cappadocia  which 
is  near  the  Morimeni.  It  belongs  to  the  Greater  Phrygia,  as 
well  as  the  country  continuous  with  this,  and  extending  as 
far  as  the  Taurus,  and  of  which  Amyntas  possessed  the  great- 
est part.  Tatta  is  a  natural  salt-pan.  The  water  so  readily 
makes  a  deposit  around  everything  immersed  in  it,  that  upon 
letting  down  wreaths  formed  of  rope,  chaplets  of  salt  are  drawn 
up.  If  birds  touch  the  surface  of  the  water  with  their  wings, 
they  immediately  fall  down  in  consequence  of  the  concretion 
of  the  salt  upon  them,  and  are  thus  taken. 


1.  Such  is  the  description  of  Tatta.  The  places  around 
Orcaorci,  Pitnisus  and  the  mountainous  plains  of  Lycaonia, 
are  cold  and  bare,  affording  pasture  only  for  wild  asses  ;  there 
is  a  great  scarcity  of  water,  but  wherever  it  is  found  the  wells 
are  very  deep,  as  at  Soatra,  where  it  is  even  sold.  Soatra  is 
a  village  city  near  Garsabora  (Garsaura?).  Although  the 
country  is  ill  supplied  with  water,  it  is  surprisingly  well 
adapted  for  feeding  sheep,  but  the  wool  is  coarse.  Some 
persons  have  acquired  very  great  wealth  by  these  flocks  alone. 
Amyntas  had  above  three  hundred  flocks  of  sheep  in  these 
1  Juliopolis.  2  Tuz-Tscholli. 

VOL.    II.  Y 

S22  STRABO.  Casaub.  568. 

parts.  In  this  district  there  are  two  lakes,  the  greater  Coralis, 
the  smaller  Trogitis.  Somewhere  here  is  Iconium,^  a  small 
town,  well  built,  about  which  is  a  more  fertile  tract  of  land 
than  the  pastures  for  the  wild  asses  before  mentioned.  Polemo 
possessed  this  place. 

Here  the  Taurus  approaches  this  country,  separating  Cap- 
padocia  and  Lycaonia  from  Cilicia  Tracheia.  It  is  the  bound- 
ary of  the  Lycaonians  and  Cappadocians,  between  Coropassus, 
a  village  of  the  Lycaonians,  and  Gareathyra  (Garsaura),  a 
small  town  of  the  Cappadocians.  The  distance  between  these 
fortressess  is  about  120  stadia. 

2.  To  Lycaonia  belongs  Isaurica,  near  the  Taurus,  in  which 
are  the  Isaura,  two  villages  of  the  same  name,  one  of  which  is 
surnamed  Palasa,  or  the  Old,  the  other  [the  New],  the  latter  is 
well  fortified.^  There  were  many  other  villages  dependent 
upon  these.  They  are  all  of  them,  however,  the  dwellings  of 
robbers.  They  occasioned  much  trouble  to  the  Romans,  and 
to  Publius  Servilius,  surnamed  Isauricus,  with  whom  I  was 
acquainted ;  he  subjected  these  places  to  the  Romans,  and 
destroyed  also  many  of  the  strong-holds  of  the  pirates,  situated 
upon  the  sea. 

3.  Derbe,^  the  royal  seat  of  the  tyrant  Antipater,  surnamed 
Derbaetes,  is  on  the  side  of  the  Isaurian  territory  close  upon 
Cappadocia.  Laranda'*  also  belonged  to  Antipater.  In  my 
time  Amyntas  attacked  and  killed  Antipater  Derbaetes,  and 
got  possession  of  the  Isaura  and  of  Derbe.  The  Romans 
gave  him  the  Isaura  where  he  built  a  palace  for  himself,  after 
having  destroyed  Isauria  Palsea  (the  Old).  He  began  to  build 
in  the  same  place  a  new  wall,  but  before  its  completion  he  was 
killed  by  the  Cilicians  in  an  ambuscade,  when  invading  the 
country  of  the  Homonadeis. 

4.  For  being  in  possession  of  Antiocheia  near  Pisidia,  and 
the  country  as  far  as  Apollonias,^  near  Apameia  Cibotus,^  some 
parts  of  the  Paroreia,  and  Lycaonia,  he  attempted  to  exter- 
minate the  Cilicians  and  Pisidians,  who  descended  from  the 
Taurus  and  overran  this  district,  which  belonged  to  the 
Phrygians  and  Cilicians  (Lycaonians).     He  razed  also  many 

'  Konia.  ^  Meineke's  correction, 

'  Its  position  is  uncertain,  probably  Divle,  to  the  S.  of  the  Lake  Ak-Gol. 
See  Smith,  art.  Derbe. 

*  Caraman.  *  Tschol-Abad.  *  Aphiom  Kara  Hissar. 

B.  XII.  c.  VII.  §  1.  PISIDIA.  323 

fortresses,  which  before  this  time  were  considered  impregna- 
ble, among  which  was  Cremna,  but  he  did  not  attempt  to  take 
by  storm  Sandalium,  situated  between  Cremna  and  Saga- 

5.  Cremna  is  occupied  by  a  Roman  colony. 

Sagalassus  is  under  the  command  of  the  same  Roman  go- 
vernor, to  whom  all  the  kingdom  of  Amyntas  is  subject.  It 
is  distant  from  Apameia  a  day's  journey,  having  a  descent  of 
nearly  30  stadia  from  the  fortress.  It  has  the  name  also  of 
Selgessus.     It  was  taken  by  Alexander. 

Amyntas  made  himself  master  of  Cremna  and  passed  into 
the  country  of  the  Homonadeis,  who  were  supposed  to  be  the 
most  difficult  to  reduce  of  all  the  tribes.  He  had  already  got 
into  his  power  most  of  their  strong-holds,  and  had  killed  the 
tyrant  himself^  when  he  was  taken  prisoner  by  an  artifice  of 
the  wife  of  the  tyrant,  whom  he  had  killed,  and  was  put  to 
death  by  the  people.  Cyrinius  (Quirinus)^  reduced  them  by 
famine  and  took  four  thousand  men  prisoners,  whom  he  settled 
as  inhabitants  in  the  neighbouring  cities,  but  he  left  no  per- 
son in  the  country  in  the  prime  of  life. 

Among  the  heights  of  Taurus,  and  in  the  midst  of  rocks 
and  precipices  for  the  most  part  inaccessible,  is  a  hollow  and 
fertile  plain  divided  into  several  valleys.  The  inhabitants 
cultivate  this  plain,  but  live  among  the  overhanging  heights 
of  the  mountains,  or  in  caves.  They  are  for  the  most  part 
armed,  and  accustomed  to  make  incursions  into  the  country  of 
other  tribes,  their  own  being  protected  by  mountains,  which 
serve  as  a  wall. 


1.  Contiguous  to  these,  among  other  tribes  of  the  Pisidians, 
are  the  Selgeis,  the  most  considerable  tribe  of  the  nation. 

The  greater  part  of  the  Pisidians  occupy  the  summits  of 
Taurus,  but  some  tribes  situated  above  Side^  and  Aspen- 

^  Sulpitius  Quirinus.  The  Cyrenius  "  governor  of  Syria  "in  St.  Luke. 
Tacitus  (Ann.  B.  iii.  c,  48)  speaks  of  his  expedition  against  the  Ho- 
monadeis, and  Josephus  of  his  arrival  in  Syria,  where  he  was  sent  with 
Coponius  by  Augustus. 

2  Eske-Adatia. 

Y  2 

324  STRABO.  Casaub.  570. 

dus,^  which  are  Pamphylian  cities,  occupy  heights,  all  of  which 
are  planted  with  olives.  The  parts  above  these,  a  mountain- 
ous country,  are  occupied  by  the  Catennenses,  who  border  upon 
the  Selgeis  and  the  Homonadeis.  The  Sagalasseis  occupy 
the  parts  within  the  Taurus  towards  Milyas. 

2.  Artemidorus  says  that  Selge,  Sagalassus,  Petnelissus, 
Adada,  Tymbrias,  Cremna,  Pityassus,  (Tityassus  ?)  Amblada, 
Anabura,  Sinda,  Aarassus,  Tarbassus,  Termessus,  are  cities  of 
the  Pisidians.  Of  these  some  are  entirely  among  the  moun- 
tains, others  extend  on  each  side  even  as  far  as  the  country  at 
the  foot  of  the  mountains,  and  reach  to  Pamphylia  and  Milyas, 
and  border  on  Phrygians,  Lydians,  and  Carians,  all  of  whom 
are  disposed  to  peace,  although  situated  to  the  north.^ 

The  Pamphylians,  who  partake  much  of  the  character  of 
the  Cilician  nation,  do  not  altogether  abstain  from  predatory 
enterprises,  nor  permit  the  people  on  the  confines  to  live  in 
peace,  although  they  occupy  the  southern  parts  of  the  country 
at  the  foot  of  Taurus. 

On  the  confines  of  Phrygia  and  Caria,  are  Tabae,^  Sinda, 
and  Amblada,  whence  is  procured  the  Amblada  wine,  which 
is  used  in  diet  prescribed  for  the  sick. 

3.  All  the  rest  of  the  mountain  tribes  of  the  Pisidians 
whom  I  have  spoken  of  are  divided  into  states  governed  by 
tyrants,  and  follow  like  the  Cilicians  a  predatory  mode  of 
life.  It  is  said  that  anciently  some  of  the  Leleges,  a  wander- 
ing people,  were  intermixed  with  them,  and  from  the  similar- 
ity of  their  habits  and  manners  settled  there. 

Selge  ^  had  the  rank  of  a  city  from  the  first  when  founded  by 
the  Lacedsemonians,  but  at  a  still  earlier  period  by  Calchas. 
Latterly  it  has  maintained  its  condition  and  flourished  in  con- 
sequence of  its  excellent  constitution  and  government,  so  that 
at  one  time  it  had  a  population  of  20,000  persons.  The  place 
deserves  admiration  from  the  advantages  which  nature  has 
bestowed  upon  it.  Among  the  summits  of  Taurus  is  a  very 
fertile  tract  capable  of  maintaining  many  thousand  inhabit- 
ants. Many  spots  produce  the  olive  and  excellent  vines,  and 
afford  abundant  pasture  for  animals  of  all  kinds.     Above  and 

»  Balkesi. 

2  To  the  north  of  the  chain  of  Taurus  which  commenced  at  the  pro- 
montory Trogilium  opposite  Samos. 

»  Tabas.  *  Surk. 

B.  XII.  c.  Yii.  §  3,  PISIDIA.  325 

all  around  are  forests  containing  trees  of  various  sorts.  The 
styrax  is  found  here  in  great  abundance,  a  tree  not  large  but 
straight  in  its  growth.  Javelins,  similar  to  those  of  the 
cornel  tree,  are  made  of  the  wood  of  this  tree.  There  is  bred 
in  the  trunk  of  the  styrax  tree,  a  worm,  which  eats  through 
the  timber  to  the  surface,  and  throws  out  raspings  like  bran,  or 
saw-dust,  a  heap  of  which  is  collected  at  the  root.  After- 
wards a  liquid  distils  which  readily  concretes  into  a  mass 
like  gum.  A  part  of  this  liquid  descends  upon  and  mixes 
with  the  raspings  at  the  root  of  the  tree,  and  with  earth ;  a 
portion  of  it  acquires  consistence  on  the  surface  of  the  mass, 
and  remains  pure.  That  portion  which  flows  along  the  sur- 
face of  the  trunk  of  the  tree,  and  concretes,  is  also  pure.  A 
mixture  is  made  of  the  impure  part,  which  is  a  combination  of 
wood-dust  and  earth ;  this  has  more  odour  than  the  pure  styrax, 
but  is  inferior  to  it  in  its  other  properties.  This  is  not  com- 
monly known.  It  is  used  for  incense  in  large  quantities  by 
superstitious  worshippers  of  the  gods. 

The  Selgic  iris  ^  also,  and  the  unguent  which  is  made  from 
it,  are  in  great  esteem.  There  are  few  approaches  about  the 
city,  and  the  mountainous  country  of  the  Selgeis,  which 
abounds  with  precipices  and  ravines,  formed  among  other 
rivers  by  the  Eurymedon  2  and  the  Cestrus,^  which  de- 
scend from  the  Selgic  mountains,  and  discharge  themselves 
into  the  Pamphylian  Sea.  There  are  bridges  on  the  roads. 
From  the  strength  and  security  of  their  position  the  Sel- 
geis were  never  at  any  time,  nor  on  any  single  occasion,  sub- 
ject to  any  other  people,  but  enjoyed  unmolested  the  produce 
of  their  country,  with  the  exception  of  that  part  situated  be- 
low them  in  Pamphylia,  and  that  within  the  Taurus,  for  which 
they  were  carrying  on  a  continual  warfare  with  the  kings. 

Their  position  with  respect  to  the  Romans  was  that  they 
possessed  this  tract  on  certain  conditions.  They  sent  ambassa- 
dors to  Alexander  and  offered  to  receive  his  commands  in  the 
character  of  friends,  but  at  present  they  are  altogether  subject 
to  the  Romans,  and  are  included  in  what  was  formerly  the 
kingdom  of  Amyntas. 

'  Pliny,  b.  xv.  c.  7,  and  b.  xii.  c.  4.  '  Kopru-Su. 

3  Ak-Su. 

326  STRABO.  Casaub,  571. 


1.  The  people  called  Mysians,  and  Phrygians,  who  live 
around  the  so-called  Mysian  Olympus,  border  upon  the  Bi- 
thynians  to  the  south.  Each  of  these  nations  is  divided  into 
two  parts.  One  is  called  the  Greater  Phrygia,  of  which 
Midas  was  king.  A  part  of  it  was  occupied  by  the  Galatians. 
The  other  is  the  Lesser,  or  Phrygia  on  the  Hellespont,  or 
Phrygia  around  Olympus,  and  is  also  called  Epictetus. 

Mysia  is  also  divided  into  two  parts  ;  Olympic  Mysia, 
which  is  continuous  with  Bithynia,  and  with  the  Epictetus, 
(which,  Artemidorus  says,  was  inhabited  by  the  Mysians  be- 
yond the  Danube,)  and  the  part  around  the  Caicus,^  and  the 
Pergamene  ^  as  far  as  Teuthrania,  and  the  mouths  of  the  river. 

2.  This  country,  however,  as  we  have  frequently  observed, 
has  undergone  so  many  changes,  that  it  is  uncertain  whether 
the  district  around  Sipylus,^  which  the  ancients  called  Phrygia, 
were  a  part  of  the  Greater  or  the  Lesser  Phrygia,  from  whence 
Tantalus,  Pelops,  and  Niobe  were  called  Phrygians.  What- 
ever the  explanation  may  be,  tlie  change  is  certain.  For  Per- 
gamene and  Elai'tis,"*  through  which  country  the  Caicus  passes, 
and  empties  itself  into  the  sea,  and  Teuthrania,  situated  be- 
tween these  two  districts,  where  Teuthras  lived,  and  Tele- 
phus  was  brought  up,  lies  between  the  Hellespont,  and  the 
country  about  Sipylus,  and  Magnesia,  which  is  at  the  foot  of 
the  mountain,  so  that,  as  I  have  said,  it  is  difficult 

"  To  assign  tlie  confines  of  the  Mysians  and  Phryges." — 

3.  The  Lydians  also,  and  the  Maeones,  whom  Homer  calls 
Meones,  are  in  some  way  confounded  with  these  people 
and  with  one  another ;  some  authors  say  that  they  are  the 
same,  others  that  they  are  different,  nations.  Add  to  this  that 
some  writers  regard  the  Mysians  as  Thracians,  others  as  Ly- 
dians, according  to  an  ancient  tradition,  which  has  been  pre- 
served by  Xanthus  the  Lydian,  and  by  Menecrates  of  Elaea, 
who  assign  as  the  origin  of  the  name  Mysians,  that  the 
Lydians  call  the  beech-tree  (Oxya)  Mysos,  which  grows  in 
great  abundance  near  Olympus,  where  it  is  said  deci- 
mated  persons^  were  exposed,  whose  descendants  are   the 

^  Bakyr-Tschai.       "  fhe  district  around  Bergama.        ^  Sipuli-Dagh. 

*  The  district  between  Bergama  and  the  sea. 

5  Protheiis,  who  had  led  the  Magnetes  to  Troy,  upon  his  return  from 

B.  XII.  c.  Till.  §  4.  MYSIA  AND  PHRYGIA.  327 

later  Mysians,  and  received  their  appellation  from  the  Mysos, 
or  beech-tree  growing  in  that  country.  The  language  also  is 
an  evidence  of  this.  It  is  a  mixture  of  Lydian  and  Phrygian 
words,  for  they  lived  some  time  in  the  neighbourhood  of 
Olympus.  But  when  the  Phrygians  passed  over  from  Thrace, 
and  put  to  death  the  chief  of  Troy  and  of  the  country  near 
it,  they  settled  here,  but  the  Mysians  established  themselves 
above  the  sources  of  the  Caicus  near  Lydia. 

4.  The  confusion  which  has  existed  among  the  nations  in 
this  district,  and  even  the  fertility  of  the  country  within  the 
Halys,  particularly  near  the  sea,  have  contributed  to  the  in- 
vention of  fables  of  this  sort.  The  richness  of  the  country 
provoked  attacks,  from  various  quarters,  and  at  all  times,  of 
tribes  who  came  from  the  opposite  coast,  or  neighbouring 
people  contended  with  one  another  for  the  possession  of  it. 
Inroads  and  migrations  took  place  chiefly  about  the  period 
of  the  Trojan  war,  and  subsequently  to  that  time,  Barbarians 
as  well  as  Greeks  showing  an  eagerness  to  get  possession  of 
the  territory  of  other  nations.  This  disposition,  however, 
showed  itself  before  the  time  of  the  Trojan  war  ;  for  there 
existed  then  tribes  of  Pelasgi,  Caucones,  and  Leleges,  who  are 
said  to  have  wandered,  anciently,  over  various  parts  of  Europe. 
The  poet  represents  them  as  assisting  the  Trojans,  but  not  as 
coming  from  the  opposite  coast.  -  The  accounts  respecting  the 
Phrygians  and  the  Mysians  are  more  ancient  than  the  Trojan 

Two  tribes  bearing  the  name  of  Lycians,  lead  us  to  suppose 
that  they  are  the  same  race  ;  either  the  Trojan  Lycians  sent 
colonies  to  the  Carians,  or  the  Carian  Lycians  to  the  Trojans. 
Perhaps  the  same  may  be  the  case  with  the  Cilicians,  for  they 
also  are  divided  into  two  tribes  ;  but  we  have  not  the  same 
evidence  that  the  present  Cilicians  existed  before  the  Trojan 
times.  Telephus  may  be  supposed  to  have  come  with  his 
mother  from  Arcadia  ;  by  her  marriage  with  Teuthras,  (who 
had  received  them  as  his  guests,)  Telephus  was  admitted  into  the 

that  expedition,  and  in  compliance  with  a  vow  which  he  had  made  to 
Apollo,  selected  every  tenth  man  and  sent  them  to  the  temple  at  Delphi. 
These  Magnetes,  for  some  reason,  abandoned  the  temple  and  embarked 
for  Crete ;  from  thence  they  passed  into  Asia,  accompanied  by  some 
Cretans,  and  founded  Magnesia  near  the  Mseander,     B.  xiv.  c.  i.  §  11. 

328  STRABO.  Casaub.  572. 

family  of  Teuthras,  was  reputed  to  be  his  son,  and  succeeded 
to  the  kingdom  of  the  Mysians. 

5.  "  The  Carians,  who  were  formerly  islanders,  and  Le- 
leges,"  it  is  said,  "  settled  on  the  continent  with  the  assistance 
of  the  Cretans.  They  built  Miletus,  of  which  the  founder  was 
Sarpedon  from  Miletus  in  Crete.  They  settled  the  colony 
of  Termilae  in  the  present  Lycia,  but,  according  to  Herodotus,^ 
these  people  were  a  colony  from  Crete  under  the  conduct  of 
Sarpedon,  brother  of  Minos  and  Rhadamanthus,  who  gave  the 
name  of  Termilae  to  the  people  formerly  called  Milyae,  and 
still  more  anciently  Solymi  ;  when,  however,  Lycus  the  son  of 
Pandion  arrived,  he  called  them  Lycii  after  his  own  name." 
This  account  shows  that  the  Solymi  and  Lycians  were  the 
same  people,  but  the  poet  distinguishes  them.  He  represents 
Bellerophon  setting  out  from  Lycia,  and 

"  fighting  with  the  renowned  Solymi."  ^ 
He  says  Peisander  (Isander  ?),  his  son.  Mars 

"  slew  when  fighting  with  the  Solymi,"' 
and  speaks  of  Sarpedon  as  a  native  of  Lycia.^ 

6.  That  the  common  prize,  proposed  to  be  obtained  by  the 
conquerors,  was  the  fertile  country  which  I  am  describing,  is 
confirmed  by  many  circumstances  which  happened  both  be- 
fore and  after  the  Trojan  times.  When  even  the  Amazons 
ventured  to  invade  it,  Priam  and  Bellerophon  are  said  to  have 
undertaken  an  expedition  against  these  women.  Anciently 
there  were  cities  which  bore  the  names  of  the  Amazons.  In 
the  Ilian  plain  there  is  a  hill 

"which  men  call  Batieia,  but  the  immortals,  the  tomb  of  tlie  bounding 
{rroXvaKapOfioio)  Myrina," 

who,  according  to  historians,  was  one  of  the  Amazons,  and 
they  found  this  conjecture  on  the  epithet,  for  horses  are  said 
to  be  EvaKapQiioL  on  account  of  their  speed  ;  and  she  was  called 
iiokvaKapQfxoQ  from  the  rapidity  with  which  she  drove  the 
chariot.  Myrina  therefore,  the  place,  was  named  after  the 
Amazon.  In  the  same  manner  the  neighbouring  islands 
were  invaded  on  account  of  their  fertility  ;  among  which  were 
Rhodes  and  Cos.  That  they  were  inhabited  before  the  Tro- 
jan times  clearly  appears  from  the  testimony  of  Horner.^ 
1  Herod,  i.  173  ;  vii.  92.  «  II.  vi.  184.  3  n.  ^,-^^  204. 

*  II.  vi.  199.  *  II.  ii.  655,  677. 

B.  XII.  c.  Tin.  $7,  8.      MYSIA  AND  PHRYGIA.  829 

7.  After  the  Trojan  times,  the  migrations  of  Greeks  and 
of  Treres,  the  inroads  of  Cimmerians  and  Lydians,  after- 
wards of  Persians  and  Macedonians,  and  lastly  of  Gala- 
tians,  threw  everything  into  confusion.  An  obscurity  arose 
not  from  these  changes  only,  but  from  the  disagreement  be- 
tween authors  in  their  narration  of  the  same  events,  and  in 
their  description  of  the  same  persons ;  for  they  called  Trojans 
Phrygians,  like  the  Tragic  poets ;  and  Lycians  Carians,  and 
similarly  in  other  instances.  The  Trojans  who,  from  a  small 
beginning,  increased  so  much  in  power  that  they  became  kings 
of  kings,  furnished  a  motive  to  the  poet  and  his  interpret- 
ers, for  determining  what  country  ought  to  be  called  Troy. 
For  the  poet  calls  by  the  common  name  of  Trojans  all  their 
auxiliaries,  as  he  calls  their  enemies  Danai  and  Achaei.  But 
certainly  we  should  not  give  the  name  of  Troy  to  Paphla- 
gonia,  or  to  Caria,  or  to  Lycia,  which  borders  upon  it.  I 
m£an  when  the  poet  says, 

"  the  Trojans  advanced  with  the  clashing  of  armour  and  shouts," ' 
and  where  he  speaks  of  their  enemies, 

"but  the  Achaei  advanced  silently,  breathing  forth  warlike  ardour,"^ 
and  thus  frequently  in  other  passages. 

We  must  endeavour,  however,  to  distinguish  as  far  as  we  are 
able  one  nation  from  another,  notwithstanding  this  uncer- 
tainty. If  anything  relative  to  ancient  history  escapes  my 
notice,  it  must  be  pardoned,  for  this  is  not  the  province  of 
the  geographer;  my  concern  is  with  the  present  state  of 
people  and  places. 

8.  There  are  two  mountains  situated  above  the  Propontis, 
the  Mysian  Olympus^  and  Ida.'*  At  the  foot  of  Olympus  is 
Bithynia,  and,  contiguous  to  the  mountain,  between  Ida  and 
the  sea,  is  Troy. 

We  shall  afterwards  speak  of  Troy,  and  of  the  places  con- 
tinuous with  it  on  the  south.  At  present  we  shall  give  an 
account  of  the  places  about  Olympus,  and  of  the  adjoining 
country  as  far  as  the  Taurus,  and  parallel  to  the  parts  which 
we  have  previously  described. 

The  country  lying  around  Olympus  is  not  well  inhabited. 
On  its  heights  are  immense  forests  and  strongholds,  well  adapt- 

>  II.  iii.  2.  »  II.  iii.  8.  '  Keschisch  Dagh. 

*  Kas-Dagh. 

330  STRABO.  Casaub.  574. 

ed  for  the  protection  of  robbers,  who,  being  able  to  maintain 
themselves  there  for  any  length  of  time,  often  set  themselves 
up  as  tyrants,  as  Cleon  a  captain  of  a  band  of  robbers  did  in 
my  recollection. 

9.  Cleon  was  a  native  of  the  village  Gordium,  which  he 
afterwards  enlarged,  and  erected  into  a  city,  giving  it  the 
name  of  Juliopolis.  His  first  retreat  and  head-quarters  was 
a  place  called  Callydium,  one  of  the  strongest  holds.  He  was 
of  service  to  Antony  in  attacking  the  soldiers  who  collected 
money  for  Labienus,  at  the  time  that  the  latter  occupied  Asia, 
and  thus  hindered  the  preparations  which  he  was  making  for 
his  defence.  In  the  Actian  war  he  separated  himself  from 
Antony  and  attached  himself  to  the  generals  of  Caesar ;  he 
was  rewarded  above  his  deserts,  for  in  addition  to  what  he  re- 
ceived from  Antony  he  obtained  power  from  Csesar,  and  ex- 
changed the  character  of  a  freebooter  for  that  of  a  petty 
prince.  He  was  priest  of  Jupiter  Abrettenus,  the  Mysian 
god,  and  a  portion  of  the  Morena  was  subject  to  him,  which, 
like  Abrettena,  is  Mysian.  He  finally  obtained  the  priest- 
hood of  Comana  in  Pontus,  and  went  to  take  possession  of  it, 
but  died  within  a  month  after  his  arrival.  He  was  carried 
off  by  an  acute  disease,  occasioned  either  by  excessive  repletion, 
or,  according  to  the  'account  of  those  employed  about  the 
temple,  intlicted  by  the  anger  of  the  goddess.  The  story  is 
this.  Within  the  circuit  of  the  sacred  enclosure  is  the  dwelling 
of  the  priest  and  priestess.  Besides  other  sacred  observances 
relative  to  the  temple,  the  purity  of  this  enclosure  is  an 
especial  object  of  vigilance,  by  abstinence  from  eating  swine's 
flesh.  The  whole  city,  indeed,  is  bound  to  abstain  from  this 
food,  and  swine  are  not  permitted  to  enter  it.  Cleon,  however, 
immediately  upon  his  arrival  displayed  his  lawless  disposition 
and  character  by  violating  this  custom,  as  if  he  had  come 
there  not  as  a  priest,  but  a  polluter  of  sacred  things. 

10.  The  description  of  Olympus  is  as  follows.  Around 
it,  to  the  north,  live  Bithynians,  Mygdonians,  and  Doli- 
ones ;  the  rest  is  occupied  by  Mysians  and  Epicteti.  The 
tribes  about  Cyzicus  ^  from  ^sepus^  as  far  as  Rhyndacus^  and 
the  lake  Dascylitis,^  are  called  for  the  most  part  Doliones ; 
those  next  to  the  Doliones,  and  extending  as  far  as  the  terri- 
tory of  the  Myrleani,^  are  called  Mygdones.  Above  the 
*  Artaki.     ^  Satal-dere  ?     ^  Mualitsch-Tschai.     *  laskili.      ^  Mudania. 

B.  XII.  c.  Till.  §  11.       MYSIA  AND  PHRYGIA.  331 

Dascylitis  are  two  large  lakes,  the  Apolloniatis,^  and  the  Mile- 
topolitis.^  Near  the  Dascylitis  is  the  city  Dascyliura,  and  on 
the  Miletopolitis,  Miletopolis.  Near  a  third  lake  is  ApoUonia 
on  the  Rhyndacus,  as  it  is  called.  Most  of  these  places  belong 
at  present  to  the  Cyziceni. 

11.  Cyzicus  is  an  island^  in  the  Propontis,  joined  to  the  con- 
tinent by  two  bridges.  It  is  exceedingly  fertile.  It  is  about 
500  stadia  in  circumference.  There  is  a  city  of  the  same 
name  near  the  bridges,  with  two  close  harbours,  and  more 
than  two  hundred  docks  for  vessels.  One  part  of  the  city  is 
in  a  plain,  the  other  near  the  mountain  which  is  called 
Arcton-oros  (or  Bear-mountain).  Above  this  is  another 
mountain,  the  Dindymus,  with  one  peak,  having  on  it  a  temple 
founded  by  the  Argonauts  in  honour  of  Dindymene,  mother  of 
the  gods.  This  city  rivals  in  size,  beauty,  and  in  the  ex- 
cellent administration  of  affairs,  both  in  peace  and  war,  the 
cities  which  hold  the  first  rank  in  Asia.  It  appears  to  be 
embellished  in  a  manner  similar  to  Rhodes,  Massalia,"*  and 
ancient  Carthage.  I  omit  many  details.  There  are  three 
architects,  to  whom  is  intrusted  the  care  of  the  public  edifices 
and  engines.  The  city  has  also  three  store-houses,  one  for 
arms,  one  for  engines,  and  one  for  corn.  The  Chalcidic  earth 
mixed  with  the  corn  prevents  it  from  spoiling.  The  utility 
of  preserving  it  in  this  manner  was  proved  in  the  Mithridatic 
war.  The  king  attacked  the  city  unexpectedly  with  an  army  of 
150,000  men  and  a  large  body  of  cavalry,  and  made  himself 
master  of  the  opposite  hill,  which  is  called  the  hill  of  Adras- 
teia,  and  of  the  suburb.  He  afterwards  transferred  his  camp 
to  the  neck  of  land  above  the  city,  blockaded  it  by  land,  and 
attacked  it  by  sea  with  four  hundred  ships.  The  Cyziceni 
resisted  all  these  attempts,  and  were  even  nearly  capturing 
the  king  in  a  subterraneous  passage,  by  working  a  counter- 
mine. He  was,  however,  apprized  of  it,  and  escaped  by  re- 
treating in  time  out  of  the  excavation.  LucuUus,  the  Roman 
general,  was  able,  though  late,  to  send  succours  into  the  city 
by  night.  Famine  also  came  to  the  aid  of  the  Cyziceni  by 
spreading  among  this  large  army.  The  king  did  not  foresee 
this,  and  after  losing  great  numbers  of  his  men  went  away. 

•  Loubadi.  2  Manijas. 

'  According  to  Pliny,  b.  v.  c.  32,  it  was  united  to  the  mainland  by 
Alexander.  *  Marseilles. 

332  STRABO.  Casaub.  576. 

The  Romans  respected  the  city,  and  to  this  present  time  it  en- 
joys freedom.  A  large  territory  belong-s  to  it,  some  part  of 
which  it  has  held  from  the  earliest  times ;  the  rest  was  a  gift 
of  the  Romans.  Of  the  Troad  they  possess  the  parts  beyond 
the  ^sepus,  namely,  those  about  Zeleia  and  the  plain  of  Adras- 
teia ;  a  part  of  the  lake  Dascylitis  belongs  to  them,  the  other  part 
belongs  to  the  Byzantines.  They  also  possess  a  large  district  near 
the  Dolionis,  and  the  Mygdonis,  extending  as  far  as  the  lake 
Miletopolitis,  and  the  Apolloniatis.  Through  these  countries 
runs  the  river  Rhyndacus,  which  has  its  source  in  the  Azanitis. 
Having  received  from  Mysia  Abrettene,  among  other  rivers, 
the  Macestus,^  which  comes  from  Ancyra^  in  the  Abaeitis, 
it  empties  itself  into  the  Propontis  at  the  island  Besbicus.^ 

In  this  island  of  the  Cyziceni  is  the  mountain  Artace,  well 
wooded,  and  in  front  of  it  lies  a  small  island  of  the  same  name  ; 
near  it  is  the  promontory  Melas  (or  Black),  as  it  is  called, 
which  is  met  with  in  coasting  from  Cyzicus  to  Priapus.'^ 

12.  To  Phrygian  Epictetus  belong  the  Azani,  and  the  cities 
Nacoleia,  Cotiaeium,^  Midiaeium,  Dorylasum,^  and  Cadi.'^  Some 
persons  assign  Cadi  to  Mysia. 

Mysia  extends  in  the  inland  parts  from  Olympene  to  Perga- 
mene,  and  to  the  plain  of  Caicus,  as  it  is  called ;  so  that  it  lies 
between  Ida  and  the  Catacecaumene,  which  some  place  in 
Mysia,  others  in  Masonia. 

13.  Beyond  the  Epictetus  to  the  south  is  the  Greater  Phry- 
gia,  leaving  on  the  left  Pessinus,  and  the  parts  about  Orcaorci, 
and  Lycaonia,  and  on  the  right  Maeones,  Lydians,  and  Carians. 
In  the  Epictetus  are  Phrygia  Paroreia,  and  the  country  to- 
wards Pisidia,  and  the  parts  about  Amorium,^  Eumeneia,^  and 
Synnada.^^  Next  are  Apameia  Cibotus,^'  and  Laodiceia,*^  the 
largest  cities  in  Phrygia.  Around  them  lie  the  towns  [and 
places],  Aphrodisias,  ^^  Colossae,^'*  Themisonium,  ^^  Sanaus, 
Metropolis,  ^6  Apollonias,  and  farther  off  than  these,  Peltae, 
Tabeae,  Eucarpia,  and  Lysias. 

14.  The  Paroreia^'  has  a  mountainous  ridge  extending  from 
east  to  west.     Below  it  on  either  side  stretches  a  large  plain, 

*  Simau-Su.  ^  Simau-Gol.  ^  Imrali,  or  Kalo-limno. 

*  Karabogher.  ^  Kiutahia.  «  Eski-Schehr. 
^  Gedis.                '  Hergan  Kaleh.                *  Ischekli. 

*•  Afium-Karahissar.  "  Dinear.  "  lorghan-Ladik.  '^  Geira. 
'*  Destroyed  by  an  earthquake  in  the  time  of  Nero,  afterwards  Konos. 
"  Teseni.  '«  Ballyk.  "  Sultan  Dagh. 

B.  XII.  c.  Yiii.  §■  15.  PHRYGIA.  833 

cities  are  situated  near  the  ridge,  on  the  north  side,  Philome- 
lium,^  on  the  south  Antiocheia,  surnamed  Near  Pisidia.^ 
The  former  lies  entirely  in  the  plain,  the  other  is  on  a  hill, 
and  occupied  by  a  Roman  colony.  This  was  founded  by  the 
Magnetes,  who  live  near  the  Maeander.  The  Romans  liberated 
them  from  the  dominion  of  the  kings,  when  they  delivered  up 
the  rest  of  Asia  within  the  Taurus  to  Eumenes.  In  this  place 
was  established  a  priesthood  of  Men  Arcaeus,  having  attached 
to  it  a  multitude  of  sacred  attendants,  and  tracts  of  sacred 
territory.  It  was  abolished  after  the  death  of  Amyntas  by 
those  who  were  sent  to  settle  the  succession  to  his  kingdom. 

Synnada  is  not  a  large  city.  In  front  of  it  is  a  plain  planted 
with  olives,  about  60  stadia  in  extent.  Beyond  is  Docimia,  a 
village,  and  the  quarry  of  the  Synnadic  marble.  This  is  the 
name  given  to  it  by  the  Romans,  but  the  people  of  the  country 
call  it  Docimite  and  Docimasan.  At  first  the  quarry  produced 
small  masses,  but  at  present,  through  the  extravagance  of  the 
Romans,  pillars  are  obtained,  consisting  of  a  single  stone  and 
of  great  size,  approaching  the  alabastrite  marble  in  variety 
of  colours  ;  although  the  distant  carriage  of  such  heavy  loads 
to  the  sea  is  difficult,  yet  both  pillars  and  slabs  of  surprising 
magnitude  and  beauty  are  conveyed  to  Rome. 

15.  Apameia  is  a  large  mart  of  Asia,  properly  so  called, 
and  second  in  rank  to  Ephesus,  for  it  is  the  common  staple  for 
merchandise  brought  from  Italy  and  from  Greece.  It  is 
built  upon  the  mouth  of  the  river  Marsyas,  which  runs  through 
the  middle  of  it,  and  has  its  commencement  above  the  city  ; 
being  carried  down  to  the  suburb  with  a  strong  and  precipit- 
ous current,  it  enters  the  Maeander,^  which  receives  also  an- 
other river,  the  Orgas,  and  traverses  a  level  tract  with  a  gentle 
and  unruffled  stream.  Here  the  Maeander  becomes  a  large 
river,  and  flows  for  some  time  through  Phrygia ;  it  then 
separates  Caria  and  Lydia  at  the  plain,  as  it  is  called,  of  the 
Maeander,  running  in  a  direction  excessively  tortuous,  so  that 
from  the  course  of  this  river  all  windings  are  called  Maeanders. 
Towards  its  termination  it  runs  through  the  part  of  Caria 
occupied  by  the  lonians  ;  the  mouths  by  which  it  empties  it- 
self are  between  Miletus  and  Priene.*  It  rises  in  a  hill  called 
Celagnae,  on  which  was  a  city  of  the  same  name.     Antiochus 

J  Ak  Schehr.  ^  lalobatsch.  ^  Mender  Tsehai. 

*  Samsun. 

334  STRABO.  Casaub.  578. 

Soter  transferred  the  inhabitants  to  the  present  Apameia,  and 
called  the  city  after  his  mother  Apama^  who  was  the  daughter 
of  Artabazus.  She  was  given  in  marriage  to  Seleucus  Nica- 
tor.  Here  is  laid  the  scene  of  the  fable  of  Olympus  and 
Marsyas,  and  of  the  contest  between  Marsyas  and  Apollo. 
Above  is  situated  a  lake  ^  on  which  grows  a  reed,  which  is 
suited  to  the  mouth-pieces  of  pipes.  From  this  lake,  it  is  said, 
spring  the  Marsyas  and  the  Maeander. 

16.  Laodiceia,^  formerly  a  small  town,  has  increased  in  our 
time,  and  in  that  of  our  ancestors,  although  it  received  great 
injury  when  it  was  besieged  by  Mithridates  Eupatorj  the 
fertility  however  of  the  soil  and  the  prosperity  of  some  of  its 
citizens  have  aggrandized  it.  First,  Hiero  embellished  the  city 
with  many  offerings,  and  bequeathed  to  the  people  more  than 
2000  talents ;  then  Zeno  the  rhetorician,  and  his  son  Polemo, 
were  au  ornament  and  support  to  it ;  the  latter  was  thought 
by  Antony,  and  afterwards  by  Augustus  Cassar,  worthy  even 
of  tlie  rank  of  king  in  consequence  of  his  valiant  and  upright 

The  country  around  L'aodiceia  breeds  excellent  sheep,  re- 
markable not  only  for  the  softness  of  their  wool,  in  which  they 
surpass  the  Milesian  flocks,  but  for  their  dark  or  raven  co- 
lour. The  Laodiceans  derive  a  large  revenue  from  them,  as 
the  Colosseni  do  from  their  flocks,  of  a  colour  of  the  same 

Here  the  Caprus  and  the  Lycus,  a  large  river,  enter  the 
Maeander.  From  the  Lycus,  a  considerable  river,  Laodiceia  has